This was the last chapter in the U.S. Army’s first volume on the Iraq War before the Conclusion. It deals with the end of 2006 when the American military believed it would be handing over responsibilities to the Iraqis and allowing a withdrawal. Instead Iraq was in the middle of a civil war with the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) and Maliki government actively involved on the side of Shiites. The failure of U.S. policy was due to Iraqi commander General George Casey’s continued misreading of the situation and refusing to change his strategy. The White House was also responsible for not providing any real leadership even when it finally realized things were going wrong. England was doing no better in southern Iraq.