Thursday, February 28, 2019

Review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930


Review Stivers, William, Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1982

William Stivers’ book is about the negotiations between England, the United States and Turkey after World War I that led to the creation of Iraq. England came out a victor in the war, but was broke and its army was overextended. It had to decide what to do with the former Ottoman provinces that would become Iraq. It was hoping to bring the United States into the Middle East to help share the burden, but Washington was only interested in expanding its business in the region, while the British footed the bill. Finally, Turkey laid claim to Mosul province, which threatened England’s plans. It’s these different agendas which Supreme And Oil does such a good job explaining.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 28


1941 Mufti of Jerusalem Pan-Arab Golden Square officers Rashid al-Gaylani had secret
meeting Decided to remove PM Hashemi if he insisted on ending relations with Italy Golden Square decided to replace PM Hashemi with Gaylani if he would not change policy on Italy Agreed on no concessions to England Refused to break relations with Italy Would expel pro-British politicians
(Musings On Iraq book review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)
1963 Mulla Mustafa Barzani said Kurds would go back to fighting government if didn’t commit to Kurdish
autonomy
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)
1972 Iraq Petroleum Company came to terms with Baghdad over nationalization including compensation
1981 Iran told Islamic Conference Org that it wanted Iraq found aggressor and punished for Iran-Iraq War
and withdrawal from territory
1981 Speaker Rafsanjani later told Islamic Conf Org Iran sure it would win war so didn’t want to
negotiate
1984 Iraqi counterattack against Iranian Op Kheibar retook Beida Iranian Revolutionary Guard
began retreating in disarray Iran lost 3,000 dead
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval Postgraduate School’s Ostovar on history of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard)
(Musings On Iraq book review Vanguard of the Imam, Religion, Politics, and Iran’s Revolutionary Guard)
1986 Iran Op Wa al-Fajr 9 in Penjwin and Halabja stopped by Iraqi counterattack
1987 Iraq ended 3rd War of Cities after Soviet appealed and new arms deal
1987 During war of cities 1984-87 35 Iranian cities hit 3,000 dead 9,000 injured Baghdad and Basra
hit 300 dead 1,000 wounded
1987 Iran attacked and broke through Iraqi lines Iraq counterattacks regained lost territory in 12 hrs
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)
1988 Iran fired SCUD missiles at Baghdad and Tikrit Tehran was trying to lure Iraq into another war
of cities to decrease attacks upon its economic infrastructure
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1987 Ali Hassan al-Majid made governor of northern Iraq provinces and told to end Kurdish insurgency
Would start Anfal Campaign
(Musings On Iraq article on Anfal campaign)
1990 Saddam warned of Israeli aggression backed by US at Arab Cooperation Council meeting
(Musings On Iraq article on Saddam’s motivation for threatening Israel before the Kuwait invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Saddam Tapes)
1990 At Arab Cooperation Council Saddam demanded moratorium on loans from Gulf States and $30 bil
investment by them to help Iraq rebuild
1990 Saddam said that if Gulf States did not provide money and help with debt he knew how to get it
1991 Bush announced that Kuwait was liberated and Iraq defeated in Gulf War Started ceasefire in war
1991 Saddam said that Iraq had succeeded in defeating the United States
1991 Jalal Talabani tried to tell State Dept of impending Kurdish revolt but was turned away
(Musings On Iraq interview with National Univ of Singapore’s Fanar Haddad on the Impact of the 1991 Uprising)
1992 Iraqi army attacked Peshmerga in Kalak
1999 General uprising in southern Iraq planned following Saddam’s killing of Ayatollah Sadiq al-
Sadr
(Musings On Iraq interview with Univ of Haifa’s Prof Baram on legacy of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr)
2002 Blair told Australian TV Iraq was a threat because it had WMD
2002 Gen Franks delivered target list for air strikes in Iraq to Rumsfeld
2003 Iraq agreed to destroy Samud II ballistic missiles that violated UN restrictions
2003 US attacked Iraq agreement to destroy Samud II missiles claiming it was just propaganda not real
disarmament
2003 Rumsfeld said Iraq never cooperated with UN inspectors
2003 UN said found no evidence of active WMD programs in Iraq
2003 UN inspectors went to site CURVEBALL claimed was secret WMD facility for second time for
samples Found nothing
(Musings On Iraq article on how CURVEBALL influenced US intel on Iraq’s WMD)
(Musings On Iraq articles on the CURVEBALL story)
2003 UN inspectors found small stock of mustard gas and some old WMD warheads and Iraq built 2 banned
missiles Inspectors said Iraq had not provided any new information to answer questions from 90s inspections
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
2003 State Dept said Iraq tried to buy aluminum tubes for its nuke program
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
2003 UK Def Min report said Coalition had to prevent security vacuum after invasion of Iraq and stop Al
Qaeda from expanding into country
2003 UK Def Min note to Blair office said UK failed to influence US postwar Iraq planning and UK would
have to deal with US decisions made for it
2003 ORHA head Garner made 1st brief of postwar Iraq plans to Bush 1 month before war
2003 Defense Policy Board warned by peacekeeping expert Perito could be breakdown in law order right
after invasion if Iraqi police didn’t go back to work Board told that US troops could not take over police duties after invasion because not trained
2004 Iraqi Governing Council said it would draft and approve an interim constitution Couldn’t agree on
role of Islam
2004 Women’s delegation visited Iraqi Governing Council demanding interim constitution protect women’s
rights
2005 Al Qaeda in Iraq suicide truck bomb on police and National Guard recruits in Hillah killed 127
2005 Annual State Department human rights report accused Iraqi security forces of rape torture and illegal
arrests
2006 Prosecution presented Saddam’s order to executed 148 people in Dujail in 1982 at his trial
2006 Report US warned about growing insurgency mid-03 and was largely Iraqi not foreigners Ignored by
Bush admin
2006 DIA Dir Gen Maples told Senate Armed Services Comm as long as Sunnis were disenfranchised
insurgency would continue

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Christian-Shabak Tension In Iraq’s Ninewa Plains

(AP)

The Ninewa Plains are dotted with several Christian towns. They all suffered during the war against the Islamic State with most of the populations fleeing. Since the conflict ended, many of these areas have continued to face problems with getting people to return, rebuilding and rivalries with other communities.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 27


1923 UK High Comm Cox wrote London that Faisal complained Anglo-Iraq treaty was only new
phase of mandate instead of ending it
1982 US removed Iraq from list of terrorist countries in step towards restoring relations
(Musings On Iraq book review The Saddam Tapes)
1984 Iran captured Majnoon Islands Iraqi counterattack began Iran built pontoon bridges from Iran
to Majnoon to supply 2 divisions defending area Was turning point in war
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1984 Iraq bombed Iran’s main oil terminal Kharg Island Said it would continue to attack oil industry until
Iran agreed to end war
1984 Iraq used leased French Super Etendard jets for 1st time attacking two Iranian tankers
1988 Iraq fired missiles on Saqqez Iran killing 26  Also bombed Tehran refinery Iran bombed Baghdad in
retaliation
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 Battle of Medina, Basra US 1st Armored Div and 3rd Inf Div defeated Iraq’s Medina and Adnan Divs in
largest tank battle of Gulf War
1991 Battle of Kuwait Airport US 1st Mar Div took airport
1991 Pres Bush declared Kuwait liberated
1991 Voice of Free Iraq radio station aired broadcast calling on Iraqis to rise up against Saddam
1991 Joint Chiefs head Gen Powell said he was ready to recommend end of Gulf War in 24 hrs Bush said
should end it now
1991 Bush offered ceasefire Iraq accepted it
1995 Car bomb in Zakho killed 76 PUK blamed Baghdad KDP blamed PUK
1996 Iraq provided new declaration on missile program with more info to UN inspectors
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
2001 Sec of State Powell got Arab states to agree to new smart sanctions on Iraq
2001 DepDefSec Wolfowitz told Senate US reviewing Iraq policy and how to work with groups like INC
2002 UK Def Min said govt had to consider military action against Iraq
2003 Wolfowtiz told House Comm admin had no estimates of costs of reconstructing Iraq and wouldn’t
know until it got there Said calls for more troops to handle postwar Iraq were “outlandish”
2003 ORHA head Garner learned he only had $27 mil to run postwar Iraq
2003 UK Att Gen Goldsmith changed his position that UN Res 1441 alone could be legal basis for action
against Iraq
2003 UK oil firms met with govt officials saying they thought US firms were getting deals for postwar Iraq
over them
2003 State Dept paper said multiple sources claimed Iraq had mobile WMD labs
(Musings On Iraq article on mobile labs story)
2003 State Dept analysis said creating democracy in Iraq would be difficult and likely undermined by
internal and external issues
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Future The aftermath of regime change)
2003 CIA told Sen Levine that it didn’t believe Iraq-Niger uranium deal made but Iraq might have been
interested in one in 1999
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
2004 Deadline to finish Iraq’s interim constitution Transitional Administrative Law missed
2004 Fmr chief UN inspector Blix told Guardian he thought US spied on him
2007 Bombing at Municipalities Ministry aimed at VP Mahdi 7 killed including Dep Municipalities Min
Anbari and 31 wounded Mahdi blamed Sadrists
2007 Mahdi Army began attack on UK bases in Basra
2007 Report US carrying out talks with factions of Mahdi Army Military and intelligence sources said
claims of rogue elements of Mahdi Army were not true and just used to excuse it actions
2007 Report Mahdi Army men turning up dead in north and east Baghdad Allegedly killed by special
teams sent from Najaf to eliminate criminals and disloyal militiamen
2007 US National Intel Dir McConnell told Senate Iraq in civil war Security and political trends in Iraq
going in negative direction and would be nearly impossible for Iraqi leaders to change things Said Samarra bombing had increased polarization Said Iran training Iraqi militias in Iran and Lebanon
2007 DIA Dir Gen Maples told Senate avg 180 attacks per day Jan 07 Same as previous high in Oct 06 US
officials claimed immediate decrease in violence when Surge started in Jan
2007 US announced it would meet with Iran and Syria to talk about Iraq
2009 Pres Obama announced withdrawal plan for U.S. forces from Iraq by 2011
(Musings On Iraq article on Obama’s withdrawal announcement and US public opinion)
2011 Maliki set 100 day deadline to reform government in response to national protests
2011 After Imam gave speech at Sulaymaniya protest was arrested and beat by peshmerga
(Musings On Iraq interview with journalist Wladimir Van Wilgenburg on 2011 KRG protests)
2011 Babil Gov Zarkani resigned after protests and pressure from Maliki
2012 Diyala governor forced to resign after supported autonomy for province
2012 Head of Election Commission said that it got forms to register voters for referendum on Salahaddin
autonomy
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism)
2013 Wissam al-Hardan elected new head of Awakening Was move against Ahmed Abu Risha who
supported Anbar protests Hardan aligned with PM Maliki
2016 Sadr led demonstrations in Baghdad calling for ending corruption and reforming govt
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Michael Clark on Sadr, protests and PM Abadi’s reforms)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

PM Maliki Accused Of Taking Kickbacks On Defense Contract


Nouri al-Maliki held the premiership from 2006-2014, the longest sitting prime minister in Iraq since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Like other top officials Maliki used his position to enrich himself and his party, Dawa. Surprisingly, for all the years he was in office there were few stories about his corruption that made it into the media. In February, the Daily Beast broke a story documenting one such case involving a kickback from a defense contractor.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 26

1917 3 British gunboats fired upon by 4 Ottoman ships at Nahr-al-Kalek, Wasit 3 Turkish ships
sunk and 4th captured
1983 Iran’s Op Fajr al-Nasr in Maysan to seize Basra-Baghdad road ended
1984 Iraq counterattack pushed back Iran’s Op Kheibar in Basra marshes
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1987 Iran officially ended Op Karbala 5 in Basra Suffered 52,000-62,000 casualties vs 40,000 Iraqis
casualties
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 Saddam announced withdrawal from Kuwait Iraqi army started pulling out
1991 Saddam called on Iraqis to applaud the army for fighting 30 countries Claimed Iraq won and it was a
great victory
1991 US 3rd inf Div attacked 52nd Armored Div 17 Div Adnan and Tawakalna Divs
1991 Battle of 73 Easting US 2nd Arm Cav Rgt fought Iraq’s Tawakalna Div
1991 Battle of Norfolk US 1st Arm Div UK 1st Arm Div destroyed Iraq’s 26th, 25th, 31st, 48th Divs and 52nd
Arm Div
1991 US aircraft began attacking retreating Iraqi forces from Kuwait on Highway of Death
1991 Iraq said it was willing to end annexation of Kuwait and pay reparations for a ceasefire in Gulf War
and end of sanctions
1991 Bush admin officials said they wanted to keep sanctions on Iraq to provoke a coup
2002 Fmr Amb Wilson arrived in Niger to investigate Iraq trying to buy uranium
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
2002 MI6 Chief Dearlove said US would demand weapons inspectors under conditions Saddam wouldn’t
accept to justify military action
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
2003 Bush speech at American Enterprise Institute Said that Iraq was direct threat to US due to WMD and
links to terrorists Said other nations would help rebuild Iraq and US would stay in Iraq as long as necessary but “not a day more” Said spreading democracy to Iraq would be an inspiration to Middle East
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Future The aftermath of regime change)
(Musings On Iraq book review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)
2004 Gen Taguba handed in his report on Abu Ghraib prison abuse case
2004 Ayatollah Sistnai dropped demand for elections to be held by 6/30/04 but said they had to happen by
end of year
2006 Al Qaeda in Iraq assassinated Gen Saab Manfi Mohammed al-Rawi of Albu Rawi Member of Anbar
security council
(Musings On Iraq book review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)
2007 Cabinet approved draft oil bill Never passed
2007 Report EFP cache found in Hillah and another in Diyala US military said proof that Iran was providing
weapons to Iraqi militias
(Musings On Iraq interview with Galen Wright of Arkenstone blog on Iranian arms shipments to Iraqi militias) 
2011 Riot police broke up demonstration in Sulaymaniya city 1 protester killed
(Musings On Iraq interview with journalist Wladimir Van Wilgenburg on 2011 KRG protests)
2016 Sadrists joined Friday protests in Baghdad saying they would end support for Abadi if cabinet wasn’t
reformed Said would storm Green Zone
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Michael Clark on Sadr’s protests and demands on PM Abadi)
2016 Kurdish Alliance said they would not give up their ministries to go along with Abadi’s reforms 

Monday, February 25, 2019

Security In Iraq Feb 15-21, 2019

(Shafaaq News)

There was a large escalation of Islamic State activity in Iraq during the third week of February. The number of security incidents almost doubled from the previous week. That was due to increases in Anbar and Ninewa. There was also a large number of casualties, but that was due to two mass graves being discovered of IS victims in Ninewa.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 25

1984 Iranian troops headed towards Shatt al-Arab in Basra Reached Fish Lake and Majnoon Islands
1984 Iraqis used mustard gas against Iranians to try to turn back Op Kheibar All Iraqi reserves sent to area
(Musings On Iraq article on the origins of Iraq’s WMD programs)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1984 Iraq began offensive attacking Iran’s ports and oil facilities along with shipping in Persian Gulf
1985 Iraqi military intel warned Saddam Iranian offensive in Basra marshes imminent
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 Soviets offered another peace plan and Iraq accepted it
1991 Iraqi SCUD missiles hit US army barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killed 28 and wounded over 100
Gulf War
1991 US 3rd Inf Div attacked Iraq 26th Inf Div and took 299 prisoners
1991 US Task Force 1-37 took HQ of Iraq’s 26th Inf Div
1991 US Marine helicopters made attack upon Kuwaiti coast to tie down Iraqi forces there
1991 Iraqis made first counterattacks in Kuwait but were destroyed Ordered forces to retreat to Kuwait City
1991 Radio Baghdad announced withdrawal from Kuwait
1991 Sec of State Baker Natl Sec Adv Scowcroft said if Saddam remained in power UN sanctions would
stay in place
2002 1st war game for Iraq invasion ran at Scott Air Force Base Illinois
(Musings On Iraq book review of Shaping the Plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom, The Role of Military Intelligence Assessment)
2003 Army chief Gen Shinseki told Senate US needed several hundred thousand troops to successfully
occupy Iraq
2003 Blair told CENTCOM cmdr Gen Franks UN had to play a major role in postwar Iraq
2003 Gen Franks told UK cmdr Adm Boyce US not thinking of WWII type Japanese or German rebuilding
effort in Iraq
2003 Iraqi opposition meeting in Salahaddin, Irbil Couldn't agree on a govt in exile
2004 Insurgents killed deputy police chief in Mosul
2007 Car bomb hit Habaniya mosque in Anbar Killed imam that spoke out against ISI along with Islamic
Army Jaish al-Mujahadeen and 1920 Revolution Brigades members
2007 Report ISI killing opponents in Anbar including imams and sheikhs that spoke out against it
2007 Suicide Bomber detonated device inside Mustansiriya Univ Baghdad 41 dead over 40 wounded
2007 Sadr spokesman called on the ISF to protect the Iraqi people and not accept aid from U.S. Said no
security plan could work under the occupation
2007 Report Sadr purging Mahdi Army Suspended up to 40 commanders Sadr officials claimed they were
trying to purge those close to Iran and central control of militia Allowed some of his militia to be arrested by ISF
2007 Maliki govt claimed Iran halted all aid to militias
2011 Day of Rage protests across Iraq 23 killed by security forces during protests
2011 Protests in Hawija and Riyad led to police stations being burned and 3 police killed
2011 Police broke up demonstrations in Irbil city
(Musings On Iraq interview with journalist Wladimir Van Wilgenburg on 2011 KRG protests)
2011 Pres Talabani went to Kuwait independence day in 3rd move to normalize relations between 2
countries
2011 Maliki forced out Basra Governor Abbud 

Sunday, February 24, 2019

This Day in Iraqi History - Feb 24


1917 British retook Kut from Ottomans in 2nd Battle of Kut
1921 Churchill met with French who argued against Feisal being put in power in Mesopotamia because of
his record in Syria against France
(Musings On Iraq article on Churchill’s views on Mesopotamia)
(Musings On Iraq book review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)
1927 UK Iraq Commissioner Dobbs said that if Iraq not given independence would be unrest and England
would have to re-occupy country or leave
1955 Iraq signed security treaty with Turkey UK eventually joined Would become anti-Communist
Baghdad Pact Attempt by UK to maintain position in region
1955 Iraq got control of Habaniya and Shaiba air bases from England UK would come to aid of Iraq in war
and continue with military supplies under Baghdad Pact
1984 Iran ended Ops Fajr 5 and 6 attacking Wasit and Basra which were diversionary attacks from
main target Majnoon Islands
1984 Iran broke through Iraqi defenses on Majnoon islands
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1986 2nd Iraqi attempt to retake Fao from Iranians failed 10,000 Iraqis and 30,000 Iranians killed
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1986 Iran’s Wa al-Fajr 9 attacked Sulaymaniya to try to draw Iraqi forces away from Fao Peninsula Basra
Included KDP
1986 UN Resolution 582 deplored use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War but didn’t say who was using
them
1986 UN Resolution 582 also called for immediate cease-fire in Iran-Iraq War
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1990 Saddam gave speech about liberating Jerusalem and warning US could take over Persian Gulf  
Saddam was trying to determine Israel’s policy towards Iraq before he decied to invade Kuwait
(Musings On Iraq article on Saddam’s motivation for threatening Israel before the Kuwait invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Saddam Tapes)
1991 U.S. led Coalition attacked Iraqi ground forces to liberate Kuwait in Operation Desert Sabr
1991 US-Saudi Voice of Free Iraq began broadcasting calling on Iraqis to rise up and overthrow Saddam
Allawi and Iraqi National Accord also part of radio station
1991 Saddam told aides that Coalition airpower would limit troop movement but Iraqi soldiers were better
because of experience in Iran-Iraq War
1991 Saddam and aides believed that U.S. casualties would lead to end of Gulf War
2001 Powell said Iraq had not developed any significant WMD capability and UN sanctions worked
(Musings On Iraq article on the origins of Iraq’s WMD programs)
2002 CENTCOM intel staff completed first draft of intel estimate for Iraq invasion
(Musings On Iraq book review of Shaping the Plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom, The Role of Military Intelligence Assessment)
2003 US UK Spain tabled 2nd draft resolution to UN saying Iraq had not taken opportunity to disarm 
2003 Russia France Germany tabled counter draft resolution at UN calling for step by step disarmament
process in Iraq
2003 Turkish cabinet agreed to allow US forces to be deployed for Iraq invasion in return for $1 bil in aid
2003 Turkish Foreign Min asked US for $92 bil in aid and allowing Turkish troops into Kurdistan in return
for US using Turkey for Iraq invasion
2003 CIA denied Newsweek story that Hussein Kamal claimed Iraq destroyed its WMD in 90s He did say
that
2003 NSC meeting on Iraq oil sector Said US should not determine industry Went over rebuilding and
getting sector back on line after war Bush told NSC important to get Iraqis to be seen running oil sector after war Bush worried about oil shocks due to invasion Saudis said they would handle prices
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq and the Politics of Oil, An Insider’s Perspective)
2003 US outlined general humanitarian relief plan for postwar Iraq including finances and implementation
2011 All universities and institutes in Irbil closed to stop student protests
2011 Kurdistan Students’ Union told students in Irbil had to end protests or all services at school would be
closed to them
2011 Protests in Halabja turned violent as govt building burned and 3 died
2011 Kurdish protests spread to southern Kirkuk province
(Musings On Iraq interview with journalist Wladimir Van Wilgenburg on 2011 KRG protests)
2014 ISIS released statement in Ninewa attacking Maliki and telling people not to vote in election
2016 Sources said Iran told PM Abadi he needed to keep Shiite quotas in any new govt

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Saturday, February 23, 2019

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 23

1935 PM Aiyubi gave resignation to King Ghazi King asked Yashin al-Hashemi to form new
govt but exclude Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and Hikmat Sulaiman because they were agitating mid-Euphrates tribes
1946 Tawfiq Suwaidi became premier for 2nd time Was supposed to carry out Regent’s reform
program
(Musings On Iraq book review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958 on Said govt)
1959 Communists called for march in Mosul to counter rumors of military revolt against Gen Qasim
there
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)
(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)
1980 Start of major military operation against Kurds
1985 Iraqi military intel warned Iranian offensive would happen in Basra’s Fish Lake Was wrong
1986 Iraq’s southern front to retake Fao stopped by Iranian anti-tank missiles
1986 KDP launched preparatory attacks in Sulaymaniya to support Iranian offensive starting next
day in area
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1988 1st Anfal Campaign targeted PUK HQ in Jafati Valley, Sulaymaniya Yakhsamar Sergalou Bergalou
attacked
(Musings On Iraq article on Anfal campaign)
1991 Iraq said it agreed to Soviet peace plan and would withdraw from Kuwait unconditionally
1991 UN Security Council met Western countries said they weren’t interested in Soviet
            peace plan
1991 Bush ordered Gen Schwarzkop to expel Iraq from Kuwait
1994 Saddam diverted Tigris into southern marshes to put down rebels there
1996 Hussein and Saddam Kamal killed by uncle Ali Hassan al-Majid and members of tribe after talked
into returning to Iraq
1998 UN negotiated Iraq working with UN inspectors again including unrestricted visits but didn’t work
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
1998 Bin Laden issued fatwa against US sanctions on Iraq and calling for attacks against it
1999 State Dept denied that US was using UN inspectors to spy on Iraq but it was
(Musings On Iraq article on how CIA used UN inspectors to spy and back coup in Iraq)
2004 UN Rep Brahimi report said earliest Iraq could hold elections was late 2004-early 2005
2006 Iraqi govt ordered curfew in Baghdad Salahaddin Diyala Babil after Samarra bombing
2006 US report Sadr changed order to kill all Sunnis in east Baghdad Were to be taken to Sadr City to be
executed instead
2006 US report Iraqi army and police assisting Mahdi Army to kill Sunnis in east Baghdad
2006 Insurgents stopped vehicles in Baquba and executed 47 people who were heading to protest against
Samarra bombing
2006 Sunnis withdrew from talks with United Iraqi Alliance over new govt saying authorities were not
preventing revenge attacks after Samarra bombing
2006 Sec Gen of Iraqi National Dialogue Front Hayan said revenge attacks after Samarra bombing were
how a civil war started
2006 Assoc of Muslim Scholars said 168 Sunni mosques attacked 10 imams killed 15 abducted after
Samarra bombing
2006 Interior Min said 18 Sunnis mosques in Baghdad attacked 1 imam killed 1 kidnapped
(Musings On Iraq book review Voices From Iraq, A People’s History, 2003-2009)
2006 Study Iran supported Mahdi Army and violence in Iraq while backing Shiite parties and Iraqi govt
2007 US Special Forces arrested Ammar Hakim on trip back from Tehran Was only released upon protest
of Gen Petraeus
2008 Sadr said he failed because US still occupying Iraq and many of his followers had left his movement
2011 National Reconciliation Min announced that 5 insurgent groups had agreed to join politics
2016 Kurdish Alliance said they didn’t support Abadi’s reform program and wanted their quota of
positions in his new cabinet
(Musings On Iraq interview with Reidar Visser on PM Abadi’s reform program)
2018 Pro-Iran Hashd criticized US Said it had no right to demand that Abrams tanks Hashd had should be
turned back over to Iraqi army
(Musings On Iraq article on how Hashd got Abrams tanks) 

Friday, February 22, 2019

Review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism


Review Dodge, Toby, Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism, London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2012

Professor Toby Dodge wrote Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism with the goal of evaluating the Bush administration’s war aims after the U.S. withdrew its armed forces at the end of 2011. The White House said it wanted a stable and democratic Iraq that would not be a threat to itself or its neighbors. Dodge believed the U.S. fell far short of accomplishing that. Instead what it left behind was a weak state that had lost its monopoly on force and allowed various groups, including some connected to the government to use violence at will, and that was vulnerable to interference from its neighbors. Iraq while holding elections was governed by an elite bargain between exile and opposition parties that largely excluded Sunnis, and was giving way to an authoritarian prime minister in Nouri al-Maliki. That last element, which is only a fraction of the book, was what actually made Dodge’s analysis of Iraq standout because he was one of the first westerners to criticize Maliki and his concentration of power. Not even Dodge however could predict how much of an impact Maliki would have upon the future of Iraq.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 22


1921 War Min Churchill wrote PM George that he thought an Arab govt should be created
to run Mesopotamia for UK
(Musings On Iraq article on Churchill’s views on Mesopotamia)
(Musings On Iraq book review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)
1981 Iran rejected UN attempts to negotiate ceasefire as long as Iraqi troops were on Iranian territory
1984 Iranian Op Kheibar began to capture Majnoon island in Basra
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1984 Iraq’s attacks on Iranian cities stopped ending 1st War of the Cities
1987 Iran Op Karbala 5 launched last attack upon Iraqi defenses in Basra but stopped Caused 4,000
Iraqi casualties
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)
1988 Iraq renewed war of cities by firing missiles at Tehran Iraq wanted to provoke UN to get
involved again with peace talks
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 Iraq set Kuwait oil fields on fire
1991 Report Saudis tried to organize Iraqi exiles for post-Saddam Iraq
1998 Newsweek poll showed US support for military action against Iraq dropped from 40 to 18%
1999 SCIRI UK Rep Bayati said overthrowing Saddam should be done by Iraqis without outside
interference
2003 Bush administration officially announced it was deploying forces for invasion Actually started
Dec 02
2003 Spanish Pres Aznar visited Bush Had group call with Blair and Italian Premier Berlusconi
Decided on 2nd UN resolution on Iraq
2003 ORHA drill found US would not have enough troops for Iraq postwar security
2003 ORHA worried not enough funding for postwar Iraq that could leave behind unstable country
2003 ORHA found US had no plans for what kind of govt they wanted in Iraq and how to achieve it
2003 ORHA Dep Head thought US had faulty assumptions overly optimistic lacked reality on what
postwar Iraq would be like
2005 Dawa’s Jaafari became UIA candidate for premier following Jan elections
2006 Zarqawi bombed Askari shrine in Samarra 25 Sunni mosques in Samarra 27 in Baghdad attacked 3
imam killed 1 kidnapped US immediately got intel Zarqawi behind Askari shrine bombing Tunisian and 4 Saudis from Al Qaeda in Iraq did bombing Tunisian Al Qaeda in Iraq bomber was arrested in June 2006 and explained attack
2006 Al Qaeda in Iraq blamed Baghdad and Shiite militias for Samarra bombing to incite attacks on
Sunnis
2006 Other insurgent groups blamed Baghdad for Samarra bombing and claimed govt was allowing
attacks upon Sunni mosques
2006 Sadr called on his parliamentarians to meet on vote to ask U.S. forces to leave Iraq
2006 US report Sadr gave orders to kill Wahabis in east Baghdad in retaliation for Samarra bombing
Meant Sunnis
(Musings On Iraq book review Voices From Iraq, A People’s History, 2003-2009)
2006 Sadr offices spread rumor that US military vehicles were seen around Samarra shrine before
bombing to lay blame on US
2006 Iran blamed US for Samarra bombing
2006 Ayatollah Sistani called for 7 days of mourning peaceful protests and prohibited attacks upon
Sunnis in wake of Samarra bombing
2006 SCIRI head Hakim blamed US for Samarra bombing claiming it gave aid to insurgents Claimed
US criticism of Shiite death squads provoked militants
2007 Report security plan in Ramadi showed progress US and ISF setting up posts throughout city Started
working with tribes outside Ramadi to provide men to man checkpoints and join police
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Carter Malkasian on Anbar Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Confronting Al Qaeda, The Sunni Awakening and American Strategy In Al Anbar)
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Marines Take Anbar, The Four-Year Fight Against Al Qaeda)
(Musings On Iraq book review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)
2007 After England said it would withdraw some of its forces from Iraq Denmark said it would withdraw
its troops serving in Basra Lithuania that had troops serving alongside Danes was considering pulling out Romania said it would make decision about its troops that were also in Basra
2008 Sadr renewed his freeze on Mahdi Army
2011 Independent Nalya Radio and TV station was set afire in Sulaymaniya probably by KDP
supporters
2015 Sadr called for followers to protests in Baghdad next Friday calling for reforms
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Michael Clark on Sadr, protests and PM Abadi’s reforms)

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Thursday, February 21, 2019

After Liberation Of Iraq’s Baiji District An Uncertain Peace


The Iraqi Human Rights Observatory said that thousands of people have not been able to return to their homes in the Baiji district of eastern Salahaddin. It cited four main reasons: over 20,000 homes are destroyed or damaged, there is a lack of work, there is apprehension about the security situation, and Hashd forces are refusing to let people back. This area is symbolic of many other parts of central Iraq that are suffering from the aftermath of the war with the Islamic State.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 21


1922 UK Sec of War Evans told Foreign Office it should back King Faisal because that would allow
UK to exit Iraq and escape expenses of running country
1984 Iranian Op Al Fajr 6 began Aimed at taking Ali al-Gharbi 15 miles into Iraq
1984 Iraq warned that it could use chemical weapons against next Iranian offensive
1986 Iraq counterattack to retake Fao began on 3 fronts Iraq used poison gas but bad weather dissipated
effects
(Musings On Iraq article on the origins of Iraq’s WMD programs)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)
1991 Foreign Minister Aziz went to Moscow Told Gorbachev Iraq wouldn't accept UN resolution to
recognize Kuwait independence and pay reparations
1991 Russia announced proposal for Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait in return for lifting of sanctions US
rejected offer
1999 Govt killed 20 protesting assassination of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr by Saddam and arrested 250
across Iraq
(Musings On Iraq interview with Univ of Haifa’s Prof Baram on legacy of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr)
2002 Fmr Amb Joseph Wilson left for Niger to investigate Iraq buying uranium from it
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
2003 ORHA staff met in DC to have run through their Iraq postwar plans
2003 Blair met Bush at Camp David to reaffirm their alliance to remove Saddam
2004 Report US did not brief UN inspectors on 21 of 105 WMD sites in Iraq US claimed it gave info on all
sites
2004 UN Secretary General Annan said UN was ready to assist Iraq with elections but couldn’t happen
before end of June 2004
2006 PBS Frontline show “The Insurgency” said Iraqi insurgency expanded and Islamists replaced former
regime members as leaders
2007 Blair announced England would begin withdrawing 1,500 troops from Basra
2007 Report British lost politically and militarily in Basra by 2005 when Shiite religious parties won
provincial election and took control of security forces and economy
2007 Australia said it would keep its 1,400 soldiers in Iraq
2008 Op Sun 800 Turkish troops entered Kurdistan to attack PKK
2011 Group of men attacked protesters in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square while police looked on
2015 National Alliance MPs complained that Abadi didn’t consult with them about his reforms
2015 Sadrists said Abadi missed great chance to reform country Sadrists had been PM Abadi’s main
supporters
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Michael Clark on Sadr, protests and PM Abadi’s reforms)

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Wednesday, February 20, 2019

Activists Targeted In Basra For Summer 2018 Protests

Basra protests Sep 2018 (AP)

During the summer of 2018 protests returned to Basra focused upon services like water and electricity, fighting corruption and better governance. They eventually turned into riots in Basra city that went after political parties, Hashd al-Shaabi groups, and the Iranian consulate. Several activists were arrested and killed in what organizers believed was retaliation by some of those same parties.

This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 20


1940 Gen Umari Mosul garrison commander attempted coup rather than be forced to resign
by Regent Put down by Golden Square officers
(Musings On Iraq book review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)
1969 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad
1985 US and Soviet officials met to discuss ways to end Iran-Iraq War Nothing came of it
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 US 1st Cav Div launched large attack into Iraq Engaged 7 Iraqi divisions to deceive Iraqis on where
invasion would come from
1995 KDP and PUK resumed fighting in Rawandaz ending ceasefire
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)
1996 Hussein Kamal and brother Saddam Kamal accepted pardon from Saddam and returned to Iraq Were
later killed
1998 UN Sec Gen Annan met with Saddam to try to restart UN weapons inspections
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
1998 UN report said Iraq’s electricity situation was in dire straights
1998 UN Res 1153 increased Iraq’s exports from $2 bil in oil each 6 months to $5.2 bil and expanded
imports from food and medicine to infrastructure needs
1999 Supreme Council accused govt of killing Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr
(Musings On Iraq interview with Univ of Haifa’s Prof Baram on legacy of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr)
2002 Secret CIA team entered Kurdistan to prepare for ops inside Iraq called Northern Iraq Liaison
Elements
2002 CIA gave fmr Amb Johseph Wilson talking points for his trip to Niger to investigate Iraq-Niger
uranium deal
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
2002 UK Joint Intel Comm chief Scarlett briefed For Sec Cook on Iraq’s WMD Cook thought Iraq didn’t
have capability for large scale WMD attack
2003 Chief UN Inspector Blix told Blair intelligence he’d gotten wasn’t great and maybe Iraq didn’t have
much WMD
2003 UN sources told press US intel on Iraq WMD was not turning up anything
(Musings On Iraq article on UN weapons inspections)
2003 Report interviews with Iraqi scientists by inspectors had not turned up any evidence of a nuclear
program
(Musings On Iraq article on how poor US intel work led to claim Iraq rebuilt its nuclear weapons program)
2004 Report CPA dropping caucus plan to elect Iraqi provisional govt and working with UN for alternative
Iraqi Governing Council wanted to expand membership from 25 to 125 and become new govt
2007 British turned over army base in Basra to Iraqi 10th Division as part of withdrawal from province
2007 Report Officials claimed 80% drop in violence in Baghdad at start of Surge US focusing upon Dora
South Baghdad Sadr told Mahdi Army to stand down
2007 Report Sadrist mosques posted lists of Mahdi Army fighters expelled Sadr was trying to purge and
            control militia
2012 Saudi Arabia named its Jordan Ambassador as non-resident ambassador to Iraq as relations were
slowly improving
2013 Iraq signed deal to build natural gas pipeline from Iran across Iraq to Syria
2016 PM Abadi said financial crisis meant reforms needed Called for end of quota system in govt
(Musings On Iraq interview with Reidar Visser on PM Abadi’s reform program)
2016 Sadr created committee to nominate technocrats for Abadi’s new cabinet
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Michael Clark on Sadr, protests and PM Abadi’s reforms)
2018 Report some of the 9 Abrams tanks pro-Iran Hashd units got came from the Iraqi army rest were
captured from IS
(Musings On Iraq article on how Hashd got Abrams tanks)

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This Day In Iraqi History - Aug 23

1922 King Faisal struck by appendicitis with no PM or govt UK High Commissioner Cox ruled until king returned Cox dep...