Iraq History Timeline

OTTOMAN ERA

1639
May 17 Treaty of Zuhab ended Ottoman-Safavid War and gave Ottomans most of
            Mesopotamia

1802
Apr 21 Wahabi army from Arabia sacked Karbala 2,000-5,000 killed

1847
May 21 Treaty of Arzurum tried to set border between Ottoman Empire and Persia
gave Sulaymaniya to Ottomans Shatt al-Arab to Persia Set up commission to demarcate border between two but never finished Treaty became disputed after Iraq independence in 1932

May 31

1914
Jun 19 Germany and England asked Ottomans for oil concessions in Mosul and Baghdad
            provinces

Jun 28 Ottomans agreed to oil concessions for British and Germans in Mosul and
            Baghdad provinces Never happened because of WWI

Aug 2 Ottomans signed alliance with Germany that would bring Mesopotamia into
            WW1

WORLD WAR I

Nov 5 England and France declared war on Ottoman Empire Would lead Mesopotamia
            into WWI
Nov 5 British Gen Delmain head of Indian Expeditionary Force told to protect oil
            infrastructure and only take Basra if the Ottomans joined WWI

Nov 6 British troops landed at Fao, Basra starting war against Ottomans in
            Mesopotamia

Nov 7 British forces started march from Fao to city of Basra

Nov 8 British troops seized Ottoman fort at Fao

Nov 11 Battle of Basra began when Ottomans attacked and were turned back by British

1915
Jan 2 Suleiman Bey took over Iraq command for Ottomans Called on Arab Sheikhs to
            join war against British and planned on retaking Basra

Apr 11 Ottomans launched operation to try to retake Basra from British forces

Apr 12 Battle of Shaiba began

Apr 13 British won Battle of Shaiba by counterattacking and routing Ottoman forces

Apr 14 Ottoman campaign to try to retake Basra from British failed

May 13 British forces moved north to try to encircle Ottoman forces in Qurna

May 31 British forces set out to capture Amarah from Ottomans

Jun 3 British forces captured Amarah after convincing Ottoman garrison to surrender

Jun 27 British forces began campaign to capture Nasiriya from Ottomans

Jul 24 British forces captured Nasiriya

Sep 12 British forces launched campaign to capture Baghdad starting in Wasit

Sep 27 Battle of Es Sinn began

Sep 28 British defeated Ottomans at Battle of Es Sinn driving them back to Kut, Wasit

Sep 29 British forces took Kut, Wasit

1916
Jan 6 Start of Battle of Sheikh Saad as British forces moved up the Tigris River and
            ran into Ottoman defenses

Jan 7 British made second assault on Ottomans during Battle of Sheikh Saad taking
            part of Ottoman defenses

Jan 9 Battle of Sheikh Saad ended with British defeating the Ottomans

Jan 13 Ottomans retreated 10 miles up Tigris River after defeat at Battle of Sheikh Saad
            and were beaten again by British at Battle of Wadi

Jan 21 Ottomans retreated up Tigris after defeat at Battle of Wadi only to lose again to
            British at Battle of Hanna

Mar 7 British forces attacked Ottomans at the Dujaila Redoubt

Mar 8 British tried and failed to take the Dujaila Redoubt from Ottomans losing
            4,000 men

Apr 5 British forces attacked Fallahiya to try to relive surrounded British troops in Kut

Apr 7 Start of Battle of Bait Alsa and Sannaiyat

Apr 8 British forces defeat Ottomans at Fallahiya

Apr 17 British took Beit Asia from Ottomans and pushed Turks out of Edheim River in
            Diyala

Apr 19 German commander of the Ottoman forces in Mesopotamia Gen Goltz died of
            typhoid

Apr 22 British attacked Sannaiyat but Ottomans turned them back British suffered
            1,200 casualties

Apr 24 British attempt to re-supply besieged garrison at Kut failed

Apr 26 British arranged a ceasefire with Ottomans in Kut after 146 day siege British lost
            33,000 casualties

Apr 29 Ottomans defeated the British at Battle of Kut after 4 months captured 13,000
            prisoners

May 16 France and England agreed on Sykes-Picot Agreement creating two
spheres of influence over Middle East Mesopotomia was in British zone

Jun 10 Hussein Ibn Ali sheriff of Mecca declared Arab revolt against Ottomans
backed by British Many Iraqi Ottoman officers joined

Sep 18 British leaders told troops to continue advance in Mesopotamia vs Ottomans after
            huge loss at Kut

Dec 22 British forces began digging lines towards Ottomans defenses at Khadairi Bend

1917
Jan 7 British made divisionary attack along Tigris River to draw Ottoman forces away
            From Khadairi Bend fort

Jan 9 Battle of Mohammed Abdul Hassan
Jan 9 British began assault upon Khadairi Bend fort

Jan 11 Battle of Hai salient started

Jan 25 British attack Ottoman positions along Hai River

Jan 29 British captured Ottoman fort at Khadairi Bend in campaign to recapture Kut

Feb 4 British defeated Ottoman forces at Hai River

Feb 16 British defeated Ottoman forces at Dahra Bend

Feb 17 British crossed Shumran bend outflanking Ottoman forces in campaign to
            recapture Kut

Feb 24 British retake Kut from Ottomans in 2nd Battle of Kut

Feb 26 3 British gunboats fired upon by 4 Ottoman ships at Nahr-al-Kalek, Wasit 3
            Turkish ships sunk and 4th captured

Mar 5 British forces started march on Baghdad from Kut

Mar 9 1st British assault on Baghdad turned back by Ottomans

Mar 10 British forces defeated Ottoman defenses outside Baghdad in Diyala River Led
            Ottomans to abandon Baghdad

Mar 11 British army took Baghdad

Mar 13 British started Samarra offensive against Ottomans after taking Baghdad

Mar 16 British War Cabinet created Mesopotamia administration committee to decide on
            form of govt in captured areas

Mar 17 British forces captured Baquba from Ottomans

Mar 19 British forces captured Fallujah from Ottomans
Mar 19 British commander in Mesopotamia Gen Maude sent message to Iraqis saying
British had not come as conquerors but liberators Maude said British would not impose their institutions on locals and called on Arabs to help rule

Mar 25 British forces defeated by Ottomans at Battle of Mount Hamrin, Diyala

Apr 11 British defeated Ottomans at Battle of Shiala

Apr 21 Battle of Istabulat in Diyala started with Ottomans being defeated

Apr 23 British Samarra Offensive ended in victory over Ottomans British suffered
            18,000 casualties

Apr 30 Battle of the Boot at Band-i-Adhaim

May 19 Gen Sir Stanley Maude commander of British forces in Iraq said they
            had come as liberators not conquerors

Jul 11 1st Battle of Ramadi started Ottomans forced British to retreat

Sep 28 2nd Battle of Ramadi started

Sep 29 2nd Battle of Ramadi ended with Ottomans losing city

Nov 5 Battle of Tikrit started

1918
Jan 5 Lloyd George said Ottoman provinces including Mesopotamia should have
            “separate national conditions”

Mar 9 British took Hit, Anbar without a fight from Ottomans

Mar 26 Battle of Khan al-Baghdadi began

Mar 27 British defeated Ottomans in Battle of Khan al-Baghdadi

Aug 11 British Foreign Secretary Balfour said British war in Mespotamia should be
            justified by securing water that would also give it control of oil

Oct 2 British War Office told commander in Mespotamia to seize as many oil producing
            areas as possible

1919
May 22 Sheikh Mohmoud Barzanji started rebellion against British in Sulaymaniya

1920
Jan 28 Turkish National Pact said Turkey gave up rights to all Ottoman provinces with
Arab majorities including Basra and Baghdad Did not include Mosul province which Turkey claimed had a Turkish majority Kurds were called Turks
Jan 28 British also claimed Mosul province which it occupied after armistice with
            Ottomans in 1918

Mar 8 Hundreds of ex-Ottoman soldiers including many Iraqis petitioned Prince Faisal
            about how Arab revolt didn’t work out during WWI

Apr 19 Start of San Remo meeting with Britain France Italy and Japan Decided on split
            up of Ottoman Empire and creation of Iraq

Apr 23 Ataturk gave speech demanding Turkey’s southern territories include Mosul and
            Sulaymaniya

Apr 24 UK & France gave France 25% of Turkish Petroleum Company in return for
            agreeing to British mandate in Iraq

BRITISH MANDATE IN IRAQ ERA

Apr 25 San Remo Agreement created British Mandate in Iraq

May 5 British mandate announced in Baghdad

May 17 Huge joint Sunni-Shiite demonstration in Baghdad during Ramadan against
            British rule

1920 Revolt

Jun 2 Revolt against British started when sheikh in mid-Euphrates refused British
            Taxation, arrested and freed by tribe

Jun 4 Sherifan Army of Liberation arrived in Tal Afar to fight British and seize town

Jun 6 Sir Percy Cox was reassigned to run Iraq from his posting in Persia

Jun 7 Iraqi rebels led by Jameel al-Midfai reached Mosul with about 1,000 men

Jun 9 British forces retook Tal Afar after bombing broke Iraqi rebels

Jul 17 British worked out ceasefire with Iraqi rebels to end siege of Abu Sukhair

Jul 19 British defeated tribal fighters at Battle of Ahrdiyat

Jul 20 Albu Hassan took Kifil from British

Aug 10 Treaty of Sevres started the break-up of the Ottoman Empire including
            ceding Mesopotamia to the British Treaty included call for a Kurdish state

Aug 25 British gave limited self-rule in Najaf to try to stop 1920 Revolt there

Oct 1 Sir Percy Cox landed in Baghdad as new British high commissioner of Iraq Was
            told to prepare for Iraqi independence

Nov 11 League of Nations announced British Mandate in Iraq
Nov 11 Abdul al-Rahman al-Gaylani became Iraq’s 1st prime minister

1921
Mar 12 Start of Cairo Conference where Britain decided on its future Middle East policy
            including keeping Iraq

Mar 30 End of Cairo Conference where England decided Faisal Hashemi would
            become King of Iraq

Jun 14 Churchill asked Colonial Office if King Faisal was Sunni or Shiite and who were
            the religious people in Karbala

Jul 11 Iraq council of state declared Faisal monarch of Iraq

Jul 16 Council of state confirmed plebiscite choosing Faisal as king of Iraq

Aug 21 King Faisal was coronated

1922
Mar 11 Wahabi Ikhwan from Saudi Arabia attacked south of Nasiriya slaughtering
            civilians

Apr 6 Fatwa issued by Shiite clerics saying Saudi Ikhwan were brigands and Shiites
            could fight them published in Iraqi paper
Apr 6 Shiite tribes mostly responsive to fatwa against Ikhwan Clerics were hoping
            Sunni tribes would also respond but they thought Baghdad should deal with issue

Apr 9 Karbala conference led to call for war against Wahbis unless compensation paid
            for raid in southern Iraq and if Ibn Saud didn’t punish Ikhwan
Apr 9 Ikhwan invasion of south Iraq resolved by letters between Iraq and Saudis
            Ibn Saud apologized for attack

May 24 Mujtahid Sheikh Mahdi al-Khalisi told mid-Euphrates tribes that British trying
            to get their way with new Anglo-Iraq treaty

Jun 22 Standard Oil told State Dept that it and other US companies were interested in
            exploring in Iraq

Aug 23 King Faisal struck by appendicitis leading to surgery Was no Iraqi govt at time
Aug 23 British High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox assumed control of Iraqi govt
while King Faisal had surgery and recovered Cox banned opposition, exiled and deported its leaders banned two opposition papers Silenced opposition and Shiite leaders

Aug 24 On anniversary of King Faisal’s coronation opposition gave him a petition
calling for an assembly to draft a constitution, elections for a parliament, and independence for Iraq
Aug 24 During celebration for King Faisal’s coronation anniversary someone said
            down with the British Mandate which was applauded

Aug 25 British High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox demanded an apology from
            King Faisal for anti-British comment made at his coronation celebration

Aug 26 King Faisal apologized to British Iraqi Commissioner Sir Cox for anti-British
            comment made at his coronation anniversary party

Sep 10 King Faisal returned to office after his appendices were removed King thanked
            British high Commissioner Sir Percy Cox for running govt in his absence and for shutting down opposition

Oct 10 1922 Anglo-Iraq Treaty signed Maintained British influence over Iraq Resented
            by opposition who were anti-British

Nov 16 PM Gaylani’s second govt resigned

Nov 20 PM Abdul Sadoun formed new govt

1923
Jan 3 Administrative Inspectors Law reduced number of British advisers to Iraqi govt
            offices and limited their power

Apr 22 British troops occupied Rowanduz in military campaign to subdue Kurds
            opposed to being included in new Iraq Mandate

Jun 21 Nephew of mujtahid al-Khalisi arrested for posting anti-election fatwa in
Kadhimiya Baghdad When Khalisi’s son tried to post fatwa police arrested him and one other son Khalisi called for shops to close in protest but few complied

Jun 27 Persian mujtahids and shopkeepers in Najaf protested deportation of cleric
            Khalisi and his two sons to Persia
Jun 27 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini led protest to Karbala trying to get clerics and
            religious students to leave for Persia to protest deportation of cleric Khalisi

Jun 29 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini arrived in Karbala in protest march against
            deportation of cleric Khalisi but only two other mujtahids joined them

Jul 3 35 clerics and religious students left Iraq for Persia to protest deportation of
            Mujtahid Khalisi for his opposition work

Jul 22 UK Minister to Tehran arrived in Baghdad to discuss deportation and immigration
of Iraqi opposition figures to Persia Iraqi govt said they could return after elections for assembly held

Jul 24 Turkey signed Treaty of Lausanne agreeing to League of Nations deciding future
            of Mosul 

Nov 22 PM Sadoun resigned over differences with Shiite leaders and King Faisal
Nov 22 Jafar Pasha al-Askari became Iraq’s 3rd PM Shiites got Education and Finance
            Ministries Shiite leaders pledged allegiance to King Faisal as a result

1924
Mar 25 Iraq ratified Anglo-Iraq Treaty creating 20-year alliance between two countries

Jul 10 First elections held in Iraq Was for Constituent Assembly

Aug 2 Yasin al-Hashemi became 2nd PM of Iraq Was ordered to organize elections for an
            assembly to draft a constitution

Sep 30 Frontier Commission appointed to determine border between Ottomans
            and British controlled Mesopotamia

1925
Jan 27 League of Nations Commission on Mosul arrived in province to protests
Commission interviewed hundreds of locals and mapped economy, land, trade routes, ethnicities

Feb 4 League of Nations’ Mosul commission final report said Mosul should go to
            British Iraq Mandate with Kurds getting concessions

Mar 14 Iraq deal gave Turkish Petroleum Company right to explore for oil in
            entire country

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq after laws discriminating against Persian nationals
            in Iraq were removed

Jun 26 Abdul Sadoun became PM of Iraq for 2nd time

Jul 17 Frontier Commission said Mosul vilyat should be in Iraq after British seized it
            after WW1 armistice

1926
Jun 5 Turkey and England agreed to have Mosul join Iraq

Jul 5 Turkey and Britain signed treaty setting Turkey-Iraq border UK agreed to give
            Turkey 10% of Mosul oil revenues in return

Jul 18 Turkey and England agreed on final border between Iraq and Turkey

1927
Jan 30 1st student protest in Iraq held over firing of teachers Organized by Communists

1928
Jan 11 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 3rd time

Jul 31 Red Line Agreement allowed British Dutch French US Turkish oil companies to
jointly control Turkish Petroleum Company Would lead to creation of Iraq Petroleum Company

1929
Apr 3 Persian Shah and King Faisal passed notes that legal barriers over unequal
            treatment of Persian nationals in Iraq had been lifted

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq as a country Hadn’t before due to complaints of
            mistreatment of Persians in Iraq

Apr 28 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi became PM, would hold that office 3 times

Sep 19 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 4th time

1930
Mar 23 Nuri al-Said became PM, would hold office 8 times

1931
May 31 Iraq made first payment of oil revenues to Turkey in return for giving up claims
            to Mosul

1932
May 31 Kurdish revolt led by Barzanji put down by RAF

INDEPENDENT IRAQI MONARCHY ERA

Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from Britain

1933
Mar 20 Rashid al-Gaylani became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Jul 21 600 Assyrians left Ninewa for Syria asking for asylum from French because didn't
            want to be part of Iraq Were sent back

Aug 4 French deported 600 Assyrians who fled to Syria in July back to Ninewa
            Assyrians then clashed with Iraqi army and were driven back into Syria

Aug 6 Rumors spread that Assyrians had massacred Iraqi soldiers blown up bridges
            poisoned water

Aug 8 Iraqi army began executing all Assyrian males captured in Bekher mountains in
            Ninewa
Aug 8 Mayor of Zakho began disarming Assyrians in town

Aug 9 Shammar and Jabour tribes attacked 60 Assyrian villages south of Dohuk
            Captured males given to Iraqi army who executed them

Aug 10 Kurds and Arabs loot Assyrian farms south of Dohuk

Aug 11 Assyrians in Zakho and Sumail were attacked by Iraqi army led by Gen Bakr
            Sidqi 300 killed
Aug 11 Another 40 Assyrian villages attacked and 600 more killed mostly by Kurds

Aug 16 Iraqi army campaign to kill Assyrians in north ended

Aug 18 Iraqi army held victory parade and given award by King Ghazi for massacring
            Assyrians in north

Sep 8 King Faisal I died

Nov 9 Jamil al-Midfai became PM

1934
Mar 4 Jamil al-Midfai became PM of Iraq 2nd time

Mar 31 Iraqi Communist Party founded
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof John Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Aug 27 Ali Aiyubi became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Nov 29 Border dispute between Iraq and Persia escalated

1935
Jan 15 Persia presented its case over border dispute to League of Nations Rejected Iraq’s
            control of Shatt al-Arab and questioned standing of 1847 Treaty of Arzurum

Mar 15 National Brotherhood Party revolt led King Faisal to create new cabinet with
            opposition

Mar 17 Yasin al-Hashemi became PM of Iraq 2nd time

May 6 Govt arrested cleric Asadallah follower of Ayatollah Ghita who had been
demanding concessions from govt Led to revolt by Abu Hassan, Bani Zurayij and Zawalim tribes against monarchy

May 11 Iraq air force bombed rebel villages in Diwaniya held by Abu Hassan Bani
            Zurayij and Zawalim tribes

May 13 Muntafiq tribe joined revolt against monarchy

May 15 Tribes seized Suq al-Shuyukh and cut railway between Basra and Nasiriya
            during revolt against govt

1937
Jun 19 Pan-Arab military officers withdrew their support for head of army Gen Bakr
            Sidqi

Jul 4 Iraq-Iran Frontier Treaty signed attempting to resolve border dispute Accepted
demarcation process that was done by Ottomans and Persians pre-WWI Set up commission to finish border and created a body to work out navigation of Shatt al-Arab most of which was given to Iraq Political instability in Baghdad and outbreak of WW2 meant treaty never implemented

Jul 8 Sadabad Pact between Iraq Iran Turkey Afghanistan agreed to borders non-
            interference regional security

Jul 18 Friendship Treaty between Iraq and Iran Was mostly about setting border between
            two

Aug 11 Gen Bakr Sidqi leader of 1933 Assyrian massacre and head of 1936 coup was
            assassinated in Mosul after pan-Arab officers withdrew their support for him

Aug 17 PM Hikmat Sulaiman govt resigned over threat of military coup or civil war
Aug 17 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 3rd time

1938
May 1 Iraqi constitution Article 89a criminalized communism

1939
Apr 4 King Ghazi died in car accident

1940
Mar 30 Golden Square officers forced PM Nuri al-Said to resign in deal with Regent
Replaced by PM Rashid Ali Gaylani

1941
Jan 28 Regent of Iraq appointed 2 new ministers to offset PM Gaylani leading to PM to
            plot against Regent

Jan 31 PM Gaylani forced from office by British pressure due to his pro-Nazi views

Feb 3 Gen Taha al-Hashemi became PM backed by military officers known as Golden
            Square

Apr 1 PM Gen Hashemi deposed in Golden Square coup by military officers Regent
            Abdullah fled Iraq Gaylani became PM for 3rd time
Apr 1 New PM Gaylani started arresting pro-British politicians

Apr 2 Regent Abdullah arrived at British base in Habaniya, Anbar and taken out of Iraq
            fleeing military coup

Apr 3 British War Office asked commander in Middle East what forces available
for Iraq after Golden Square military coup
Apr 3 Nazi Germany sent letter saying it supported the Golden Square coup and would
            lend military aid

Apr 7 British Middle East commander told War Office military intervention in Iraq not
possible and diplomacy should be used instead

Apr 8 Churchill ordered Secretary of State for India to put together a military force to
            send to Iraq
Apr 8 German Foreign Office said it supported Arab action against British for their
freedom

Apr 9 Germany and Italy made joint statement of support for PM Gaylani promising
            military and financial aid

Apr 10 British expeditionary force put together in India to be sent to Iraq to deal with
            pro-German PM Gaylani govt
Apr 10 PM Gaylani said he would honor Anglo-Iraq Treaty of 1930
Apr 10 Hitler decided to give military aid to Iraq

Apr 12 British convoy left India for Basra with infantry brigade

Apr 16 Britain told Iraq that troops would be landing in Basra soon under Anglo-Iraq
            Treaty
Apr 16 PM Gaylani agreed to allow British troops landing in Basra but demanded that
they immediately set out for Palestine or Egypt
Apr 16 German letter arrived saying it would support Iraq revolt against British

Apr 17 PM Gaylani asked Germany for military aid in case of war with British
Apr 17 British naval convoy moved towards Shatt al-Arab waterway in Basra
Apr 17 British battalion from India started arriving at Shaibah air base

Apr 18 Britain landed 20th Infantry Brigade in Basra
Apr 18 British battalion from India completed deployment to Shaibah air base

Apr 19 British 20th Infantry Brigade finished its landing in Basra and 7 planes flown into
            Habaniya airbase

Apr 20 Churchill told Foreign Secretary Eden that British troops landed in Iraq to
            establish a base in Basra to establish control of province

Apr 23 PM Gaylani asked for German military intervention in case of war with England
Apr 23 London decided to land an entire division from India in Basra

Apr 26 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid against British

Apr 28 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid for second time to be used
            against British

Apr 29 More British troops from 20th Infantry Brigade arrived in Basra Iraq protested
Apr 29 British Ambassador told British women and children to leave Baghdad because
            of expected war with Iraq
Apr 29 British flew planes from Shaibah base to Habaniya base
Apr 29 PM Gaylani sent Iraqi forces to British air base at Habaniya, Anbar to confront
            them
Apr 29 Iraqis flooded Habaniya area limiting movement of British troops there

Apr 30 PM Gaylani refused permission for British troops to land in Basra
Apr 30 2 brigades of Iraqi soldiers surrounded British Habaniya base ordered British
            to cease operations there
Apr 30 Iraqi forces surrounded British embassy in Baghdad
Apr 30 Iraqi troops seized Kirkuk oil field and cut off pipeline to Haifa
Apr 30 PM Gaylani hoped to pressure British to leave Iraq without a fight

May 1 Iraqi police opened fire on British workers in Rutba, Anbar England responded by
            sending forces from Transjordan to town
May 1 British bombers sent from Egypt to Shaibah air base

ANGLO-IRAQ WAR/WORLD WAR II

May 2 British planes bombed Iraqi forces that surrounded Habaniya Air Base
            Started Anglo-Iraq War/WW2
May 2 Iraq launched air strike upon Habaniya base in retaliation
May 2 Grand Mufti in Baghdad declared jihad against British after attack on Iraqi forces
            in Habaniya
May 2 Iraqi forces take British fort at Rutba, Anbar
May 2 British troops broke up angry mob of Iraqis at Zubeila, Basra

May 3 2nd day British planes bombed Iraqi forces outside of Habaniya air base and
            Rasheed air base in Baghdad
May 3 Iraqi air force bombed Iraqi army in Ramadi by accident in night raid
May 3 Churchill ordered British troops to march from Palestine to Iraq
May 3 Nazi Germany sent envoy to support PM Gaylani’s govt

May 4 British bombed Iraqi air bases in Baghdad and Baquba
May 4 British bombers arrived at Habaniya airbase from Egypt while Iraqis continued
            to shell base
May 4 British dropped leaflets on Baghdad saying war was with Gaylani govt not
            Iraqi people
May 4 Regent of Iraq broadcast radio message asking people not to follow Gaylani govt

May 6 British and Assyrian forces attacked and drove off Iraqi forces surrounding
            Habaniya air base 409 Iraqi soldiers captured
May 6 British and Assyrian forces took Sin al-Dhiban, Anbar captured 300 Iraqi soldiers
May 6 British planes destroyed Iraqi column heading for Habaniya inflicting over 1,000
            casualties and prisoners taken
May 6 German deal with Vichy France allowed military equipment to be moved from
            Syria to Iraq to fight British
May 6 German air unit sent to Syria bound for Mosul to confront British
May 6 More British troops landed in Basra

May 7 British troops took Ashar, Basra

May 8 British Arab Legion left Palestine to take back Fort Rutba, Anbar from Iraqi police
Legion was attacked by German aircraft and one regiment refused to cross Transjordan border into Iraq
May 8 British air strikes destroyed most of Iraqi air force

May 9 Start of 100 German and 20 Italian airplanes landing in Syrian bases to fight
            British in Iraq
May 9 British planes bombed Iraqi police holding Fort Rutba, Anbar while Iraqi
            reinforcements arrived

May 10 German air unit began arriving in Mosul to fight British
May 10 Iraqis abandoned Fort Rutba allowing British to capture it

May 11 British forces left Haifa, Palestine heading for Habaniya, Anbar
May 11 More British planes landed as reinforcements at Habaniya air base
May 11 German military aid began arriving from Syria by train Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 11 German diplomat Dr. Grobba arrived in Baghdad along with 2 German fighter
            planes

May 12 Soviet Union recognized PM Gaylani’s govt
May 12 British reinforcements from Palestine and Transjordan attacked by a German
            bomber

May 13 1st trainload of Nazi German war supplies arrived in Mosul to support PM
Gaylani’s govt Never used
May 13 Vichy France sent military equipment to Iraq
May 13 British forces from Palestine arrived at Fort Rutba and found it abandoned by
            Iraqis
May 13 German planes attacked British forces at Habaniya air base

May 14 Churchill authorized British air force in Iraq to attack German planes in Syria
May 14 2 British fighters flew out of Iraq and attacked 2 German bombers in Syria
            damaging them
May 14 German war planes began landing in Mosul Were attacked by British planes

May 15 German major arrived in Baghdad to lead Brandenburgers Commando recon unit
            in Iraq
May 15 More German war planes landed in Mosul
May 15 British bomber attacked Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar
May 15 German plane bombed British force from Palestine heading towards Habaniya

May 16 While British planes bombed Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar English ground
            forces were attacked by German planes
May 16 German planes attacked Habaniya base
May 16 German commander in Iraq agreed with Baghdad’s plan to retake Habaniya but
            didn’t have forces to do it

May 17 British forces set out from Habaniya base to try to take Fallujah
May 17 More British planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt and launched attack
            on German planes in Mosul
May 17 British planes shot down 2 German fighters over Baghdad
May 17 German liaison officer with Iraqi govt killed by an Iraqi soldier flying into
            Baghdad

May 18 British bombed Fallujah while troops begin surrounding town

May 19 British took Fallujah from Iraqi forces after heavy bombing Was necessary to
            cross Euphrates onto Baghdad

May 22 Iraq attempt to recapture Fallujah failed

May 23 German planes attacked British forces in Fallujah Iraqi artillery shelled town

May 25 Hitler Order 30 Germany would support Arabs against British especially in Iraq
May 25 British forces from Palestine arrived in Habaniya, Anbar to fight Iraqi forces

May 26 2nd trainload of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 26 12 Italian planes landed in Kirkuk from Syria to operate under Germans
            Immediately attacked British forces in Anbar

May 27 Operation Regulta began British forces marched north from Basra to Kut and
            onto Baghdad
May 27 British forces moved from Fallujah to cut Baghdad-Mosul road and railway

May 28 British forces captured Khan Nuqta fort on march from Fallujah to
            Baghdad
May 28 British troops moved from Basra to Baghdad take Ur
May 28 British forces attacked Abu Ghraib canal but turned back by Iraqis
May 28 British intel spread rumor to Iraqi military that 100 tanks heading to Baghdad
            Led PM Gaylani to flee
May 28 3rd shipment of German military supplies arrived in Mosul Never used

May 29 Italian planes got into dogfight with British planes over Baghdad 1 Italian and 2
            British planes shot down
May 29 British defeated Iraqi forces at Abu Ghraib Turned back at Abu Ghraib canal in
            push on Baghdad for second time
May 29 British forces defeated by Iraqi army at Kadhimiya, Baghdad
May 29 PM Gaylani fled to Iran as British troops advanced on Baghdad

May 30 Last brigade of 10th Infantry Division landed in Basra
May 30 British troops reached Baghdad
May 30 German Amb to Iraq Grobba fled Baghdad to Mosul

May 31 Mayor of Baghdad worked out peace treaty with British surrendering city
May 31 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            and told Jews to stay in homes

Jun 1 Regent of Iraq returned to power after pro-Nazi govt of PM Gaylani overthrown by
            British
Jun 1 Regent welcomed at airport by group of Jews from Baghdad who were attacked
            on way home and violence continued into capital
Jun 1 Farhud anti-Jewish pogrom in Baghdad started Around 120 people killed and
            850 wounded
Jun 1 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader who appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            planned pogrom against Jews but deported by British

Jun 2 Jamil al-Midfai named PM in new govt after PM Gaylani overthrown by British
Jun 2 Anti-Jewish pogrom the Farhud in Baghdad continues until curfew imposed 187
            killed in 2 days

Jun 3 3rd train load of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul after war
            ended
Jun 3 British troops occupied Mosul after overthrowing Gaylani govt

Jun 5 British forces occupied Kirkuk

Jun 6 British forces sent to Haditha and pushed insurgents led by Qawujki into Syria

Jun 7 British forces crossed from Iraq into Syria attempting to capture German diplomat
            Dr. Grobba

Jun 8 British campaign started against Vichy French in Syria using troops in Iraq
            Germany used Syria to supply pro-Nazi Gaylani govt in Iraq

Jun 9 Another British brigade landed in Basra

Jun 10 British air force destroyed train shipment of German military aid heading for
            Iraq from Syria Anglo-Iraq War already over

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

1942
Jan 6 Court sentenced former PM Gaylani and 3 colonels to death in absentia

1943
Jul 1 Mustafa Barzani led rebellion against govt Iraqi troops backed by British airplanes
            suppressed revolt by Oct 1945

1944
Jun 4 Hamdi al-Pachachi became PM

Sep 9 Iraq and Soviet Union established diplomatic relations

1945
Sep 4 Iraqi forces launched new assault upon Kurdish forces in Barzan

1946
Feb 23 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM for 2nd time

Mar 29 Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Would cooperate over Tigris & Euphrates security
            education communication economies

Jun 1 Arshad al-Umari became PM of Iraq, would hold office 2 times

Jul 3 Oil workers in Kirkuk led by Communists held meetings about their work
            conditions Led to strike

Jul 12 Police tried breaking Communist oil worker strike in Kirkuk Fired on workers
killing 8 wounding 50 Incident helped lead to fall of PM Arshad Umari’s govt in November

Aug 16 KDP founded by Mustafa Barzani and Hamzah Abdullah

1947
Mar 29 Sayid Salih Jabr became PM

Apr 26 Iraq left San Francisco Conference on creating UN to protest creation of Israel

Apr 28 Mustafa Barzani and 500 supporters returned to Iraq from Iran

May 27 Month after returning to Iraq Mustafa Barzani started another revolt against govt

Jun 15 Mustafa Barzani revolt against govt put down and he fled to Soviet Union

1948
Jan 3 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamali said that Iraq was sensitive about the 1930 Anglo-
            Iraq Treaty
Jan 3 Independence Party held meeting and decided to protest against govt and 1930
            Anglo-Iraq Treat

Jan 4 Students in Baghdad protested against 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty Broken up by
            police

Jan 6 College students went on strike in Baghdad after police broke up Jan 4 protest over
            1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Jan 8 College student strike in Baghdad ended when arrested students were released by
            police

Jan 15 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty signed British troops withdrew but Iraq tied to Iraq to
            England until 1973

Jan 16 Communists led protests against new Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon leading to
            large sectors of country to turn against treaty

Jan 19 Kurds from Iraq and Iran met in Baku, Soviet Union Mustafa Barzani led plans for
            Kurdish movement

Jan 20 March by railway workers and students against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by
            police killing some demonstrators

Jan 21 Demonstrators against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon again Led Regent to
            repudiate treaty

Jan 23 More protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty this time leading to fights between
            Communists and Independence party

Jan 26 PM Said said that Anglo-Iraq Treaty was still on the table after Regent rejected it
            Led to new protests Said ordered suppression of demonstrations

Jan 27 Communists called for more protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty to try to topple
govt Mass demonstrations led to clashes with police who opened fire in Baghdad killing 300-400 people

Jan 29 PM Jabr forced to resign over protests over Anglo-Iraq treaty Sayid Mohammed
            al-Sadr replaced him as PM

Mar 18 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 4 Port of Basra strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 14 2nd Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

1948 Arab-Israeli War

Apr 20 Operation Hametz began with Jewish forces attacking Arab villages held by Iraqi
            volunteers in 1st Arab-Israeli War

Apr 23 Kirkuk oil field protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 29 Battle of Katamon begins between Jewish forces attacking Iraqi volunteers and
            Arab Legion

Apr 30 Jewish forces took Jaffa, and 7 other towns held by Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab
            Israeli War

May 1 Iraqi volunteers defeated by Jewish forces in Battle of Katamon

May 2 Port of Basra protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 12 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 15 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty
May 15 Iraq Egypt Jordan Syria armies entered into Palestine to join in 1948 Arab-Israeli
War
May 15 Iraqi army attacked Kibbutz Gesher in northern Palestine

May 18 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 22 Iraqi army defeated in Battle of Gesher and retreated to West Bank

May 25 Iraqi forces took Geulim and reached Kfar Yona and Ein Vered

May 29 Battle of Jenin between Jewish and Iraqi forces started

Jun 1 Jewish forces attacked Iraqi positions in Jenin but were turned back

Jun 26 Muzahim al-Pachachi became PM

Aug 28 Jews forbidden to work in banking or foreign currency transactions after creation
            of Israel

1949
Jan 6 Nouri al-Said became PM for 5th time

Feb 10 Communist Party leader sentenced to death

Feb 14 Communist leaders hanged by PM Said to try to squash opposition

Feb 15 More Communist leaders hanged by PM Said

Feb 19 PM Said said Jews had been mistreated in Iraq and warned that things could get
            worse for them due to Israel

1950
Feb 5 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM 3rd time

Aug 21 Nuri al-Said threatened to revoke license of transport company if didn’t fill quota
            of shipping 500 Jews out of Iraq per day

Sep 15 Nuri al-Said became PM 6th time

Sep 18 PM Said threatened to expel Jews from Iraq

1951
Jul 17 Iraq made last payment to Turkey of oil revenues in return for giving up claims to
            Mosul after WWI

1952
Jul 15 Mustafa al-Umari became PM

Aug 23 Communist led strike at Basra port led to clash with police

1953
Jan 29 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 5th time

Sep 17 Mohammed al-Jamali became PM

1954
Apr 29 Arshad al-Umari became PM for 2nd time

Aug 3 Nuri al-Said began crackdown on all opposition parties in Iraq

Aug 4 Nuri al-Said became Iraq’s PM 7th time

1955
Feb 24 Iraq signed security treaty with Turkey which England eventually joined Would
            become anti-Communist Baghdad Pact

Sep 23 Iran joined Iraq, England, Turkey security agreement Would become anti-
            Communist Baghdad Pact

1957
Jan 5 Iraq backed Eisenhower Doctrine to oppose communism in Middle East

Jun 15 Nuri al-Said made cover of Time magazine

Jun 20 Ali Aiyubi became PM 3rd time

1958
Feb 11 Jordan began talks with Iraq for a federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic

Feb 14 Iraq and Jordan announced Arab Federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic

Mar 3 Nuri al-Said became PM for 8th time

May 18 Ahmad Baban became PM Was a Kurd

Jul 13 Col Arif gained control of 20th Brigade and began march towards Baghdad from
            Diyala to start 1958 coup

GEN QASIM ERA

Jul 14 Free Officers lead 1958 coup overthrowing King Faisal II and Iraq’s monarchy
Jul 14 Gen Qasim became head of state King Faisal II and family were killed

Jul 15 Deposed PM Nuri al-Said executed by Free Officers His body was later dug up,
            hung and burned in Baghdad streets

Jul 17 Gen. Qasim sent delegation to meet with Gen. Nasser of Egypt to talk about
            uniting 2 countries

Jul 21 Gen Qasim set up court to try “enemies of the people” meaning officials from
            monarchy

Aug 5 Communists hold large demonstration in Baghdad against uniting with Egypt

Aug 7 Gen Qasim supported march by Communists to back federation of United
            Arab Republic between Egypt and Syria

Sep 3 Qasim govt gave amnesty to Kurdish rebels

Sep 10 Col Arif was dismissed as Deputy Commander in Chief of Armed forces because
            of his opposition to Gen Qasim

Sep 30 Agrarian Reform Law issued by Gen Qasim in attempt to redistribute land from
            large landowners to peasants
Sep 30 Gen Qasim removed Arif as Dep PM and Interior Minister as a threat to his govt

Nov 28 Shah criticized Iraq for refusing to settle navigation down Shatt al-Arab Qasim
            responded by claiming all of waterway

1959
Jan 9 Gen Qasim blocked Communists’ application to be recognized as political party

Jan 25 Gen Qasim legalized trade unions

Feb 7 Former Dep PM Arif sentenced to death after being sent away as Ambassador to
            Germany and secretly returned to Iraq

Feb 23 Communists called for march in Mosul to counter rumors of military revolt
            against Gen Qassim there

Mar 6 Iran Iraq Algeria foreign ministers met and signed Algiers Agreement to settle
            Iran-Iraq border issues

Mar 7 Fighting broke out between Communists backing Gen Qasim and his opponents
            in Mosul
Mar 7 Col Shawaf led military coup against Gen Qasim

Mar 8 Fighting continued in Mosul between Communist backers of Gen Qasim and his
opponents
Mar 8 Coup leader Col Shawaf sent two planes to bomb Baghdad
Mar 8 Gen Qasim bombed Col Shawaf’s HQ in Mosul Afterward one of Shawaf’s
            soldiers killed him thinking coup failed

Mar 16 Gen Qasim signed economic agreement with Soviet Union to move away from
            England and west

Mar 24 Gen Qasim withdrew Iraq from anti-Communist Baghdad Pact

Apr 13 Gen Qasim made cover of Time magazine

Apr 28 Communists asked for positions in Qasim govt but turned down

Apr 30 Gen Qasim banned party activities in armed forces to try to block Communists’
            influence

May 1 500,000 Communists marched demanding role in Gen Qasim’s govt

May 14 Gen Qasim withdrew Iraq from anti-Communist Eisenhower Doctrine

May 30 Last British soldier departed Habaniya base in Iraq as English military
            withdrew from country

Jul 13 Gen Qasim appointed several Communists to his cabinet

Jul 14 Communists called rally to celebrate 1958 coup in Kirkuk Turned into 2 days of
            fighting between Kurds & Turkmen with around 30 killed 100 injured

Jul 20 Gen Qasim put several Communists on trial for taking part in July 14 fighting
            between Kurds and Turkmen in Kirkuk

Jul 27 Gen Qasim passed constitution promising Arab-Kurdish partnership after talks
            with Mullah Mustafa Barzani

Sep 20 Gen Qasim executed several leaders of Mosul coup attempt

1960
Jan 1 Gen Qasim issued new law of association promising to allow parties to be formed
            and more political freedom

Feb 12 Cleric Muhsin al-Haki issued fatwa against joining Communist Party

Jul 5 Islamic Party issued statement warning against Communist activities in Iraq

Oct 15 Islamic Party petitioned Qasim criticizing his govt for neglecting religion while
accepting Communists Called for govt to ban Communist Party and its papers, while releasing any clerics arrested since 1958 coup

1961
Jun 25 Gen Qasim called for Kuwait to be re-united with Iraq Egypt said it was opposed
            to idea

Jul 1 UK sent troops to newly Kuwait to protect it from Gen. Qasim’s call that it be
            annexed

Jul 25 Gen Qasim again claimed Kuwait was part of Iraq

Sep 10 Kurds ambushed an Iraqi army column starting Kurdish revolt against Gen Qasim
            Govt

Sep 11 After Gen Qasim rejected Barzani’s Kurdish rights plan he called for revolt
            against govt

Sep 13 Gen Qasim ordered airstrikes to put down Barzani revolt

Sep 16 Govt forces began ground offensive to put down Barzani revolt

Sep 23 KDP was banned by Gen Qasim Several leaders arrested due to Barzani revolt

1962
Jul 9 Iraqi planes bombed Turkish border post during operation against Kurdish rebels
            killing 2 Turkish soldiers

Aug 16 Turkish planes shot down Iraqi plane in retaliation for Iraq bombing Turkish
border post while fighting Kurdish rebels

Aug 23 Govt census in Jazeera listed 120,000 Kurds as aliens during Kurdish revolt

Aug 30 KDP bombed Iraq Petroleum Company pipeline

1963
Jan 3 Communists warned Gen Qasim to purge military to stop Baathist coup but were
            ignored

Feb 4 Gen Qasim arrested one opponent as Communists warned of an impending coup

ARIF BROTHERS ERA

Feb 8 Baath-military coup overthrew Gen Qasim Baath started executing Communists
            main supporters of Qasim
Feb 8 Baathist Ahmed al-Bakr became PM Col Abdul Salam Arif president
Feb 8 CIA allegedly supported 1963 coup because Qasim’s Communist support Gave
            list of Communists to be arrested and executed to coup plotters

Feb 9 Gen Qasim executed after military-Baath coup

Feb 10 Estimated 5,000 Communists were executed by Baath after coup overthrewing
            Gen Qasim

Feb 19 New Arif govt started talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP to end Kurdish
            rebellion

Feb 28 Mulla Mustafa Barzani said Kurds would go back to fighting government if
            didn’t commit to Kurdish autonomy

Mar 19 Iraq sent delegation to Syria to talk about uniting two countries

May 6 Soviet Union said it supported Mustafa Barzani and his KDP

Jun 10 Arif govt launched offensive against KDP

Jun 12 Soviet Union condemned Arif govt military campaign against Kurds

Jun 13 Govt forces attacked Dohuk killing 165 Peshmerga

Jun 22 Govt forces captured Saqsaq and Tobzawa from KDP

Jul 3 Communist uprising at Rasheed military camp in Baghdad against Baathists

Jul 9 Soviet Union accused Arif govt of genocide against Kurds

Aug 4 Govt troops captured Barzan and Mazna in offensive against KDP in
            Kurdistan

1964
Feb 10 Pres Arif agreed to ceasefire with Mulla Mustafa Barzani

Feb 15 Arif govt and Mustafa Barzani started talks to try to end KDP revolt

May 3 New provisional constitution said Iraq a democratic-socialist government but
            power was still with Pres Arif

May 26 Pres Arif established Joint Presidency Council with Egypt in failed attempt to
            unite 2 countries under pan-Arabism

Jul 14 Pres Arif announced pan-Arab Iraqi Arab Socialist Union party
Jul 14 Pres Arif nationalizes banks and insurance companies

1965
Apr 3 Army and KDP clashed in Sulaymaniya killing 60

Apr 5 Arif govt launched military offensive against KDP

Sep 5 Imam Khomeini arrived in Najaf from Turkey spending next 13 years in Iraq He
            gained support of cleric Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim

Sep 6 Arif al-Razzaq became PM

Sep 21 Abdul al-Bazzaz became PM

1966
Jan 8 Govt forces attacked KDP in Panjwin

Apr 13 Pres Arif died in helicopter crash

Apr 17 Abd Rahman Arif elected president to replace his brother  

May 4 Iraqi troops started military campaign against KDP

Jun 15 KDP defeated govt forces near Hendrin
Jun 15 PM Bazzaz made national speech saying Baghdad was ready to recognize Kurdish
            nationalism and rights

Jun 29 Baghdad-Kurdish deal called for recognition of Kurds in constitution and
            autonomy but never implemented
Jun 29 Some 10,000 killed and 80,000 displaced during fighting between Kurds and
            govt from 1961-1966

Aug 9 Col Naji Talib became PM Proved to be completely ineffective and was later
            removed

1967
Jan 25 Pres Johnson met 5 Iraqi generals and Iraqi Amb Hani at White House and said
            that they would build closer ties

Feb 13 Pres Arif speech declared Freedom Socialism and Unity belonged to no party
            co-opting Baathist slogans

May 10 PM Naji Talib was forced to resign by military Abdul Rahman Arif became
            PM

May 31 Jordan invited Iraqi army to deploy troops in its territory for war with Israel

Jun 1 Iraq Foreign Minister Pachachi met with US officials about growing tension with
            Israel before 1967 Arab-Israel War

Sep 6 Baath demonstration called for renewing war with Israel after Khartoum
resolution called for continued confrontation

1967 Arab-Israeli War

Jun 5 Iraqi airplanes attacked Jezreel Valley and Afula, Israel to little effect
Jun 5 Israeli airplanes attacked H-3 Iraqi base destroying 22 Iraqi planes

Jun 6 Most of Iraqi air force destroyed by Israel
Jun 6 8th Iraqi Brigade tried to cross Damiya Bridge destroyed by Israeli air strike

Jun 7 Iraq broke diplomatic relations with U.S. after defeat in 6-Day War with Israel

Jul 10 General Tahir Yahya became PM 2nd time Was later charged with corruption

Aug 16 Law No 97 gave more power to Iraqi National Oil Company

Oct 1 Law No. 123 gave Iraqi National Oil Company more power and right to develop
            north Rumaila oil field

1968
Jan 12 Baghdad Univ student strike demanded return to parliamentary govt and elections

Jan 13 6 ministers from Pres Arif’s govt resigned after anti-govt protests demanded
            return to democracy

Apr 10 Pres Arif said Iraqi National Oil Company would develop North Rumaila oil field
            without the Iraqi Petroleum Company

Apr 16 Baath Nasserites and other army officials called for coalition govt and return of
            parliament

May 28 Communist uprising began in southern Marshes

Jun 15 Amid growing anti-Arif govt activity PM Yahya resigned but was asked to stay
            on

Jul 12 PM Yahya threatened to resign over divisions within military that led to 1968            coup

Jul 14 Coup against Pres Arif planned but called off after army officers backed out
            Baath would not drop coup

Jul 15 PM Yahya resigned over divisions within military over running country that
            would eventually lead to coup

Jul 16 Baath meeting after coup was called off Head of military intelligence Col Naif said    he would join plot if he became PM Was agreed upon

BAATH-PRES. BAKR ERA

Jul 17 Baath coup overthrew Pres Arif Gen Bakr became president Col Naif PM Col
            Daud Defense Minister

Jul 27 Communists issued demands to new Baath govt calling for National Front and
            coalition govt

Jul 29 Baath had Defense Minister Daud visit Jordan so that party could take control of
            military while he was out of the country

Jul 30 Pres Bakr accused Def Min Daud and PM Naif of attempting to take over the
            govt
Jul 30 Pres Bakr had PM Naif arrested and became Ambassador to Morocco Baath then
            purged govt of opponents
Jul 30 Pres Bakr became prime minister and commander and chief of armed forces
            consolidating his power

Aug 2 Iraq announced it would seek better ties with Soviet Union and China

Aug 5 Pres Bakr govt announced amnesty for KDP rebels Reconciliation attempt by new
            Bakr govt with Kurds

Aug 12 New Baath government of Pres Bakr said it was committed to uniting Iraq
            and Egypt

Aug 26 Mulla Barzani had his two ministers resign from Bakr govt because Baath was
            backing Jalal Talabani

Aug 30 Pres Bakr shut down Iraqi offices of Arab Socialist Union and ended Iraq-Egypt
            union plans

Sep 21 Provisional constitution drafted by three jurists and presented to Pres. Bakr
            Included return of parliament

Oct 1 Govt and KDP re-start fighting

Oct 3 Soviet Union called for negotiations between Baghdad and KDP rebels

1969
Jan 3 Pres Bakr launched new offensive against KDP

Jan 7 14 hung in Baghdad after show trial over alleged Israeli spy ring uncovered by
            Saddam

Jan 24 Former MP Bajari during spy trial claimed opposition leaders were trying
            to overthrow Pres Bakr’s govt

Mar 1 KDP launched offensive against Bakr govt

Apr 10 1st Spring Festival held in Mosul to highlight ancient Iraqi history as part of
            Baath campaign to create unified national identity

Apr 15 Iraq complained to Iranian Ambassador that Tehran violating 1937 agreement
over navigation of Shatt al-Arab Iran was sending ships down waterway with military escorts without paying fees Complaint was taken as a threat by Iran

Apr 16 Shah unilaterally voided 1937 treaty over Shatt al-Arab which wasn’t legal Iraq
took issue to UN Iran refused to go to court over matter probably knowing that it would lose Shah decided to give military support to Kurds to put political pressure on Pres Bakr over waterway

Apr 19 Iraq began expelling Shiites claiming they were Iranian nationals in response to
Shah voiding 1937 Shatt al-Arab treaty Started backing Iran dissident group Claimed Khuzistan as part of Iraq

Apr 22 After Shah voided 1937 border treaty with Iraq Iran sailed ship down Shatt al-
Arab waterway in violation of treaty Iraq retaliated by expelling 10,000 Iranians

Apr 29 Iraq condemned Shah of Iran for unilaterally ending 1937 border treaty over
            Shatt al-Arab waterway

May 1 Iraq became 1st Arab country to recognize East Germany as part of alliance
            with Soviet Union

May 12 Dispute over Shatt al-Arab discussed at UN after Iran protested Iraq expelling
            10,000 Iranians

May 23 Pres Bakr offered self-determination to Kurds

Jun 28 Baath created Dohuk province as part of 1966 June Declaration on Kurdish rights

Jul 4 Iraq signed technical agreement with Soviets to help with oil

1970
Jan 20 Failed military coup against Pres Bakr led by ex-Gen Rawi and Col Samarraie
backed by Iran Tehran expelled Iraq’s ambassador, military attache and four embassy staff over failed coup Shah was opposed to Baathism’s Pan-Arabism and socialism He moved troops to border causing a war scare

Jan 21 Pres Bakr announced failed coup by army officers and a special tribunal would
            try the plotters Accused Iran of supporting coup
Jan 21 Imam Khomeini started lectures in Najaf outlining his concept of vilayat
            al-faqih

Jan 22 3 coup plotters executed by Pres Bakr govt
Jan 22 Iraq expelled Iranian ambassador accusing Tehran of backing 1970 failed coup

Jan 23 33 conspirators in coup against Pres Bakr executed

Jan 24 42 sentenced to death for coup plot against Pres Bakr

Feb 2 Iraq went to UN over Shah placing troops on border after coup he backed vs Pres
            Bakr failed

Feb 3 Iraq went to Turkey to help mediate crisis with Shah of Iran Tehran suggested both
            sides withdraw forces from border as neither wanted war ending problem

Mar 3 Committee created for economic cooperation between Iraq and Soviet Union

Mar 11 Bakr govt offered Kurds autonomy agreement Included self-rule under a local
council, elected assembly, recognized Kurdish language as equal to Arabic and promoted Kurdish culture Since 1968 some 60,000 had died in Kurdish rebellion 300,000 displaced

Mar 23 Communist leader in Baghdad Khadri found shot in street Baathists suspected

Apr 3 Defense Minister Tikriti and Interior Minister Ammash named co-VPs under Pres
            Bakr to try to end rivalry between two for power

Apr 20 Bakr govt restored citizenship to Patriach of Assyrian community

May 21 Pres Bakr issued Agrarian Reform Law to increase living conditions for peasants
            and increase farm production

Jul 16 2nd provisional constitution issued by Pres Bakr

Jul 20 Pres Bakr attacked Communists for not accepting Baathist leadership in govt

Aug 4 Saddam visited Soviet Union and asked for debt relief

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

Sep 1 Iraq said it supported Palestinians when Jordanian govt attacked them

1971
Mar 20 Ex-Defense Minister and VP Tikrit assassinated in Kuwait by Bakr govt

May 31 Nixon went to Tehran Shah asked U.S. help to aid Kurds against Baghdad
            leading to covert CIA operation

1972
Jan 11 Kurds started rebellion against govt with support of US, Iran, Israel

Jan 13 Bakr govt said it would take power away from Iraq Petroleum Company

Feb 28 Iraq Petroleum Company came to terms with Baghdad over nationalization
            including compensation

Jun 18 Iraq allowed French to keep their share of Iraq Petroleum Company in return for
            technical aid to run oil industry

Apr 7 Soviet PM Kosygin inaugurated Russian company’s production at North Rumaila
            oil field

Apr 9 Pres Bakr signed 15 yr treaty of friendship with Soviet Union

May 14 Baath brought Communists into govt after Iraq-Soviet 15 year Friendship Treaty

May 17 Oil Ministry took hardline with Iraq Petroleum Company in 1st move towards
            nationalization

Jun 1 Pres Bakr with Public Law 69 nationalized Iraq Petroleum Company Created
            Iraq National Oil Company 

Oct 1 U.S. opened Interests Section in Baghdad after diplomatic relations were ended in
            1967

1973
Mar 20 Kuwait sent troops to try to expel Iraq building base on its territory leading to
            gunfight 3 killed

Mar 22 Kuwait demanded Iraq withdraw its troops from its territory after gunfight on
            Mar 20 Iraq refused

Apr 28 Iraq offered to talk with Kuwait over border dispute

May 5 Kuwait agreed to Iraqi offer to discuss border dispute

May 17 Iraq rejected border agreement with Kuwait saying it was never ratified by Iraqi
            constitution

Jun 30 Failed coup attempted by Nadhim Kazzar member of Baath security services
            against Pres Bakr

Jul 7 Govt announced coup plotters within Baath Party had been found guilty and 
            executed
Jul 7 Baath Regional Congress expanded membership to accommodate Saddam
            supporters

Jul 8 More high level Baath members put on trial for role in failed 1973 coup plot
            Some already executed Jul 7

Jul 17 Baath created National Progressive Front with Communists
Jul 17 Pres Bakr claimed govt had implemented most of autonomy plan for Kurds but
            Kurds were undermining it

Aug 22 Sheikh Jabir al-Sabah visited Iraq and again offered to talk about border Iraq-
            Kuwait dispute Iraq demanded 2 islands from Kuwait which it refused to do

1974
Jan 7 Baath Party congress organized by Saddam called for one party state

Jan 17 Bakr govt held talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP

Feb 10 Border dispute between Iran-Iraq led to gunfight killing 23 Iraqis 30 Iranians

Feb 12 Iran-Iraq border dispute discussed at UN after firefight UN got Iran and Iraq to
            agree to talks to resolve border dispute

Mar 9 Bakr govt told Kurds had two days to accept government’s autonomy plan
Mar 9 Kurds objected to autonomy plan because didn't include Kirkuk Sinjar Khanaqin
            and wanted new census Bakr said no

Mar 11 After talks with KDP broke down Pres Bakr announced Autonomy Law for
Kurdistan would be implemented despite KDP rejecting it

Mar 12 KDP restarted rebellion after talks with Bagdad broke down

Apr 11 Govt executed 11 KDP members in Irbil during Kurdish rebellion

Apr 12 Iraqi planes bombed KDP bases during Kurdish rebellion

Apr 24 Iraqi planes bombed Qala Diza during Kurdish rebellion killing 130

May 21 UN Sec Gen said Iran and Iraq agreed to withdraw forces and open talks over
            border disputes

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

1975
Mar 6 Iraq Iran Algeria foreign ministers met and signed Algiers Agreement to settle
            Iran-Iraq border issues

Mar 7 Iran and Iraq came to agreement over Shatt al-Arab and Iran said it would stop
            supporting Kurdish revolt
Mar 7 Iraqi army moved into Kurdistan after Iran withdrew support for Kurds under
            Algiers Agreement

Mar 9 Shah announced Algiers Agreement over border with Iraq

Mar 10 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council and Regional Command of Baath Party
            ratified Algiers Agreement with Iran
Mar 10 Mustafa Barzani sent letter to Kissinger saying that Kurds were being
            destroyed by Iraqi govt and asked for US help

Mar 13 KDP announced ceasefire with Baghdad after Iran said it would stop giving it aid
            Following Algiers Agreement

Mar 16 Iraqi forces launched new offensive against Kurds

Mar 17 Iraq and Iran Foreign Ministers signed agreement to create three committees to
            resolve outstanding issues
Mar 17 US Sec State Kissinger responded to Barzani saying that US understood struggle
            Kurds were facing

Mar 22 Iran ended military aid to KDP

Mar 23 Mustafa Barzani and around 100,000 KDP members left Iraq for Iran ending
            Kurdish revolt

Mar 26 Iranian premier visited Baghdad and laid out steps to implement Algiers
            Agreement

Apr 1 Iraq amnesty offer to Kurdish rebels and army deserters expired
Apr 1 Iran closed border to Kurds fleeing Iraqi government offensive against them

Apr 2 Iraq army sealed border with Iran and declared Kurdish revolt over

May 2 Govt troops put down KDP rebellion Mustafa Barzani and 150,000 Kurds fled to
Iran 1972-75 some 17,000 killed 280,000 displaced during Kurdish rebellion

May 22 PUK formed when Maosit Komala led by Nirshurwan Mustafa social democratic
            Bezutnawa led by Ali Askari and KDP’s Talabani joined

Jun 1 PUK announced its formation and date celebrated as anniversary even though party
            created in May

Jun 6 Shah, Pres Bakr and Algerian Pres Bunidan met to discuss Iran-Iraq border issues

Jun 7 Iran-Iraq agreed on Shatt al-Arab border, Shah would stop arming Kurdish revolt
            neither would support opponents of each other

Jun 13 Iran-Iraq signed Reconciliation Treaty to resolve border issues

Jul 2 Iraq and Saudi Arabia agreed to divide neutral zone set up between two countries by
            British after WWI to set new border

Jul 17 Pres Bakr on 7th anniversary of Baath coup said Iraq would reach out to Gulf
            countries to improve relations

Sep 17 Iran and Iraq ratified border treaty between two

1976
May 10 New Kurdish rebellion led by PUK started Backed by Soviet Union, Syria, Iran,
            Libya

Aug 12 Soviet-Iraq arms deal announced worth over $1 bil included 600 T-62s and T-64
tanks, 100 Mig-23s, SAM-6 and SCUD missiles and more Also included giving Russia secret access to Iraqi air bases

1977
Feb 5 Dawa party turned pilgrimage to Karbala into anti-Baath protests Army called out
            Pres Bakr blamed Syria

Feb 6 Bak govt put down Shiite protests killing 16 and arresting around 2000 Ayatollah
            Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim and others arrested

Mar 22 Baath Regional Command kicked out members who wanted leniency after
            anti-govt riots during Karbala pilgrimage

1978
Sep 24 In Iran-Iraq deal Iraqi troops surround Imam Khomeini’s house in Najaf Told he
            could only stay in Iraq if abandoned politics

Oct 1 Revolutionary Command Council directive said it would work to get Arab League
            to reject Camp David Accord peace deal between Egypt and Israel

Oct 5 Foreign Minister went to Damascus to discuss uniting Iraq and Syria

Oct 24 Pres Assad visited Baghdad to talk about unification Issued Declaration of a
            National Pact

Nov 2 Arab summit held in Baghdad VP Saddam worked to expel Egypt for Camp
David Accord with Israel Move was supported by Syria Pres Bakr said Iraq and Syria had to deal with Egypt-Israeli peace deal as one country causing controversy in Syria

1979
Feb 4 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr began Islam Guides to Life series that outlined
            his ideas on Islamic political system

Feb 11 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr declared 3 day holiday for Najaf hawza after
            Iranian Revolution

Feb 12 Iraq recognized the new revolutionary government in Iran

Feb 13 Iraq sent memo to new provisional govt in Iran after revolution asking for
            Friendly relations

Mar 1 KDP leader Mustafa Barzani died in US where he went for medical treatment for
            lung cancer

Mar 26 Iraq hosted anti-Sadat meeting to oppose new Egypt-Israel peace treaty

Mar 27 Saddam told Baath meeting that Iraq was going to get a nuclear weapon with help
of Soviets to deter Israel Said having an atomic bomb would be a trump card in next Arab-Israeli war
Mar 27 Saddam discussed with advisers how to punish countries that backed Sadat’s
            peace treaty with Israel

Apr 15 Pres Bakr welcomed announcement of Islamic Republic in Iran and again
            Asked for good relations Invited PM Bazargan to Baghdad

May 22 Start of 9 days of protests in Iraq led by Dawa

Jun 10 Saddam gave Pres Bakr list of notables to be executed including army officers
            Bakr said no and was put under house arrest by Saddam

Jun 12 Govt put down 9 days of Dawa led protests capped off by arresting Ayatollah
            Baqir al-Sadr leading to protests in Iraq Lebanon UAE Britain France

Jun 24 Pres Assad arrived in Baghdad for more talks on unifying Iraq and Syria Came up
with United Arab Republic Disagreed about details leading Assad to depart and no further talks held

Jul 11 Pres Bakr resigned from the Revolutionary Command Council citing health
            Saddam took over chairmanship of council

BAATH-SADDAM ERA

Jul 12 Saddam elected new president and head of Regional Command Council of
            the Baath Party Izzat al-Dhuri elected new vice president
Jul 12 Revolutionary Command Council member Muhyi al-Din Abdul al-Hussein
            Mashadi objected saying Bakr should have been persuaded to stay in office
Jul 12 Saddam had Mashadi arrested

Jul 16 Saddam’s election to presidency made public
Jul 16 Nouri al-Maliki fled Iraq after his membership in Dawa Party was discovered by
            govt

Jul 17 Public celebrations held for Saddam’s election to presidency
Jul 17 Saddam called for Iraqi-Iranian friendship after Iranian Revolution

Jul 18 Saddam told Revolutionary Command Council Muhyi Hussin Mashadi
and four current and former ministers were involved in Syrian backed coup
Were put on trial and sentenced to death

Jul 22 Saddam videotaped speech at parliament accusing Baath members of  Syrian
            backed coup Most were executed 2 wks later

Aug 8 5 members of Revolutionary Command Council expelled and 16 members
            executed as opponents of Saddam

Sep 24 Iraq warned Iran to not to interfere in Bahrain after Ayatollah Khomeini’s son
            called on Shiites to rise up against their Sunni rulers

1980
Apr 1 Mustansiriya Univ in Baghdad bombed by Islamic Action Organization in
            attempt on life of Dep PM Tariq Aziz

Apr 5 Bomb hit funeral procession in Baghdad of Mustansiriya bombing victims

Aug 5 Saddam went to Saudi Arabia to discuss Iranian threat to region before invasion

Sep 4 Iran shelled Khanaqin and Mandali in Diyala and bombed two other border
            towns

Sep 7 Iraq officially protested to Iran about shelling border towns Seized Zain
            Al-Qas in retaliation

Sep 8 Iraq demanded Iran surrender border towns that Iraq claimed

Sep 10 Iraq seized Saif Saad, Iran disputed town Iraq claimed Next two weeks were
            15 border incidents between two countries mostly in Basra

Sep 11 Iraq sent protest letter to Iran saying border incidents violated international law
and if they continued situation could escalate quickly Iraq said it would defend itself

Sep 17 Saddam gave TV speech Said Iran violated 1975 Algiers Treaty was backing
Kurds refused to return Iraqi territory Saddam then abrogated the 1949 Treaty of Good Relations and 1975 Algiers Treaty Also claimed sovereignty over Shatt al-Arab waterway
Sep 17 Heavy fighting broke out between Iraqi and Iranian forces in Shatt al-Arab

Sep 21 Iraq letter to UN outlining steps it took to try to work out outstanding issues with
            new revolutionary govt in Iran

IRAN-IRAQ WAR

Sep 22 Iraq invaded Iran started Iran-War War Iraq wanted to protect Kirkuk and
            Baghdad while seizing Khuzistan province in south Iran
Sep 22 Iraq started war by bombing 10 Iranian airfields hoping to destroy its air force but
failed Iraqi army crossed into Iran along 8 routes Attacked Pankwin to protect Sulaymaniya and Kirkuk Seized Qasr-e-Shirin to block road to Baghdad Took Meghan and reached Zagros Mountains to protect flank of southern thrust into Khuzistan 4 iraqi divisions attacked Khuzistan province taking Musian and moving on Dezful, Ahvaz, Shatt al-Arab, Khormashahr, Abadan
Sep 22 Iraq declared Khuzistan a new Iraqi province
Sep 22 UK Defense Committee discussed how to start selling weapons to Iraq during war

Sep 23 Iraqi forces took Mehran, Iran Tehran bombed targets in Iraq in retaliation

Sep 24 Iranian navy attacked Basra and Fao Peninsula Destroyed 2 Iraqi oil terminals
            limiting Baghdad’s exports
Sep 24 Iran put up naval blockade on Shatt al-Araba waterway

Sep 25 Iraq began attacking Dezful, Ahvaz, Khorramshahr in Khuzistan province
Sep 25 Iraq shelled Abadan refinery largest in world Iran retaliated with air raids on Iraqi
oil fields in Basra Zubayr Mosul Kirkuk

Sep 26 Saddam sent letter to UN trying to explain why Iran-Iraq War started Claimed
            Iran refused to recognize Iraqi territory and sovereignty
Sep 26 Muslim countries set up committee to try to mediate war
Sep 26 Iran and Iraq temporarily stopped oil shipments due to attacks on each others’
            facilities

Sep 27 Muslim countries’ committee sent delegation to Tehran to try to end Iran-Iraq
            War

Sep 28 1st time UN Security Council discussed Iran-Iraq War Iraq’s UN ambassador
            blamed Iran for war saying it violated treaties and attacked Iraqi territory
Sep 28 UN Resolution 479 called for ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War Rejected by Iran
Sep 28 Muslim countries’ committee visited Tehran to try to mediate end to war
Sep 28 Saddam offered ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War if Iran accepted Iraq’s gains
Sep 28 Saddam said he wanted Iran to recognize its territory water rights non-aggression
            and non interference in internal affairs
Sep 28 Soviet Tass news agency criticized Iraq invading Iran as undermining national
            liberation movements in Middle East

Sep 30 Iranian air force launched Operation Scorch Sword attacking Iraq’s Osirak nuclear
            facility Only caused minimal damage
Sep 30 Iraqi forces stopped outside Dezful, Ahvas and Abadan in Khuzistan province
Sep 30 Soviet leader Bezhnev said Iran and Iraq were both friends of the USSR Two
            needed to negotiate end to war
Sep 30 Ayatollah Khomeini refused all talks with Iraq to end war
Sep 30 US State Dept told Italy’s Foreign Ministry that USSR turned down request by
            Iraq for additional military equipment

Oct 1 Iranian President Bani Sadr sent letter to UN saying Iraq started war Claimed Iraq
violated 1975 Algiers Treaty, sent agents into Iran to carry out sabotage, supported anti-revolutionary groups, expelled 40,000 Iraqis with joint Persian citizenship showing that Baghdad was hostile towards Tehran Said Iran not ready to follow UN calls for a ceasefire

Oct 3 Ayatollah Khomeini speech said goal of war was to punish the Baah and rejected
            negotiations to end it
Oct 3 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi presented Iraq’s case to UN claiming it acted in
            self-defense

Oct 4 Iraq announced unilateral ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War but Iran didn’t comply

Oct 5 Iraq ended unilateral ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War after Iran didn’t follow suite and
            went back to fighting

Oct 15 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi presented Iraq’s case to UN claiming it acted in
            self-defense

Oct 17 UN Security Council discussed Iran-Iraq War Iran’s
Oct 17 Iran’s Premier Mohammed addressed the Council saying Iraq was the aggressor in
the war Claimed Saddam wanted to overthrow the revolution Claimed Iraq backed by superpowers, Saudis, Egypt, Jordan and Morocco
Oct 17 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi addressed Council accusing Iran of violating
Algiers Accord blamed Iran for border incidents noted Iraq sent several letters to Tehran calling for talks which were ignored
Oct 17 Security Council endorsed Secretary General’s efforts to negotiate ceasefire

Oct 26 Iraq fired missiles at Dezful, Iran for 2nd day
Oct 26 Most of the Iranian forces driven out of Khorramshahr, Iran by Iraqi army
Oct 26 Soviet news agency accused Iraq of aligning with U.S. in Iran-Iraq War
Oct 26 Iran objected to Iraq abrogating 1975 Algiers Agreement in letter to UN Claimed
            Iran still following agreement and it was Baghdad that violated it

Nov 11 Iraq sent letter to Iran saying that Baghdad was still following the 1975 Algiers
            Accord and Tehran was the one violating it

Nov 26 Iraq sent letter to the UN complaining that Iran was violating the 1975 Algiers
            Accord on the Shatt al-Arab while Baghdad was still following it

1981
Jan 25 Islamic Conference Organization created group to try to mediate end to Iran-Iraq
            War

Feb 28 Islamic Conference Organization delegation arrived in Iran Tehran said it wanted
aggressor in the war to be determined and punished and full withdrawal from Iranian territory
Feb 28 Speaker Rafsanjani later told Islamic Conference that he was sure Iran would win
            war so Tehran didn’t want negotiated settlement

Mar 1 Islamic Conference Organization group met with Ayatollah Khomeini He asked for
judgement on who was the aggressor in the war and wanted a plebiscite in Iraq to see whether the people wanted Saddam as their leader

Mar 2 Islamic Conference Organization delegation met with Saddam and his cabinet
Saddam said he wanted a ceasefire and wanted to now what Khomeini’s position was

Mar 3 Islamic Conference Organization group went back to Tehran to present its peace
            plan

Mar 6 Iran rejected Islamic Conference peace offer and demanded it determine
            aggressor in the war

Aug 6 Cuba China India Zambia PLO send delegation to Tehran to try to end Iran-Iraq
            War

Oct 22 UN backed Islamic Conference Organization’s attempt to end war

1982
Aug 1 Iraq announced exclusion zone around Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal
            would attack any ships that entered
Aug 1 Dawa bombed Planning Ministry in Baghdad

Aug 2 Iran ended Operation Ramadan attempt to take Basra with very little gains but
            large losses

1983
Aug 9 Iran’s Op Dawn 3 to recapture Mehran, Iran failed

1984
Aug 8 Germany announced restrictions on sale of chemical manufacturing equipment
            to Iraq after reports used to make WMD

1985
Aug 14 Iraq started air campaign against Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal Air strikes
would reduce capacity at facility by 1/3 forcing Iran to move most of its shipping south out of range of Iraqi jets

Aug 16 Iraq claimed it destroyed Iran’s main oil terminal at Kharg Island but only
            damaged it

1986
Aug 2 Saddam offered peace agreement to Iran Was rejected by Tehran

Aug 3 Saddam issued 4 point peace plan to end Iran-Iraq War Iran rejected it

Aug 4 VP Bush used Egyptian Pres Mubarak to pass message to Iraq that it should
            expand air campaign against Iran in Iran-Iraq War

Aug 6 Iraq air strike hit 5 of Iran’s 11 tankers at Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal

Aug 12 Iraq air strike hit Iran’s main oil terminal in Sirri Island Iraq got air support
            from either Kuwait or Saudis

Aug 13 US State Department said Iraq was trying to negotiate peace but Iran-Iraq War
            continuing because of Iran

1987
Jan 26 Islamic Conference Organization invited Iran and Iraq to summit in Kuwait Iran
            said no
Jan 26 UN Secretary General de Cuella addressed Islamic Conference Organization
            saying aggressor in Iran-Iraq War needed to be determined

Apr 26 Jordan and Saudis arranged meeting between Saddam and Syria’s Assad

Apr 27 Syria agreed to stop backing Iraqi Kurds, both would not others’ opposition,
            would have further meetings

Jul 23 Iraq Foreign Minister Aziz wrote UN saying Iraq welcomed ceasefire proposal UN
            Resolution 598

Aug 10 Iraq began bombing campaign against Iran’s Tabriz oil field Iran said it would
            make Persian Gulf a killing field

Aug 11 Iran told UN that Resolution 598 only included Iraq’s view of war

Aug 17 Iraq told UN it wouldn’t accept any changes to Resolution 598

1988
Aug 2 Iraq bombed Oshnaviyah, Iran with mustard gas wounding 2,680 people 18 days
before cease-fire accepted with Iran

Aug 6 Saddam said he would accept ceasefire to end Iran-Iraq if Iran would hold direct
talks Iran said no Saddam was trying to add his own demands to UN ceasefire proposal

Aug 7 Iran accepted ceasefire and direct talks with Iraq after implemented in Iran-Iraq
            War
Aug 7 Iraq Interior Minister Wahab visited Kuwait to talk about resolving border
            between two countries

Aug 8 UN said ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War would start Aug 20 effectively ending the war

Aug 9 Iraq held victory celebrations for end of Iran-Iraq War

Aug 12 Pres Khamenei speech claimed Iran won Iran-Iraq War

Sep 22 Pres Khomeini addressed UN condemning it for never doing anything about
            Iraq’s aggression during the war

1990
Aug 1 Iraq walked out on talks with Kuwait held in Saudi Arabia
Aug 1 Kuwait offered to cancel Iraq’s oil debts worth $14-$15 bil and lease Werba
            Island
Aug 1 Kuwait and Saudis offered to pay $10 bil to Iraq for ending dispute Iraq
            said no and demanded $27 bil

INVASION OF KUWAIT

Aug 2 Saddam invaded Kuwait claiming opposition Provisional Free Kuwait Govt asked
            for help against ruling Sabah family
Aug 2 Iraq said it would only be in Kuwait for days-weeks until Provisional
            Free Kuwait Govt asked it to leave
Aug 2 Iraq accused Kuwait of being involved in foreign and Zionist plots
Aug 2 Most of Arab world did not report on Iraq’s Kuwait invasion until 2 days
            later
Aug 2 US stopped loan guarantees to Iraq due to Kuwait invasion
Aug 2 UN Resolution 660 demanded Iraq’s immediate withdrawal from Kuwait
Aug 2 Iraq banned foreign travel for its nationals

Aug 3 Iraq moved troops to Kuwait-Saudi border
Aug 3 Amnesty International said Iraqi army had arrested Iraqi exiles in Kuwait
Aug 3 Arab League said it would mediate dispute between Iraq and Kuwait after
            invasion

Aug 4 Joint statement by US and Soviet Union condemned Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
            and called for withdrawal
Aug 4 European Community imposed sanctions on Iraq for invasion of Kuwait
Aug 4 Iraq announced Provisional Government of Free Kuwait
Aug 4 King Hussein said Saddam was a patriot and wanted good Jordan-Iraq
            relations

Aug 5 Pres Bush said Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait would not stand
Aug 5 Bush ordered CIA to come up with covert plan to overthrow Saddam

Aug 6 UN Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq for its invasion of
            Kuwait
Aug 6 King Fahd invited US troops to Saudi Arabia after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait

Aug 7 Iraq declared Kuwait a republic
Aug 7 Saddam gave victory speech for invading Kuwait Said Kuwait’s al-Sabahs didn't
stand with masses but foreigners and got what they deserved Talked about a new day for Arabs
Aug 7 Saddam told aides that he didn’t fear war with US because all they would do is
            bomb and rally Arab world behind Iraq
Aug 7 Bush announced Operation Desert Shield to deploy US troops to Saudi Arabia

Aug 8 Iraq announced merger of Kuwait and Iraq 
Aug 8 Pres Bush said a line had been drawn in the sand at the Saudi-Kuwait border to
            stop anymore Iraqi advances

Aug 9 US forces arrived in Saudi Arabia to protect it from Iraq after invasion of Kuwait
Aug 9 UN Resolution 662 said that Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait was illegal
Aug 9 Turkey and Saudi Arabia closed pipelines to Iraq due to Kuwait invasion

Aug 10 Arab League split over Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait

Aug 12 Saddam said all occupations should end including Israel-Palestine and
            Syria-Lebanon to stave off criticism of Kuwait invasion
Aug 12 Were marches in Amman and Mafraq, Jordan, Sanaa in Yemen, Sidon in Lebanon
            in support of Iraq and Saddam after Kuwait invasion

Aug 15 Iraqi opposition in Iran claimed they could field 50,000 to fight Saddam
Aug 15 Iraq offered to fully implement UN Resolution 598 that ended Iran-Iraq War and
restore Shatt al-Arab Algiers Agreement to try to win favor with Iran while facing international criticism for invading Kuwait

Aug 18 Saddam said foreign workers and visitors could not leave Iraq after Kuwait
            invasion
Aug 18 UN Resolution 664 demanded Iraq release foreign nationals it held

1991

GULF WAR

Jan 17 Operation Desert Storm started to expel Iraq from Kuwait US led Coalition began
            air campaign against Iraq

Aug 4 Baath ordered property in Kirkuk to be given to Arabs and building over 2700
            new homes for them

Aug 6 Iraq told UN weapons inspectors that it worked on anthrax and botulin toxin as
            part of its biological weapons program

Aug 15 UN Resolution 706 proposed Iraq import petroleum products to alleviate
            humanitarian situation caused by sanctions Iraq rejected plan
Aug 15 UN Resolution 707 said Iraq was in flagrant violation of weapons inspectors 

1992
Aug 2 Kuwait and Saudi officials argued that Iraq should be divided along
            ethnosectarian lines to stop threat of country to Persian Gulf

Aug 10 Govt curfew in Najaf to try to stop march after death of Ayatollah Khoei

Aug 11 U.N. Iraq Rapporteur went to Security Council about Iraq draining southern
            marshes and new counterinsurgency campaign against rebels in south
Aug 11 UK France US condemned Iraq campaign to clear southern marshes and warned
            of possible consequences

1995
Aug 7 Hussein and Saddam Kamal Saddam’s cousins and sons in law defect to Jordan
            with their wives, Saddam’s daughters Hussein ran Iraq’s WMD programs

Aug 8 Iraq claimed Hussein Kamal responsible for hiding weapons programs from UN
            inspectors after he defected to Jordan
Aug 8 Iraq admitted that it weaponized biological weapons to UN inspectors

Aug 11 Saddam gave speech denouncing son-in-law Hussein Kamal for defecting to
            Jordan
Aug 11 Ali Hassan al-Majid issued statement saying Hussein Kamal was a traitor for
            defecting to Jordan

Aug 12 Saddam’s son-in-law Hussein Kamal held news conference in Jordan saying he
            would overthrow Saddam after defecting

Aug 15 Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq denounced Jordan taking in
            Saddam’s son-in-law Hussein Kamal calling him a murderer

1996
Aug 8 UN agreed to plan for Oil For Food Program

1998
Aug 5 Iraq stopped cooperating with UN weapons inspectors and demanded changes to
sanctions

Aug 14 Iraq found violating UN sanctions by smuggling oil

Aug 24 US intelligence claimed Iraq was involved in Al Qaeda chemical plant Clinton
administration bombed in Sudan Cited phone calls to head of Iraq’s chemical weapons program

Sep 17 Italian paper said Iraq offered bin Laden safe haven

1999
Jan 1 French paper claimed in 1998 Iraqis offered bin Laden safe haven

Feb 18 Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr assassinated by Saddam
(Musings On Iraq interview with Unif of Haifa’s Prof Amatzia Baram on the legacy of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr)

Apr 13 CIA had four reports that Iraq offered safe haven to bin Laden

2000
Aug 17 Iraq reopened Saddam International Airport to get around UN sanctions

2001
Aug 1 Paper on increasing pressure on Saddam and supporting Iraqi opposition
            presented to US National Security Council

Aug 15 UK Foreign Office legal adviser Sir Wood said that British forces could be sued
            if not given legal basis for going to war with Iraq

Aug 17 US Energy Dep report said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were probably for
            rockets not centrifuges for nuclear weapons program

2002
Jun 21 CIA report on Iraq-Al Qaeda relationship Said two had contacts but no
            cooperation

Jul 22 DIA told to start making secret intelligence briefings to Rumsfeld on Iraq-Al
            Qaeda ties by Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas Feith

Aug 1 Senate Foreign Relations Committee began hearings on possible postwar Iraq
            scenarios
Aug 1 Iraq invited Chief UN Inspector Blix to Baghdad for talks about new inspection
            regime

Aug 4 Under Secretary of Defense for Arms Control Bolton told BBC US didn’t care
            whether new UN inspections happened because goal was regime change in Iraq
Aug 4 Former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft came out against invading Iraq

Aug 5 Secretary of State Powell told Bush that Iraq invasion would dominate 1st term and
US would be responsible for Iraq afterward Said US had to go through UN to disarm Iraq

Aug 7 VP Cheney said he was skeptical UN inspectors would find anything in Iraq Said
            Iraq could get a nuclear bomb soon

Aug 8 House Majority Leader Armey said that if US didn’t have provocation it would
            not have international support for action vs Iraq

Aug 9 Defense Policy Board member Richard Perle said that removing Saddam would
            lead to more peaceful and stable Middle East

Aug 12 Iraq invasion plans leaked to Time Supported Rumsfeld’s ideas of a small force
            or supporting an Iraqi revolt

Aug 15 National Security Adviser Rice said US needed to launch pre-emptive strike
            against Iraq before it got too strong
Aug 15 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office briefed CIA officials on its
            findings that Iraq and Al Qaeda had cooperated for years
Aug 15 1st President Bush’s National Security Adviser Scowcroft wrote Wall St
            Journal OpEd saying Saddam not threat to US and not connected to 9/11

Aug 16 US decided Bush would go to UN to present case against Iraq
Aug 16 Member of Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office claimed its
Aug 15 briefing convinced CIA Director Tenet to reconsider Iraq-Al Qaeda relationship Tenet denied that saying the briefing had provided nothing new CIA’s intelligence said Iraq and Al Qaeda had connections but no cooperation which Feith’s office claimed

Sep 16 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office briefed VP Cheney’s chief of
staff Libby and Deputy National Security Adviser Hadley on findings that Iraq and Al Qaeda had long standing relationship and cooperation

Sep 19 CIA received new intelligence that Iraq might have offered training to Al
            Qaeda and safe haven to bin Laden in 1990s Reports later proved false

Sep 25 National Security Adviser Rice said there had been important Iraq-Al Qaeda
            contacts

Oct 7 Bush speech said Iraq great threat because of WMD and its history of aggression       Said if Iraq got enriched uranium could have a nuclear bomb in less than a year
Oct 7 Bush speech said Al Qaeda and Iraq were united in their hatred for the US and had
high level contracts for a decade Claimed Iraq trained Al Qaeda in bomb making and poisons and Saddam celebrated 9/11
Oct 7 CIA blocked Bush from talking about Iraq trying to buy uranium from Africa in
            speech
Oct 7 Italian contacted journalist about providing her with Iraq-Niger uranium deal
            papers They turned out to be fakes
Oct 7 CIA Director Tenet sent letter to Senate Intelligence Committee Said Iraq wouldn’t
            conduct terrorist or WMD attacks upon US unless regime was threatened
Oct 7 CIA Director Tenet letter to Senate said there were high level contacts between Iraq
and Al Qaeda Al Qaeda sought training from Iraq Also claimed there were Al Qaeda operatives in Iraq
Oct 7 Intelligence officials complained to press that White House claims of Iraq-Al Qaeda
            ties were exaggerated

2003

Jan 28 Bush’s State of the Union said Iraq wasn’t disarming and was hiding its WMD
programs from UN inspectors and that Saddam was harboring Al Qaeda members
Jan 28 UK Foreign Secretary Straw told Foreign Office legal adviser Wood that he didn’t
            think 2nd UN resolution was necessary for action vs Iraq
Jan 28 ORHA head Garner met with NSC’s Zalimay who said goal of postwar Iraq should
            be getting Iraqis to govern as soon as possible

Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet testified to Senate Armed Services Committee Said Iraq had
larger WMD program then before Gulf War Warned Iraq would get a nuclear weapon sooner or later and would have missiles to deliver it
Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet told Senate US had briefed UN on all suspected WMD sites In
            reality didn’t provide information on 21 of 105 sites
Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet told Senate there were Iraq-Al Qaeda contacts but no
            command and control

IRAQ INVASION

Mar 20 Shock and Awe bombing campaign started US invasion of Iraq with air strikes
            on Baghdad

COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY ERA

Apr 21 Coalition Provisional Government created to take over running postwar Iraq
            replacing Organization for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance

May 1 Pres Bush gave Mission Accomplished speech declaring victory against Iraq

May 6 Bush announced Paul Bremer as head of new Coalition Provisional Authority
            to run postwar Iraq

May 9 US and England draft resolution to UN to make them occupying powers in Iraq

Aug 1 Senate held hearing on postwar Iraq Sen Biden warned that unless US
            gained support it could spend $70-$80 bil rebuilding Iraq
Aug 1 New US training program to rebuild Iraq’s army began
Aug 1 After trip to Iraq Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz said most Iraqis glad US
liberated them from Saddam US commanders rejected more troops to help secure Iraq Iraq could pay for its own reconstruction using oil and frozen assets Invading Iraq was crucial to fight international terrorism Invasion of Iraq and creating democracy could be start of transforming entire Middle East

Aug 5 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld announced US forces had been finding buried Iraqi
            fighter jets in desert Explained why Iraqi air force didn't fight during invasion
(Musings On Iraq article on why Iraq buried its jets before the 2003 invasion)
Aug 5 Rumsfeld said “Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence” about Iraq’s
            WMD not being found yet
Aug 5 Rumsfeld said death of Uday and Qusay Hussein showed Iraq that Baathists not
            returning to power

Aug 6 US Iraq commander Gen Sanchez said he would arrests and raids looking for
            Baathists Said few returns and angering Iraqis

Aug 7 National Security Adviser Rice said Saddam was a threat to the US and world
Aug 7 White House said because Bush used Iraq-Africa uranium deal in State of Union
            rest of govt started repeating it
Aug 7 Zarqawi bombed Jordanian embassy in Baghdad killing 17 wounding 40

Aug 8 IAEA Found no Iraqi nuclear weapons program after 1991

Aug 9 3 US army battalions added to 1st Battle of Najaf
Aug 9 CPA head Paul Bremer said Ansar al-Islam escaped to Iran during invasion and
            were now returning to Iraq to carry out terrorist attacks
Aug 9 Protests in Basra over lack of electricity Threw rocks at British troops
Aug 9 Mass robberies of oil tankers in Basra Police fled their stations Left Czech &
            British troops to try to stop looting Fired on thieves 2 killed 4 wounded
Aug 9 AP story not much of Powell’s Feb 03 speech to UN on Iraq’s WMD was proving
            true

Aug 10 Report British govt said it had independent intel to support Iraq-Africa uranium
            deal after US said story weak Story proved false

Aug 13 US forces pulled down a Shiite banner from a building in Sadr City leading
            to protests
Aug 13 Deputy Secretary of State Armitage said Iraq had WMD
Aug 13 US gave up on attempt to get UN peace keeping force for Iraq

Aug 14 UN Resolution 1500 created UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
Aug 14 US intelligence officer wrote memo saying that “gloves are coming off” in
            Interrogating Iraqi prisoners

Aug 15 White House objected to CPA’s request for $20.3 bil after administration
            said it would not ask Congress for any more money for Iraq
Aug 15 Oil pipeline to Turkey bombed in Baiji, Salahaddin shutting down exports for 2nd
            time in a week

Aug 16 Insurgent attack on Abu Ghraib prison 6 prisoners killed 59 wounded

Aug 17 CPA told White House if didn’t get additional $20.3 bil it would be disaster for
            Bush’s plans for Iraq
Aug 17 Water pipeline in Rusafa Baghdad hit with RGP knocking out water for 2 days
            for 300,000 people
Aug 17 US forces killed Reuters’ reporter outside Abu Ghraib prison Said camera looked
            like an RPG

2004
Jan 21 VP Cheney said there was overwhelming evidence Iraq and Al Qaeda connected

Mar 23 Former Clinton Defense Secretary Cohen testified to 9/11 Commission that head
of Al Qaeda run Sudan chemical plant met with Iraq chemical weapons scientist in 90s

May 28 Iraqi Governing Council agreed upon Iyad Allawi as head of interim govt

INTERIM IRAQI GOVT ERA

Jun 1 Iyad Allawi became interim PM of transitional Iraqi govt

Jun 8 UN Resolution 1546 endorsed Iraqi interim govt and set date for return of Iraqi
            Sovereignty
Jun 8 CPA’s Bremer banned Sadirsts from participating in 2005 elections and holding
            Political office for 3 years Would have no binding after CPA disbanded

Jun 10 US gave up hope that NATO forces would be sent to help in Iraq

Jun 14 VP Cheney said Saddam had long standing ties with Al Qaeda
Jun 14 Reports US soldiers and interrogators warned of abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in
            Nov and Dec 03

Jun 15 Bush said Zarqawi was best evidence that Saddam had connections to Al Qaeda
Jun 15 Secretary of State Powell said White House stuck with claims of Iraq-Al Qaeda
            connections

Jun 16 9/11 Commission said it found no operational relationship between Iraq and Al
Qaeda 1994 bin Laden asked for Iraq’s help with operations but never heard back 1996 Iraq and Al Qaeda talked about working together in Sudan but nothing came of it
Jun 16 9/11 Commission didn’t believe story that 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraqi
            intelligence officer in Prague in 2001
Jun 16 CIA advisor told 9/11 Commission that 1999 indictment that charged Iraq and Al
Qaeda agreed to cooperate in Sudan was later proven false Said that Al Qaeda was suspicious of Saddam’s secular govt In 1990s Ira and Al Qaeda tried to work out non-interference pact and talked about cooperation Was also 1999 CIA report that said if Saddam wanted to attack the US he would use Al Qaeda
Jun 16 Secretary of State Powell said administration stuck by claim of Iraq-Al Qaeda
            Relationship
Jun 16 White House said 9/11 Commission didn’t contradict administration’s claims
Because it never said Iraq behind 9/11 Said Zarqawi being in Iraq before 03 invasion proved Saddam gave safe haven to Al Qaeda operatives Zarqawi was not part of Al Qaeda before war
Jun 16 General Accounting Office report Pentagon didn’t have good planning or
            oversight of reconstruction projects in Iraq leading to cost overruns

Jun 17 Bush refuted 9/11 Commission saying that Iraq and Qaeda had ties and that was
            why Iraq was a threat
Jun 17 Cheney said 9/11 Commission didn’t look at the overwhelming evidence of
Iraq-Al Qaeda connections Cheney claimed he had intelligence on Iraq-Al Qaeda ties that Commission didn’t Cheney was talking about captured Iraqi documents that had Iraqis with similar names to Al Qaeda members

Jun 18 9/11 Commission spokesman said it found no evidence of cooperation between
            Iraq and Al Qaeda

Jun 20 Head of 9/11 Commission said Al Qaeda was closer to Iran and Pakistan than Iraq
Jun 20 9/11 Commission member claimed captured Iraqi documents showed 1 Fedayeen
Saddam was an Al Qaeda member Also criticized press for claiming Commission report contradicted Bush administration claims on Iraq-Al Qaeda connections The report did refute the White House’s argument

Jun 21 9/11 Commission member claimed captured Iraqi documents showed 3 Fedayeen
Saddam were member of Al Qaeda Said one was an Al Qaeda facilitator in Malaysia in 2000 Story proved untrue Iraqis just had same names as Al Qaeda members

Jun 22 UN audit on reconstruction in Iraq found spending and contracts full of errors and
            open to fraud
Jun 22 UN audit found State Organization for Marketing Oil had no records on tenders
            contracts who won bids etc
Jun 22 Report White House claims that Saddam Fedayeen were in Al Qaeda probably
            resulted over confusion over their names

Jun 23 Report cooperation found between Baathists and jihadist insurgents in Iraq and
international terror networks like Al Qaeda Also two waves of foreign fighters to Iraq one before and one after 2003 invasion

Jun 25 Iraqi National Congress turned over captured Iraqi intelligence files to Americans
showing in mid-90s Iraqi intelligence and bin Laden met Iraqis agreed to air bin Laden’s anti-Saudi tapes but request for joint operations against Riyadh went unanswered by Iraqis

Jun 28 CPA disbanded, Iraqi sovereignty returned to interim govt led by Premier Allawi

Jul 1 CIA official said agency was constantly told to re-do assessments saying no
            Iraq-Al Qaeda connection by White House after 9/11

Jul 3 US military review of 2003 invasion found that logistics were lacking and
            military intelligence was largely useless

Jul 5 Report Zarqawi’s bombing moved him from the margins to the center of the
            Insurgency

Jul 6 Report in 2000 CIA started program to contact relatives of Iraqi WMD scientists
living in the west to collect intelligence Relatives said no WMD programs Reports were not included in reports nor passed on to White House
Jul 6 Blair told Parliament that he didn’t know what happened to Iraq’s WMD Said they
            could have been hidden or destroyed

Jul 7 Senate Intelligence Committee found CIA was justified to claim Iraq might
have cooperated with Al Qaeda and offered bin Laden safehaven based upon pre-war intelligence reports

Jul 8 US and Iraqi officials said decision to stop 1st Battle of Fallujah was wrong
            and city was now controlled by insurgents
Jul 8 US and Iraqi intelligence reports said Zarqawi was using Fallujah as a base

Jul 9 Iraqi defector Mohammed al-Zubaidi claimed INC embellished stories of defectors
            about Iraq’s WMD INC denied story

Aug 1 Al Qaeda in Iraq bombed 6 churches in Baghdad and Mosul 12 killed 71
            wounded

Aug 2 Marines just given control of Najaf came under attack 1st time by Mahdi Army
            in city
Aug 2 Al Qaeda in Iraq War Minister Abu Masri executed Turkish civilian Murat Yuce

Aug 3 2nd battle of Najaf between US and Mahdi Army begins

Aug 4 Mahdi Army shot down US helicopter in Sadr City Police chief there led
            celebration for its downing

Aug 5 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey issued first military campaign plan for Iraq since
            2003 invasion
Aug 5 Sadr called for his followers to rise up against the US occupation
Aug 5 Mahdi Army attacked main police station in Najaf city and US forces in Baghdad
Aug 5 Anbar governor resigned after his son was kidnapped by insurgents

Aug 6 After 2 days of fighting in Najaf US claimed it killed 300 Mahdi Army members
Aug 6 Report US intelligence officers were involved in Abu Ghraib prison abuse

Aug 7 PM Allawi issues amnesty for insurgents with no blood on their hands

Aug 8 Arrest warrant for murder issued for one of Saddam’s lawyers
Aug 8 Arrest warrant for Ahmed Chalabi for counterfeiting dinars and nephew
            Salim Chalabi for murder of Fin Min official

Aug 9 PM Allawi, Iraq’s Defense Minister, US generals had meeting Decided 2nd Najaf
            battle had to end quick over concerns shrine might be damaged

Aug 12 US forces surrounded Mahdi Army in Imam Ali shrine and Najaf cemetery 2nd
            Battle of Najaf
Aug 12 Fighting between Iraqi and US forces vs Mahdi Army killed 68 civilians in Kut
            Wasit
Aug 12 Washington Post review of its pre-war Iraq coverage said it ran many articles
questioning Bush administration case for invasion but didn’t get on front page as pro-war articles did

Aug 13 Allawi govt announced 2nd ceasefire with Mahdi Army to hold talks with Sadr
            to end 2nd Battle for Najaf
Aug 13 Militia kidnapped a British journalist and demanded US withdraw from Najaf
            during 2nd battle for city Sadr gained his release

Aug 15 Peace talks between Allawi govt and Sadr broke down over ending 2nd Battle of
            Najaf

Aug 17 Allawi govt offered amnesty and role in govt to Sadr in return for ceasefire in 2nd
            Battle of Najaf
Aug 17 NSC meeting discussed US attacking Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf and possibly
            killing Sadr

Aug 18 Iraq Survey Group head Kay testified to Congress Iraq Survey Group was
responsible for finding Iraq’s WMD after invasion Kay blamed National Security Adviser Rice and National Security Council for not checking WMD intel before war

2005
Feb 22 Dawa’s Ibrahim Jaafari became United Iraqi Alliance candidate for PM
            following January elections

PM JAAFARI ERA

Apr 7 PUK’s Jalal Talabni sworn in as Iraq president and named Dawa’s Ibrahim Jaafari
            as new PM Ended interim govt under PM Allawi

Jun 14 Massoud Barzani sworn in as KRG president

Aug 1 Battle of Haditha began

Aug 8 Saddam fired his entire legal team at his trial
Aug 8 Constitutional committee ended its work Negotiations over final draft began
within leadership council of committee Shiite and Kurdish members of constitution committee made more changes to constitution with Sunnis often excluded

Aug 11 SCIRI’s Hakim announced idea for southern federal region in Iraq
Aug 11 Allawi govt announced ceasefire with Mahdi Army to hold talks with Sadr
            to end 2nd Battle for Najaf

Aug 15 One week extension was given to Iraq’s constitutional committee to finish work

2006
Jan 15 Al Qaeda in Iraq announced Mujahedeen Shura Council coalition of insurgent
            forces

Apr 5 Iraqi parties chose Dawa’s Nouri al-Maliki to be new PM over keeping PM Jaafari

Apr 20 PM Jaafari stepped down from office Was under pressure from Sadr Kurds and
            US Jaafari originally said he would not give up position but then agreed to

Apr 21 United Iraqi Alliance nominated Dawa’s Nouri al-Maliki as new PM

PM MALIKI ERA

Apr 22 Pres Talabani asked Maliki to form a new govt

Aug 3 CENTCOM commander Gen Abizaid told Senate Iraq could fall into civil war if
            violence continued

Aug 4 Secretary of State Rice said US making progress Iraq strategy not failing US had to
            stay the course Privately Rice thought strategy failing

Aug 5 Secretary of State Rice told Bush Iraqis pulling their country apart

Aug 7 US-Iraqi Op Together Forward II started to secure Sunni areas of Baghdad
            threatened by militias
Aug 7 Bush said US had a strategy for Iraq Privately Bush thought wasn’t working
            and wanted new one

Aug 17 Bush held national security meeting to rethink Iraq strategy Bush told staff Iraq
            Policy was going bad and he wanted a new one
Aug 17 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey told Bush Iraqis might not be up to task of
            securing Baghdad

Oct 13 Al Qaeda in Iraq turned into Islamic State of Iraq Announced Abu Omar al-
            Baghdadi as emir of Islamic State
(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval War College’s Prof Whiteside on who was Abu
Omar al-Baghdadi)

2007
Aug 1 Iraqi Accordance Front’s 6 ministers start boycott of Maliki’s cabinet

Aug 6 Iraqiya’s 4 ministers started boycott of cabinet Were now 15 ministers total
            not going to Maliki cabinet

Aug 11 ISCI governor of Qadisiya killed by an EFP in Baghdad laid by Mahdi Army
            Sadr vs Hakim rivalry

Aug 14 4 suicide bombers hit Kahtaniya, Sinjar district killing 796 Yazidis and
            wounding almost 1,500  

2010
Apr 18 U.S. and Iraqi forces killed ISI leaders Abu Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi
            near Tikrit
(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval War College’s Prof Whiteside on who Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was)

Aug 17 ISI suicide bomber hit army recruits in Baghdad killing 60

2011
Aug 2 Car bomb at Holy Family Syriac Church in Kirkuk 2 other car bombs defused
            at other churches in city

Aug 13 Obama proposed reducing stay behind force to 7000 US soldiers in Iraq after
            withdrawal

Aug 15 ISI attacked Sahwa in mosque in Yusifiya, Baghdad during Ramadan and
            bombed St Ephraim Syriac Orthodox church in Kirkuk

2012
Aug 1 Russia’s Gazprom signed deal for 2 oil blocks in KRG
Aug 1 KRG said it would restart oil exports for Baghdad to try to get a new revenue
            deal with the central govt

Aug 7 KRG re-started oil exports for Baghdad to try to get a new revenue sharing
            deal with central govt

Aug 17 VP Biden called Maliki about Iran flying military supplies to Syria over Iraqi
            airspace

2013
Apr 8 Islamic State of Iraq became Islamic State of Iraq and Syria

2014
Jun 28 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria became the Islamic State

Aug 3 IS seized Sinjar Zumar Wana in Ninewa Began massacre and enslavement of
            Yazidis
(Musings On Iraq article on fall of Sinjar to the Islamic State)

Aug 7 Pres Obama announced beginning of bombing campaign against IS in Iraq

Aug 8 US began air strikes against IS in Iraq

Aug 11 IS attacked Jalawla, Diyala with suicide truck bomb and 12 suicide bombers
            dressed in Peshmerga uniforms

Aug 14 PM Maliki agreed to step down after elections Was under pressure from US and
            Ayatollah Sistani

PM ABADI ERA

Sep 8 Haidar al-Abadi became PM

2015
Aug 1 Protests in Basra and Karbala over lack of electricity & services

Aug 2 Protests in Seysaib in Irbil, Najaf, Basra, and Nasiriya over lack of services

Aug 4 Protests in Sulaymaniya province over lack of services that led to clash with
police Over 30 wounded

Aug 5 Protests in Sulaymaniya over lack of services broken up by police

Aug 6 Protests in Karbala, Najaf, Baghdad, Basra, Hillah, Nasiriya and Rumaitha in
Muthanna demanding reform

Aug 9 PM Abadi announced reform program of ending quotas, cut bodyguards, anti
            corruption commission, dismissing VPs & Dep PMs
Aug 9 Cabinet voted to reduce number of members on provincial councils to save
            money sold as reform
Aug 9 VPs Nujafi and Maliki said they supported Abadi’s reform program
Aug 9 VP Maliki TV interview said protests were becoming anti-religious and could get
            out of control
Aug 9 Chief of staff of Iranian military criticized protests in Iraq saying they were
            making Abadi’s govt look bad

Aug 11 Parliament approved PM Abadi’s reform program that included ending
            3 vice presidents
Aug 11 PM Abadi said he wanted to cut cabinet to just 15 ministers and reduce local
            councils
Aug 11 Protesters stormed Babil council building demanding better services

Aug 12 Pres Masum said parliament should keep one VP since position is in the
            constitution

Aug 13 PM Abadi’s State of Law said he had to keep one vice president because position
            as in the constitution

Aug 14 Ayatollah Sistani’s office said PM Abadi needed to reform judiciary
Aug 14 Protests in Maysan Kirkuk Samawa Basra Karbala Najaf Nasiriya Hillah Baghdad
Diwaniya Kut Baquba Dujail demanding better services and fighting corruption
Aug 14 Journalists said that Baghdad Operations Command stormed their office and
            told them not to cover protests
Aug 14 VP Maliki gave interview saying reform protests were anti-religious

Aug 15 Chief Justice Medhat said that judiciary supported Abadi’s reforms but made no
            changes

Aug 16 PM Abadi closed 4 ministries and merged 8 others into 4 by decree even though
            legally had to go through parliament Part of cost cutting moves

Aug 17 Judicial Council rejected call for Chief Justice Medhat to resign

Aug 18 IS second in command Abu Muslim al-Turkmani killed

2016
Apr 30 Parliament refused to meet over Abadi’s technocratic govt Sadr called for popular
            revolution as his followers stormed Green Zone
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Clark on Sadr’s take over of Green Zone)

2017
Jul 10 PM Abadi declared Mosul liberated after 9 month long campaign Heavy fighting
            continued in city
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Ret. Col Witty on the Battle of Mosul)

Jul 19 Salahaddin Gov Ahmad al-Jabouri arrested over corruption charges

Jul 21 3rd time Anbar council attempted to remove Governor Rawi on corruption charges
Each time taken to court and overturned After most of Anbar freed from IS Anbar council split into two factions pro and anti-Governor Rawi Completely undermined governance and rebuilding
Jul 21 Former Salahaddin Governor Ahmed al-Jabouri received 2 years in prison for
            corruption

Jul 26 Court issued arrest warrant for head of Salahaddin council Ahmed Abdul Gabbar
            for corruption

Aug 7 Parliament delayed September 2017 provincial elections until 2018 Voted to use
1.7% divisor to decide how many votes necessary to gain seat on provincial council

Aug 10 ISCI’s Basra Gov Majid al-Nasrawi resigned over corruption charges
Aug 10 Parliament’s integrity committee banned travel for former Basra Gov Nasrawi

Aug 12 Former Basra Gov Nasrawi fled to Iran to escape corruption charges

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