Friday, November 28, 2008

Mosul Remains One Of The Most Violent Cities In Iraq

The northern city of Mosul in Ninewa province remains one of Iraq’s most troubled. It is divided between Arabs and Kurds with a large minority population, and still has a strong insurgent presence as a result. It is caught in the middle between the Kurds that want to expand southwards and Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki who wants to contain them to Kurdistan. The lack of reconciliation has caused violence to continue there, and blocked any meaningful reconstruction effort.

Mosul has become a political football between the Kurds and Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. The Kurds control the eastern section of the city, and may use that as a trading chip to acquire five northern areas of Ninewa province, which they wish to annex. On the other hand, Maliki believes that the Kurds and their Peshmerga militia should be confined to Kurdistan, and wants them to exit all disputed territories. He is currently trying to force the Kurds out of Mosul by sending in National Police units from Baghdad into the Arab western half of the city, has placed his brother-in-law in command of the 2nd Iraqi Army Division, which has authority over the eastern part, and has transferred several Kurdish army officers to other parts of the country. At the same time, the Prime Minister is attempting to court friends amongst the Arabs to counter the Kurds influence.

At the same time, Iraqi and U.S. forces have been conducting their latest security operations in Mosul since May 2008, but to little affect. Currently, there are 35,000 Iraqi police and soldiers in the city. That didn’t stop attacks on the city’s Christian community that began in October, and left fourteen dead and led 2,465 families to flee. The Associated Press reported on November 11 that attacks are down from 130 a week there in May, to 70 a week in November. According to English language press reports however, the number of casualties has barely changed. In fact, the number of incidents has increased since the beginning of the year. In January there were 1.65 attacks and incidents a day that led to 3.52 deaths and 11.68 wounded per day. In June, a month into the new security crackdown daily attacks and incidents with casualties had increased to 1.97, with 3.33 killed and 9.3 wounded per day. By September, the average numbers were up to the highest point in 2008 with 2.76 attacks and incidents a day with 2.93 deaths and 4.93 wounded. October was no different with 2.96 attacks and incidents daily, and 3.61 deaths and 6.06 wounded a day.

Here is a breakdown of attacks and incidents in Mosul that resulted in casualties as reported in English language U.S. and Iraqi papers:

January 2008:
  • 32 attacks/19 incidents – 1.03 attacks/day – 1.65 attacks & incidents/day
  • 109 killed – 3.52 deaths/day
  • 362 wounded – 11.68 wounded/day
February 2008:
  • 47 attacks/8 incidents 1.62 attacks/day – 1.9 attacks & incidents/day
  • 86 killed – 2.97 killed/day
  • 80 wounded 2.76 wounded/day
  • 6 kidnapped
March 2008:
  • 54 attacks/13 incidents – 1.74 attacks/day – 2.16 attacks & incidents/day
  • 97 killed – 3.13 killed/day
  • 147 wounded – 4.74 wounded/day
  • 3 kidnapped
April 2008:
  • 53 attacks/10 incidents – 1.77 attacks/day – 2.1 attacks & incidents/day
  • 71 killed 2.37 killed/day
  • 209 wounded 7.0 wounded/day
  • 42 kidnapped
June 2008:
  • 49 attacks/incidents – 1.63 attacks/day – 1.97 attacks & incidents/day
  • 100 killed 3.33 killed/day
  • 279 wounded 9.3 wounded/day
  • 4 kidnapped
July 2008:
  • 67 attacks/7 incidents – 2.16 attacks/day – 2.39 attacks & incidents/day
  • 96 killed 3.1 killed/day
  • 111 wounded 3.58 wounded/day
  • 2 kidnapped
August 2008:
  • 50 attacks/16 incidents – 1.61 attacks/day – 2.12 attacks & incidents/day
  • 55 killed 1.77 killed/day
  • 111 wounded 3.58 wounded/day
  • 5 kidnapped
September 2008:
  • 72 attacks/11 incidents – 2.4 attacks/day – 2.76 attacks & incidents/day
  • 88 killed 2.93 deaths/day
  • 148 wounded 4.93 wounded/day
October 2008:
  • 81 attacks/11 incidents – 2.61 attacks/day – 2.96 attacks & incidents/day
  • 112 deaths 3.61 deaths/day
  • 188 wounded 6.06 wounded/day

There has also been little reconstruction in Mosul, which adds to the lack of reconciliation. Baghdad is trying to launch a new development program in the city, but it is has been politicized to try to win over the Arabs. Another factor is that the central government has come through with very little of its promised money after its security crackdowns this year across the country, so there is no guarantee that Mosul will actually see any real rebuilding, especially with on-going violence there.

As reported before, Mosul will remain a violent city until the underlying ethnic tensions between Kurds and Arabs is resolved. The Kurds have no intention of withdrawing from the city as long as they have plans for northern Ninewa province. The Prime Minister’s recent attempts to push them out, has only increased tensions between the two sides, and could cost Maliki his job in the end if the Kurds feel like they are being pushed too far. Overall, the city shows the on-going divisions and violence that remain a daily occurrence in parts of Iraq.

For more on Mosul see:

Back To Mosul

Bad Times For Iraq’s Christians

Christians In Mosul Update

Mosul The New Battleground Between Maliki And The Kurds

Mosul Update

New Security Offensive In Mosul?

The Security Situation In Mosul

SOURCES

Affleck, John, “US Says 7 Militants Killed in Iraq Raids,” Associated Press, 2/15/08

Agence France Presse, “At least nine killed in Iraq attacks,” 10/28/08
- “Death toll from bombing in Iraq’s Mosul rises to 13,” 6/3/08
- “Eight people killed in Iraq bombings,” 9/2/08
- “Suicide bomber kills 10 in Iraq market attack,” Turkish Press.com, 2/20/08

Ali, Hisham Mohammed, “Mosul Christians Reluctant to Return,” Iraq Crisis Report, 11/20/08

Associated Press, - “Female bomber kills 3 near bus stop in Iraq,” 3/19/08
- “Iraq: al-Qaeda leader in Mosul arrested,” 5/19/08
- “Iraq: Suicide car bomb targets military convoy, killing 5 civilians,” 7/9/08
- “Police: Female suicide bomber kills 3 in Iraq,” 2/17/08
- “Rocket and mortar attacks kill at least 4 in Baghdad,” 2/18/08
- “US kills 4 suspected militants, captured 5,” 6/7/08

Aswat al-Iraq, “1 gunman killed, 3 corpses found in Mosul,” 4/5/08
- “2 bombs injure 11 persons in Mosul,” 11/15/08
- “2 car bombs leave 7 casualties in Mosul,” 7/15/08
- “2 civilians injured by bomb blast in Mosul,” 7/16/08
- “2 civilians injured, gunmen kidnap 2 truck drivers in Mosul,” 8/12/08
- “2 civilians killed, 1 wounded in attacks in Mosul,” 4/27/08
- “2 civilians killed, 2 wounded in attacks near Mosul,” 4/8/08
- “2 civilians killed by gunmen in Mosul,” 6/10/08
- “2 civilians wounded in IED blast in Ninewa,” 6/2/08
- “2 cops killed, wounded in Mosul,” 3/20/08
- “2 gunmen killed, another wounded in Mosul by helicopter fire,” 3/30/08
- “2 gunmen killed in eastern Mosul clashes,” 8/3/08
- “2 gunmen killed while planting IED in eastern Mosul – army,” 1/14/08
- “2 individuals killed in Ninewa,” 7/20/08
- “2 Iraqi soldiers killed in attack in Mosul,” 6/30/08
- “2 killed, 2 wounded in Mosul attack,” 10/11/08
- “2 killed in Mosul car bomb attack,” 7/20/08
- “2 policemen, student wounded in Mosul blast,” 4/7/08
- “2 policemen wounded in Mosul,” 6/28/08
- “2 soldiers injured by bomb blast in Mosul,” 3/21/08
- “2 students killed on Mosul campus,” 6/16/08
- “2 unknown bodies found, arms seized in Mosul,” 8/2/08
- “2 unknown bodies found in Mosul,” 4/11/08
- “2 women killed in armed attack in Mosul,” 7/15/08
- “2 wounded, body found in Mosul,” 8/12/08
- “3 blasts target U.S. patrols in Mosul,” 3/1/08
- “3 bodies found in Mosul,” 1/1/08
- “3 civilians wounded in clashes between U.S. forces, gunmen in Mosul,” 1/28/08
- “3 cops injured as bomb explodes in Mosul,” 6/13/08
- “3 cops injured by bomb blast in Mosul,” 7/7/08
- “3 cops wounded in 2 attacks in Mosul,” 1/2/08
- “3 Iraqi soldiers wounded in Mosul,” 8/8/08
- “3 soldiers wounded in IED in Mosul,” 6/23/08
- “3 Turks wounded in Mosul blast,” 8/30/08
- “3 wounded in house bomb in Mosul,” 2/22/08
- “4 civilians killed, 3 injured in Mosul,” 10/22/08
- “4 civilians wounded in Mosul,” 3/12/08
- “4 cops killed, injured in Mosul,” 1/28/08
- “4 people killed, injured in Mosul,” 6/23/08
- “4 soldiers, 3 civilians wounded in mortar attack in Mosul,” 1/19/08
- “4 wounded as car bomb explodes in Mosul,” 8/25/08
- “4 wounded in car bomb attack in Mosul,” 4/22/08
- “5 mortar shells hit 2 channels’ building in Ninewa,” 7/31/08
- “5 wounded in IED blast in Mosul,” 10/17/08
- “8 civilians injured in car bomb explosion in Mosul,” 6/18/08
- “9 killed, 5 wounded until Wednesday afternoon,” 6/4/08
- “10 killed, 18 wounded in Iraq violence,” 4/5/08
- “10 killed, injured in acts of violence in 24 hours,” 6/30/08
- “13 killed, 29 wounded in Iraq violence until Sunday noon,” 4/27/08
- “14 killed, wounded in Iraq until Wednesday afternoon,” 7/30/08
- “19 wounded in 2 simultaneous explosions in Mosul,” 4/15/08
- “92 targets achieved during operations’ first day – Ninewa operations commander,” 5/10/08
- “Academic gunned down in northern Mosul,” 6/15/08
- “Army force mistakenly shoots ‘mentally ill’ man – authorities,” 6/14/08
- “Army officer killed, 18 wounded in separate incidents in Ninewa,” 3/23/08
- “Beheaded corpse found in Mosul,” 4/12/08
- “Blast in Mosul leaves no casualties,” 1/6/08
- “Blast in Mosul leaves vehicle ablaze,” 1/7/08
- “Bomb explodes in front of church in Mosul,” 10/14/08
- “Car bomb attack leaves 10 casualties south of Mosul,” 1/21/08
- “Car bomb explosion leaves 12 casualties in Ninewa,” 4/9/08
- “Car bomb in Ninewa leaves no casualties,” 7/9/08
- “Car bomb injures 6 Iraqi soldiers in Mosul,” 7/9/08
- “Car bomb injures 6 persons in western Mosul,” 3/17/08
- “Cart bomb kills 3 cops in Mosul,” 8/7/08
- “Car bomb kills woman, wounds 4 cops in Mosul,” 4/2/08
- “Charred body found in Mosul,” 6/6/08
- “Civil status dept. head gunned down in Ninewa,” 7/10/08
- “Civilian, child injured by gunmen in western Mosul,” 8/5/08
- “Civilian gunned down in Mosul,” 2/18/08
- “Civilian injured by car bomb in Mosul,” 3/3/08
- “Civilian killed, 2 cops injured, body found in Mosul,” 4/21/08
- “Civilian killed, 3 unknown bodies found in Mosul,” 1/8/08
- “Civilian killed, 5 wanted persons captured in Mosul,” 7/13/08
- “Civilian killed, hostage freed in Mosul,” 2/19/08
- “Civilian killed in armed attack in Mosul,” 7/10/08
- “Civilian killed in explosion in Mosul,” 2/12/08
- “Civilian killed, two corpses found in Mosul,” 3/31/08
- “Cop, civilian gunned down in 2 attacks in Mosul,” 1/17/08
- “Female government official gunned down in Mosul,” 7/28/08
- “Five civilians wounded by car bomb blast in Mosul,” 3/24/08
- “Former minister brother kidnapped in Ninewa,” 3/30/08
- “Gunman captured in clashes in Mosul,” 10/21/08
- “Gunmen kidnap 4 university students in Mosul,” 6/24/08
- “Gunmen kill 2 Iraqi soldiers in Mosul,” 7/23/08
- “Gunmen kill cop in Mosul,” 6/17/08
- “Gunmen kill morgue employee in Mosul,” 3/25/08
- “Gunmen kill municipality director in northern Mosul,” 6/25/08
- “Gunmen kill woman at her house in Mosul,” 3/28/08
- “Gunmen kill woman inside her home in Mosul,” 7/25/08
- “Gunmen kill, wound 2 fishermen near Mosul,” 4/24/08
- “Gunman killed, another wounded in Mosul,” 10/22/08
- “Gunmen killed, two bodies found in Mosul,” 1/30/08
- “Gunmen injure 2 Iraqi soldiers, bomb explodes in Mosul,” 10/27/08
- “Gunmen set eight communication towers ablaze in Mosul,” 2/7/08
- “Gunmen shoot down Sunni mosque imam in Mosul,” 7/27/08
- “Gunmen wound policeman in central Mosul – NOC,” 8/26/08
- “IAF presents plan to recruit 7 thousand Mosul residents into security forces – MP,” 5/18/08
- “IED injures 3 Iraqi soldiers in Mosul,” 10/28/08
- “IED injures policeman in Mosul,” 6/9/08
- “IED leaves 4 casualties in Mosul,” 4/24/08
- “IED leaves 4 casualties in Mosul, 2/25/08
- “IED targets U.S. patrol, U.S. army denies incident,” 8/18/08
- “IED wounds 3 policeman in Ninewa,” 3/4/08
- “Iraq army detonates car bomb west of Mosul,” 3/24/08
- “Iraq soldier killed in IED attack in Mosul,” 10/17/08
- “Iraqi army forces kill gunman in Mosul,” 1/22/08
- “Iraqi soldier killed, 3 wanted men captured in Mosul,” 4/28/08
- “Kidnapped civilian found dead in Mosul,” 1/15/08
- “Life returns to normal in Mosul after 10-day curfew,” 5/20/08
- “Maliki allocates $100 million for Mosul projects,” 5/18/08
- “Man, daughter killed by U.S. army in Ninewa,” 4/16/08
- “More than 142 gunmen arrested during Mosul’s operations,” 5/13/08
- “Mortar shell hits al-Iraqia, al-Mosuliya channels in Mosul,” 8/19/08
- “Mortar shell wounds 6 in Mosul,” 2/17/08
- “Mosul attack leaves 7 police casualty,” 1/3/08
- “Mosul blast casualties up to 43,” 3/18/08
- “Mosul car bomb attack leaves no casualties,” 7/15/08
- “Mosul car bomb wounds 5 civilians,” 1/16/08
- “Mosul mortuary receives 3 decayed bodies,” 10/10/08
- “Mosul university president’s bodyguard killed,” 8/25/08
- “One civilian wounded in Mosul,” 3/10/08
- “Police find 2 bodies in Ninewa,” 3/3/08
- “Police find prosecutor, lawyer bodies in Ninewa,” 2/29/08
- “Police forces discover three female bodies in Mosul,” 7/31/08
- “Police kill al-Qaeda gunman in Ninewa,” 2/5/08
- “Policeman, civilian wounded in suicide blast in Mosul,” 10/27/08
- “Policeman killed by gunmen fire in Mosul,” 8/25/08
- “Policeman killed in clashes with gunmen in Mosul,” 7/26/08
- “Roadside bomb kills man, son in Mosul,” 2/29/08
- “Second bombing wounds three persons in Mosul,” 6/26/08
- “Security member wounded in 2nd Mosul blast,” 8/18/08
- “Senior police officer killed in Mosul clashes,” 3/30/08
- “Senior police officer survives attempted assassination in Mosul,” 2/21/08
- “Southern Mosul blast wounds cop, civilian,” 1/22/08
- “Suicide attack wounds five policemen in Mosul,” 6/20/08
- “Suicide bomber killed in Mosul,” 3/4/08
- “Suicide bomber wounds 6 civilians in Mosul,” 7/16/08
- “Suicide truck bomb kills 2, injures 70 in Mosul,” 6/25/08
- “Three civilians wounded in western Mosul blast,” 7/20/08
- “Toll from Mosul bombing rises to 18,” 4/14/08
- “Turkish tanker driver killed by bomb blast in Mosul,” 7/10/08
- “Twin car bombing leaves 13 casualties,” 3/14/08
- “Two coordinated car bombs wound 9 individuals in Mosul,” 7/31/08
- “Two Iraqi soldiers wounded in 2 attacks in Mosul,” 7/9/08
- “Two roadside bombings leaves 2 wounded in Mosul,” 6/12/08
- “Two tank drivers wounded in Mosul armed attack,” 6/12/08
- “U.S. army discovers 4 bodies in Ninewa,” 6/10/08
- “U.S. chopper kills, injures 3 cops – source,” 1/21/08
- “U.S. forces kill 3 family members in Mosul,” 6/24/08
- “Unidentified gunmen kill two cops in eastern Mosul,” 2/28/08
- “Unknown body found in Mosul,” 3/24/08
- “Unknown gunmen kill 1 civilian in volatile Ninewa,” 10/30/08
- “Unknown gunmen kill 1 policeman in Mosul,” 10/30/08
- “Unknown gunmen kill a 12-year boy in Mosul-spokesman,” 2/1/08
- “URGENT/IIP official survives attempt in Mosul,” 10/11/08
- “Violence in Diala reduced, Mosul the coming target – MOI,” 8/17/08
- “Woman wounded in eastern Mosul blast,” 6/14/08

Dagher, Sam, “Fractures in Iraq City as Kurds and Baghdad Vie,” New York Times, 10/28/08

Dimova, Marina, “Three members of same family murdered in northern Iraq,” VisitBulgaria.info, 9/12/08

DPA, “At least 10 killed, 15 injured in attacks in Iraq,” 2/25/08
- “At least five killed, three wounded in Iraq violence – Summary,” 2/3/08
- “Governor of Iraq’s Nineveh escapes assassination attempt – Update,” 6/7/08
- “Iraq’s Islamic Party leader assassinated in Mosul,” 8/7/08
- “Nine injured in suicide bombing in northern Iraq,” 3/16/08
- “Plane engines, explosives, and another grave found in Iraq – Summary,” 3/9/08
- “US troops kill nine suspected al-Qaeda members in Iraq,” 1/18/08

Al Dulaimy, Mohammed, “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Monday 11 February 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 2/11/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Tuesday 01 July 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 7/1/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Tuesday 07 October 2008,” 10/7/08
- “Round-up Daily Violence in Iraq – Tuesday 26 February 2008,” 2/26/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Wednesday 10 September 2008,” 9/10/08

Gamel, Kim, “5 Iraqi kids playing soccer killed by bomb,” Associated Press, 9/23/08
Gamel, Kim, “Bombing in Kirkuk kills 2 Iraqi soldiers,” Associated Press, 8/1/08
- “US: Mosul attacks down 85 percent,” Associated Press, 5/21/08

Gray, Denis, “Battle for Iraq’s 3rd city hangs in the balance,” Associated Press, 11/11/08

Hammoudi, Laith, “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Monday 8 September 2008,” 9/8/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Thursday 4 September 2008,” 9/4/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Tuesday 22 April 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 4/22/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Tuesday 29 April 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 4/29/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Wednesday 5 March 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 3/5/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Wednesday 8 October 2008,” 10/8/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Wednesday 13 August 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 8/13/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Wednesday 27 August 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 8/27/08

Iraq Today Blog, “War News for Friday, October 02, 2008,” 10/2/08
- “War News for Friday, October 03, 2008,” 10/3/08
- “War News for Friday, October 06, 2008,” 10/6/08
- “War News for Friday, October 10, 2008,” 10/10/08
- “War News for Friday, September 5, 2008,” 9/5/08
- “War News for Friday, September 12, 2008,” 9/12/08
- “War News for Monday, September 29, 2008,” 9/29/08
- “War News for Saturday, October 5, 2008,” 10/5/08
- “War News for Saturday, September 06, 2008,” 9/6/08
- “War News for Saturday, September 13, 2008,” 9/13/08
- “War News for Saturday, September 27, 2008,” 9/27/08
- “War News for Thursday, September 11, 2008,” 9/11/08
- “War News for Thursday, September 18, 2008,” 9/18/08
- “War News for Thursday, September 25, 2008,” 9/25/08
- “War News for Tuesday, September 02, 2008,” 9/2/08
- “War News for Tuesday, September 16, 2008,” 9/16/08
- “War News for Wednesday, September 03, 2008,” 9/3/08
- “War News for Wednesday, September 17, 2008,” 9/17/08

Issa, Sahar, - “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Friday 10 October 2008,” 10/10/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Friday 14 March 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 3/14/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Friday 22 August 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 8/22/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Monday 11 August 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 8/11/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Saturday 11 October 2008,” 10/11/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Sunday 20 July 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 7/20/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Thursday 7 February 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 2/7/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Thursday 10 April 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 4/10/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq – Thursday 18 September 2008,” 9/18/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Thursday 20 April 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 3/20/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq, Thursday 24 July 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 7/24/08

Kadhim, Hussein, “Round-up of Daily Violence – Monday 9 June 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 6/9/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq-Monday 12 October 2008,” 10/12/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Monday 14 June 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 1/14/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq-Monday 29 September 2008,” 9/29/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq-Monday 20 October 2008,” 10/20/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Thursday 6 March 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 3/6/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Tuesday 01 April 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 4/1/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Tuesday 12 February 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 2/12/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Wednesday 23 February 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 2/23/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence – Wednesday 23 January 2008,” McClatchy Newspapers, 1/23/08
- “Round-up of Daily Violence in Iraq-Wednesday 24 September 2008,” 9/24/08

Kuwait News Agency, “Attack in Mosul leads to injury of 17 people,” 6/22/08

Malazada, Hemin, “kurds dismiss talk of centralization,” Niqash, 11/24/08

Middle East Online, “Mosul bomber kills Iraq police chief,” 1/24/08

Monsters & Critics, “Al-Qaeda suspects, tribal policemen, TV presenter killed in Iraq,” 6/17/08
- “At least 12 killed in Iraq violence,” 3/11/08
- “Christians, churches attacked in Iraq during celebrations,” 1/7/08
- “Female students kidnapped, US soldier dies in Iraq,” 7/6/08
- “Policeman, soldier killed in two incidents in Iraq (Extra),” 8/14/08
- “Three killed, 13 injured in blasts in northern Iraq (2nd lead,” 4/23/08

Multi-National Force – Iraq, “MND-N Soldiers attacked in Ninevah Province (Mosul),” 2/20/08

Nagpal, Sahil, “Governor of Iraq’s Nineveh province survives assassination attempt,” TopNews.in, 6/7/08

Partlow, Joshua and Tyson, Ann Scott, “Five U.S. Soldiers Are Killed When Convoy Is Hit in Mosul,” Washington Post, 1/29/08

Press TV, “Separate attacks kill 3 in Iraq,” 2/6/08

Quinn, Patrick, “US Military Kills al-Qaida Leader,” Associated Press, 3/2/08

Reuters, “Bombs hit northern Iraq, forces expect more,” 8/13/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 1,” 4/1/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 4,” 4/4/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 5,” 4/5/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 6,” 4/6/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 11,” 4/11/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 12,” 4/12/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 13,” 4/13/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 15,” 4/15/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 22,” 4/22/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 23,” 4/23/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 25,” 4/25/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, April 30,” 4/30/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 4,” 8/4/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 5,” 8/5/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 6,” 8/6/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 8,” 8/8/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 15,” 8/15/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 18,” 8/18/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 21,” 8/21/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 23,” 8/23/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 25,” 8/25/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 27,” 8/27/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 28,” 8/28/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 30,” 8/30/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, Aug 31,” 8/31/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 1,” 2/1/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 5,” 2/5/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 6,” 2/6/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 7,” 2/7/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 8,” 2/8/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 9,” 2/9/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 11,” 2/11/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 19,” 2/19/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 21,” 2/21/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 23,” 2/23/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 24,” 2/24/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 25,” 2/25/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 27,” 2/27/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 28,” 2/28/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, February 29,” 2/29/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 4,” 3/4/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 10,” 3/10/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 12,” 3/12/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 13,” 3/13/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 16,” 3/16/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 19,” 3/19/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 21,” 3/21/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, March 25,” 3/25/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 1,” 1/1/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 2,” 1/2/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 7,” 1/7/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 8,” 1/8/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 13,” 1/13/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 16,” 1/16/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 17,” 1/17/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 20,” 1/20/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 23,” 1/23/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, January 30,” 1/30/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 5,” 7/5/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 7,” 7/7/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 8,” 7/8/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 9,” 7/9/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 11,” 7/11/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 12,” 7/12/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 14,” 7/14/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 15,” 7/15/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 16,” 7/16/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 18,” 7/18/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 19,” 7/19/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 20,” 7/20/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 22,” 7/22/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 23,” 7/23/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 24,” 7/24/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 25,” 7/25/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 28,” 7/28/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, July 31,” 7/31/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 2,” 6/2/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 8,” 6/8/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 9,” 6/9/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 14,” 6/14/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 16,” 6/16/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 17,” 6/17/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 19,” 6/19/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 22,” 6/22/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 24,” 6/24/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 26,” 6/26/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 29,” 6/29/08
- “FACTBOX – Security developments in Iraq, June 30,” 6/30/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 4,” 10/4/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 7,” 10/7/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 9,” 10/9/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 10,” 10/10/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 11,” 10/11/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 13,” 10/13/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 14,” 10/14/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 15,” 10/15/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 16,” 10/16/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 17,” 10/17/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 20,” 10/20/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 21,” 10/21/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 22,” 10/22/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 25,” 10/25/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 26,” 10/26/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 27,” 10/27/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 29,” 10/29/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Oct 31,” 10/31/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 1,” 9/1/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 3,” 9/3/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 8,” 9/8/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 9,” 9/9/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 10,” 9/10/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 13,” 9/13/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 17,” 9/17/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 18,” 9/18/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 19,” 9/19/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 20,” 9/20/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 21,” 9/21/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 22,” 9/22/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 23,” 9/23/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 25,” 9/25/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 26,” 9/26/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 29,” 9/29/08
- “FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Sept 30,” 9/30/08
- Security developments in Iraq, 28 Sep 2008,” 9/28/08

Ryan, Missy, “Iraqis await resurrection of scarred Mosul,” Reuters, 10/28/08
- “Kurd-Arab tensions may threaten Iraq calm,” Reuters, 11/12/08

Salaheddin, Sinan, “US military: 11 killed in Mosul raid,” Associated Press, 10/5/08

Sindh Today.net, “Seven killed in Iraq suicide car bombing,” 9/2/08

U.S. Department of Defense, “DoD Identifies Army Casualty,” 1/21/08

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Iraq Humanitarian Update,” October 2008

UPI, “Iraq violence claims nine lives,” 9/12/08

Weaver, Matthew, “Police chief killed by suicide bomber in Iraq,” Guardian, 1/24/08

Xinhua, “At least 2 killed in suicide truck bombing in N Iraq,” 9/22/08
- “Car bomb hits police patrol in northern Iraq,” 1/14/08
- “Car bomb kills policeman in northern Iraq,” 9/8/08
- “Four Iraqis killed in attack on funeral in northern Iraq,” 10/5/08
- “Gunmen blow up 4 houses in N Iraq, child killed,” 6/16/08
- “Insurgents blow up house of Sunni lawmaker in N Iraq,” 9/23/08
- “Iraq soldiers foil suicide bomb attack in Mosul,” 4/29/08
- “Policeman killed in gunfire in northern Iraq,” 9/20/08
- “Suicide car bomb injuring 14 in N Iraq,” 6/23/08
- “Three policemen killed in insurgents’ attack in Iraq,” 1/4/08
- “Twin bomb attack kills 8 in northern Iraq,” 6/28/08

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