Iraq History Timeline



May 17 Treaty of Zuhab ended Ottoman-Safavid War and gave Ottomans most of

Apr 21 Wahabi army from Arabia sacked Karbala 2,000-5,000 killed

May 21 Treaty of Arzurum tried to set border between Ottoman Empire and Persia
gave Sulaymaniya to Ottomans Shatt al-Arab to Persia Set up commission to demarcate border between two but never finished Treaty became disputed after Iraq independence in 1932

Jun 19 Germany and England asked Ottomans for oil concessions in Mosul and
            Baghdad provinces

Jun 28 Ottomans agreed to oil concessions for British and Germans in Mosul and
            Baghdad provinces Never happened because of WWI

Aug 2 Ottomans signed alliance with Germany that would bring Mesopotamia into


Nov 5 England and France declared war on Ottoman Empire Would lead Mesopotamia
            into WWI
Nov 5 British Gen Delmain head of Indian Expeditionary Force told to protect oil
            infrastructure and only take Basra if the Ottomans joined WWI

Nov 6 British troops landed at Fao, Basra starting war against Ottomans in

Nov 7 British forces started march from Fao to city of Basra

Nov 8 British troops seized Ottoman fort at Fao

Nov 11 Battle of Basra began when Ottomans attacked and were turned back by British

Nov 12 British forces in Fao launched reconnaissance in force near Salhan, Basra

Nov 15 British troops began attack on Basra City

Nov 16 British forces attacked Zain, Basra

Nov 18 British launched second attack on Zain, Basra

Nov 19 British troops took fort at Sahil in the city of Basra

Nov 20 Arab tribes told British forces Ottomans had abandoned Basra British forces set
            out to take city

Nov 21 British troops entered Basra city

Nov 23 British forces officially took Basra city

Dec 3 Start of Battle of Qurna British attacked but beaten back

Dec 6 British forces attacked Qurna 2nd time and forced Turks to surrender Took 1,000

Dec 9 Ottomans defeated by British at Battle of Qurna and surrendered Basra province

Jan 2 Suleiman Bey took over Iraq command for Ottomans Called on Arab Sheikhs to
            join war against British and planned on retaking Basra

Apr 11 Ottomans launched operation to try to retake Basra from British forces

Apr 12 Battle of Shaiba began

Apr 13 British won Battle of Shaiba by counterattacking and routing Ottoman forces

Apr 14 Ottoman campaign to try to retake Basra from British failed

Apr 22 Lord Curzon asked why British should promise Basra and Baghdad vilyats to
            Arabs if they were fighting on Ottoman side

May 13 British forces moved north to try to encircle Ottoman forces in Qurna

May 31 British forces set out to capture Amarah from Ottomans

Jun 3 British forces captured Amarah after convincing Ottoman garrison to surrender

Jun 27 British forces began campaign to capture Nasiriya from Ottomans

Jul 24 British forces captured Nasiriya

Sep 12 British forces launched campaign to capture Baghdad starting in Wasit

Sep 27 Battle of Es Sinn began

Sep 28 British defeated Ottomans at Battle of Es Sinn driving them back to Kut, Wasit

Sep 29 British forces took Kut

Oct 5 6th Army created by Ottomans under command of German Gen von der Goltz to
            defend Mesopotamia from British

Nov 22 Start of Battle of Ctesiphon

Nov 23 French diplomat Picot visited London told officials Mosul Baghdad Basra
            vilyats should be given to Arabs after WWI to placate them

Nov 24 Battle of Ctesiphon ended with both British and Ottomans retreating Ottomans
            Suffered 6,100 casualties British 4,600 casualties

Dec 3 British expeditionary force driven back to Kut, Wasit after losing Battle of
Ctesiphon to Ottomans

Dec 7 Battle of Kut began with Ottoman forces arriving at city after they lost Battle of

Jan 6 Start of Battle of Sheikh Saad as British forces moved up the Tigris River and
            ran into Ottoman defenses

Jan 7 British made second assault on Ottomans during Battle of Sheikh Saad taking
            part of Ottoman defenses

Jan 9 Battle of Sheikh Saad ended with British defeating the Ottomans

Jan 13 Ottomans retreated 10 miles up Tigris River after defeat at Battle of Sheikh Saad
            and were beaten again by British at Battle of Wadi

Jan 21 Ottomans retreated up Tigris after defeat at Battle of Wadi only to lose again to
            British at Battle of Hanna

Mar 7 British forces attacked Ottomans at the Dujaila Redoubt

Mar 8 British tried and failed to take the Dujaila Redoubt from Ottomans losing
            4,000 men

Apr 5 British forces attacked Fallahiya to try to relive surrounded British troops in Kut

Apr 7 Start of Battle of Bait Alsa and Sannaiyat

Apr 8 British forces defeat Ottomans at Fallahiya

Apr 17 British took Beit Asia from Ottomans and pushed Turks out of Edheim River in

Apr 19 German commander of the Ottoman forces in Mesopotamia Gen Goltz died of

Apr 22 British attacked Sannaiyat but Ottomans turned them back British suffered
            1,200 casualties

Apr 24 British attempt to re-supply besieged garrison at Kut failed

Apr 26 British arranged a ceasefire with Ottomans in Kut after 146 day siege British lost
            33,000 casualties

Apr 29 Ottomans defeated the British at Battle of Kut after 4 months captured 13,000

May 16 France and England agreed on Sykes-Picot Agreement creating two
spheres of influence over Middle East Mesopotomia was in British zone

Jun 10 Hussein Ibn Ali sheriff of Mecca declared Arab revolt against Ottomans
backed by British Many Iraqi Ottoman officers joined

Sep 18 British leaders told troops to continue advance in Mesopotamia vs Ottomans
            after huge loss at Kut

Dec 13 New British offensive launched up Tigris River to retake Kut from Ottomans

Dec 22 British forces began digging lines towards Ottomans defenses at Khadairi Bend

Jan 7 British made divisionary attack along Tigris River to draw Ottoman forces away
            From Khadairi Bend fort

Jan 9 Battle of Mohammed Abdul Hassan
Jan 9 British began assault upon Khadairi Bend fort

Jan 11 Battle of Hai salient started

Jan 25 British attack Ottoman positions along Hai River

Jan 29 British captured Ottoman fort at Khadairi Bend in campaign to recapture Kut

Feb 4 British defeated Ottoman forces at Hai River

Feb 16 British defeated Ottoman forces at Dahra Bend

Feb 17 British crossed Shumran bend outflanking Ottoman forces in campaign to
            recapture Kut

Feb 24 British retake Kut from Ottomans in 2nd Battle of Kut

Feb 26 3 British gunboats fired upon by 4 Ottoman ships at Nahr-al-Kalek, Wasit 3
            Turkish ships sunk and 4th captured

Mar 5 British forces started march on Baghdad from Kut

Mar 9 1st British assault on Baghdad turned back by Ottomans

Mar 10 British forces defeated Ottoman defenses outside Baghdad in Diyala River Led
            Ottomans to abandon Baghdad

Mar 11 British army took Baghdad

Mar 13 British started Samarra offensive against Ottomans after taking Baghdad

Mar 16 British War Cabinet created Mesopotamia administration committee to decide
            on form of govt in captured areas

Mar 17 British forces captured Baquba from Ottomans

Mar 19 British forces captured Fallujah from Ottomans
Mar 19 British commander in Mesopotamia Gen Maude sent message to Iraqis saying
British had not come as conquerors but liberators Maude said British would not impose their institutions on locals and called on Arabs to help rule

Mar 25 British forces defeated by Ottomans at Battle of Mount Hamrin, Diyala

Apr 11 British defeated Ottomans at Battle of Shiala

Apr 21 Battle of Istabulat in Diyala started with Ottomans being defeated

Apr 23 British Samarra Offensive ended in victory over Ottomans British suffered
            18,000 casualties

Apr 30 Battle of the Boot at Band-i-Adhaim

May 19 Gen Sir Stanley Maude commander of British forces in Iraq said they
            had come as liberators not conquerors

May 27 UK Col Clayton in Egypt worried Sykes-Picot would create opposition by
            Sharif of Mecca against UK taking Baghdad

Jul 11 1st Battle of Ramadi started Ottomans forced British to retreat

Sep 28 2nd Battle of Ramadi started

Sep 29 2nd Battle of Ramadi ended with Ottomans losing city

Nov 5 Battle of Tikrit started

Jan 5 Lloyd George said Ottoman provinces including Mesopotamia should have
            “separate national conditions”

Mar 9 British took Hit, Anbar without a fight from Ottomans

Mar 26 Battle of Khan al-Baghdadi began

Mar 27 British defeated Ottomans in Battle of Khan al-Baghdadi

Aug 11 British Foreign Secretary Balfour said British war in Mesopotamia should be
            justified by securing water that would also give it control of oil

Oct 2 British War Office told commander in Mesopotamia to seize as many oil
            producing areas as possible

Oct 23 Battle of Shirqat started as British forces moved north from Baghdad to
            confront Ottomans

Oct 30 British forces took Shirqat from Ottomans
Oct 30 Armistice of Mudros signed between British and Ottomans 6th Army in
            Mesopotamia surrendered to British Ended WWI in Iraq
Oct 30 British officials in Baghdad told London to create central council of chiefs of
            southern Kurdistan

Nov 2 British invaded Ottoman’s Mosul vilayet after WWI armistice

Nov 3 British troops took Mosul city from Ottomans after WW1 armistice
(Musings On Iraq article on how Mosul became part of Iraq)

Nov 16 UK commissioner for Iraq Arnold Wilson wrote that Iraqis were happy with
British occupation

Dec 1 UK PM George asked French PM Clemenceau to renegotiate Sykes-Picot giving
            Mosul to British

May 22 Sheikh Mohmoud Barzanji started rebellion against British in Sulaymaniya

Jan 28 Turkish National Pact said Turkey gave up rights to all Ottoman provinces with
Arab majorities including Basra and Baghdad Did not include Mosul province which Turkey claimed had a Turkish majority Kurds were called Turks
Jan 28 British also claimed Mosul province which it occupied after armistice with
            Ottomans in 1918

Mar 8 Hundreds of ex-Ottoman soldiers including many Iraqis petitioned Prince Faisal
            about how Arab revolt didn’t work out during WWI

Apr 19 Start of San Remo meeting with Britain France Italy and Japan Decided on split
            up of Ottoman Empire and creation of Iraq

Apr 23 Ataturk gave speech demanding Turkey’s southern territories include Mosul and

Apr 24 UK & France gave France 25% of Turkish Petroleum Company in return for
            agreeing to British mandate in Iraq


Apr 25 San Remo Agreement created British Mandate in Iraq France agreed to give up
            Mosul vilyat in return for oil concessions in Iraq

May 5 British mandate announced in Baghdad

May 17 Huge joint Sunni-Shiite demonstration in Baghdad during Ramadan against
            British rule


Jun 2 Revolt against British started when sheikh in mid-Euphrates refused British
            Taxation, arrested and freed by tribe

Jun 4 Sherifan Army of Liberation arrived in Tal Afar to fight British and seize town

Jun 6 Sir Percy Cox was reassigned to run Iraq from his posting in Persia

Jun 7 Iraqi rebels led by Jameel al-Midfai reached Mosul with about 1,000 men

Jun 9 British forces retook Tal Afar after bombing broke Iraqi rebels

Jul 17 British worked out ceasefire with Iraqi rebels to end siege of Abu Sukhair

Jul 19 British defeated tribal fighters at Battle of Ahrdiyat

Jul 20 Albu Hassan took Kifil from British

Aug 10 Treaty of Sevres started the break-up of the Ottoman Empire including
            ceding Mesopotamia to the British Treaty included call for a Kurdish state

Aug 15 British PM Lloyd George wrote Sir Herbert Samuel that the French strongly
objected to Faisal becoming King of Iraq George felt that Faisal was a weak leader

Aug 25 British gave limited self-rule in Najaf to try to stop 1920 Revolt there

Oct 1 Sir Percy Cox landed in Baghdad as new British high commissioner of Iraq Was
            told to prepare for Iraqi independence

Nov 11 League of Nations announced British Mandate in Iraq
Nov 11 Abdul al-Rahman al-Gaylani became Iraq’s 1st prime minister

Nov 30 British said all of its colonial offices were under control of Iraq council of state

Dec 23 Iraq-Syria border set with Deir Ezzour going to latter

Mar 12 Start of Cairo Conference where Britain decided on its future Middle East policy
            including keeping Iraq

Mar 30 End of Cairo Conference where England decided Faisal Hashemi would
            become King of Iraq

May 3 Gertrude Bell wrote Mid-Euphrates tribes were perplexed that British picked Faisal
to be King of Iraq when he was pushing revolt against British when he was king of Syria

Jun 14 Churchill asked Colonial Office if King Faisal was Sunni or Shiite and who were
            the religious people in Karbala

Jul 7 American consul in Baghdad wrote that Faisal would become King of Iraq even
            though he was unpopular in the country

Jul 11 Iraq council of state declared Faisal monarch of Iraq

Jul 16 Council of state confirmed plebiscite choosing Faisal as king of Iraq

Aug 1 Gertrude Bell wrote US diplomat that England carried Faisal on its shoulders
            Into power

Aug 21 King Faisal was coronated

Sep 25 Gertrude Bell wrote Faisal was unpopular and resented for being installed by

Mar 11 Wahabi Ikhwan from Saudi Arabia attacked south of Nasiriya slaughtering

Apr 6 Fatwa issued by Shiite clerics saying Saudi Ikhwan were brigands and Shiites
            could fight them published in Iraqi paper
Apr 6 Shiite tribes mostly responsive to fatwa against Ikhwan Clerics were hoping
            Sunni tribes would also respond but they thought Baghdad should deal with issue

Apr 9 Karbala conference led to call for war against Wahbis unless compensation paid
            for raid in southern Iraq and if Ibn Saud didn’t punish Ikhwan
Apr 9 Ikhwan invasion of south Iraq resolved by letters between Iraq and Saudis
            Ibn Saud apologized for attack

May 24 Mujtahid Sheikh Mahdi al-Khalisi told mid-Euphrates tribes that British trying
            to get their way with new Anglo-Iraq treaty

Jun 4 Gertrude Bell said King Faisal was indecisive and lacked backbone to stand up to

Jun 22 Standard Oil told State Dept that it and other US companies were interested in
            exploring in Iraq

Aug 23 On anniversary of King Faisal’s coronation opposition gave him a petition
calling for an assembly to draft a constitution, elections for a parliament, and independence for Iraq
Aug 23 On his way to celebration for anniversary of King Faisal’s coronation British
High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox was met by anti-British slogans being chanted outside the palace Cox blamed Faisals supporters specifically Haras Party leader Mahdi al-Basir
Aug 23 During King Faisal’s coronation anniversary Haras Party leader Basir gave anti-
            British speech
Aug 23 Sir Percy Cox blamed King Faisal’s chamberlain Mudarris for allowing Basir to
            Speak Mudarris was anti-British
Aug 23 Cox demanded that those responsible for anti-British statement be punished by
            King Faisal

Aug 24 King Faisal struck by appendicitis leading to surgery Was no Iraqi govt at time
Aug 24 British High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox assumed control of Iraqi govt
while King Faisal had surgery and recovered Cox banned opposition, exiled and deported its leaders banned two opposition papers Silenced opposition and Shiite leaders

Aug 26 King Faisal apologized to British Iraqi Commissioner Sir Cox for anti-British
            comment made at his coronation anniversary party

Aug 31 Gertrude Bell wrote King Faisal telling him that he was vain and weak

Sep 10 King Faisal returned to office after his appendices were removed King thanked
            British high Commissioner Sir Percy Cox for running govt in his absence and for shutting down opposition

Oct 10 1922 Anglo-Iraq Treaty signed Maintained British influence over Iraq Resented
            by opposition who were anti-British

Oct 25 Gertrude Bell wrote that King Faisal was trying to create his own party made up
            of “extremists” but they were playing him

Nov 16 PM Gaylani’s second govt resigned

Nov 20 Abd Sadoun became Iraq’s 2nd PM His orders were to organize elections for an
            assembly to write constitution

Dec 12 Sir Herbert Samuel proposed UK create Arab state of Iraq Hijaz Palestine
Trans-Jordan maybe Najd Samuel believed large Arab state would contain pan-Arab desire and assuage fears of increased Jewish presence in Palestine because they would be part of a much larger Arab country

Jan 3 Administrative Inspectors Law reduced number of British advisers to Iraqi govt
            offices and limited their power

Apr 22 British troops occupied Rowanduz in military campaign to subdue Kurds
            opposed to being included in new Iraq Mandate

May 10 Sir Henry Dobbs the High Commission wrote to the American Consul in Iraq
            that King Faisal was not a strong leader and he expected trouble under his rule

Jun 21 Nephew of mujtahid al-Khalisi arrested for posting anti-election fatwa in
Kadhimiya Baghdad When Khalisi’s son tried to post fatwa police arrested him and one other son Khalisi called for shops to close in protest but few complied

Jun 27 Persian mujtahids and shopkeepers in Najaf protested deportation of cleric
            Khalisi and his two sons to Persia
Jun 27 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini led protest to Karbala trying to get clerics and
            religious students to leave for Persia to protest deportation of cleric Khalisi

Jun 29 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini arrived in Karbala in protest march against
            deportation of cleric Khalisi but only two other mujtahids joined them

Jul 3 35 clerics and religious students left Iraq for Persia to protest deportation of
            Mujtahid Khalisi for his opposition work

Jul 22 UK Minister to Tehran arrived in Baghdad to discuss deportation and immigration
of Iraqi opposition figures to Persia Iraqi govt said they could return after elections for assembly held

Jul 24 Turkey signed Treaty of Lausanne agreeing to League of Nations deciding future
            of Mosul 

Nov 22 PM Sadoun resigned over differences with Shiite leaders and King Faisal
Nov 22 Jafar Pasha al-Askari became Iraq’s 3rd PM Shiites got Education and Finance
            Ministries Shiite leaders pledged allegiance to King Faisal as a result

Jun 2 UK run Baghdad Times said if Anglo-Iraq Treaty not ratified Iraq would lost
            Mosul to Turks

Jun 4 Anti-British protests in Baghdad closed parliament

Jun 6 UK run Baghdad Times said Iraqis were turning on British protection for Mosul

Jun 8 UK run Baghdad Times said England would give Iraq independence in 4 yrs
            at most if Anglo-Iraq Treaty passed

Jun 10 Iraq passed amended Anglo-Iraq Treaty Said UK would protect Mosul

Jul 10 First elections held in Iraq Was for Constituent Assembly

Jul 31 MP Daud Chalabi rejected quotas in new parliament for minorities claiming
            elections would be by population ensuring everyone representation

Aug 2 Yasin al-Hashemi became 2nd PM of Iraq Was ordered to organize elections for
            an assembly to draft a constitution

Aug 23 American Consul in Iraq said King Faisal had no popular support and many
            were openly opposed to him

Sep 30 Frontier Commission appointed to determine border between new nation of
            Turkey and Iraq

Nov 15 Frontier Commission started demarcating border between Iraq and new nation of

Jan 27 League of Nations Commission on Mosul arrived in province to protests
Commission interviewed hundreds of locals and mapped economy, land, trade routes, ethnicities

Feb 4 League of Nations’ Mosul commission final report said Mosul should go to
            British Iraq Mandate with Kurds getting concessions

Mar 14 Iraq deal gave Turkish Petroleum Company right to explore for oil in
            entire country

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq after laws discriminating against Persian nationals
            in Iraq were removed

Jun 11 Head of League of Nations Mosul Commission called King Faisal a “poor

Jun 26 Abdul Sadoun became PM of Iraq for 2nd time

Jul 17 Frontier Commission said Mosul vilyat should be in Iraq after British seized it
            after WW1 armistice

Dec 16 League of Nations set Turkey-Iraq border with Mosul province going to Iraq

Jun 5 Turkey and England agreed to have Mosul join Iraq
(Musings On Iraq article on how Mosul became part of Iraq)

Jul 5 Turkey and Britain signed treaty setting Turkey-Iraq border UK agreed to give
            Turkey 10% of Mosul oil revenues in return

Jul 18 Turkey and England agreed on final border between Iraq and Turkey

Nov 21 Jaffar al-Askari became PM of Iraq for 2nd time

Jan 30 1st student protest in Iraq held over firing of teachers Organized by Communists

Apr 4 UK official LS Amery wrote Foreign Secretary Austen Chamberlain Said British
got Mosul by trick promising 25 year British Mandate in Iraq but now pushing for Iraqi independence seven years later

Oct 14 Turkish Petroleum Company struck oil at Baba Gurgur field, Kirkuk starting
            Iraq’s oil industry

Oct 15 1st successful oil well started at Baba Gurgur field in Kirkuk

Nov 12 Kurdish MP Rowanduzi said Shiites and Kurds both opposed govt conscription

Jan 11 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 3rd time

May 21 British official said Iraqi provincial administrators picked who would be elected
            to parliament

Jul 31 Red Line Agreement allowed British Dutch French US Turkish oil companies to
jointly control Turkish Petroleum Company Would lead to creation of Iraq Petroleum Company

Dec 2 UK High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Henry Dobbs wrote that conscription in Iraq
            would cause revolt and was already problem in Basra

Dec 4 Sir Henry Dobbs wrote Colonial Secretary Said King Faisal was a foreigner in Iraq
who wasn’t able to build support amongst the population Said authority of Iraqi govt depended upon British backing and its military might

Jan 15 Sir Henry Dobbs said King Faisal was like a “chameleon” who would always
            change and drove those around him mad

Apr 3 Persian Shah and King Faisal passed notes that legal barriers over unequal
            treatment of Persian nationals in Iraq had been lifted

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq as a country Hadn’t before due to complaints of
            mistreatment of Persians in Iraq

Apr 28 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi became PM, would hold that office 3 times

Sep 19 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 4th time

Nov 13 PM Sadoun shot himself due to criticism he faced over his performance

Mar 23 Nuri al-Said became PM, would hold office 8 times

Nov 16 Iraqi parliament ratified new Anglo-Iraq treaty ending British mandate but
            maintained British influence

May 31 Iraq made first payment of oil revenues to Turkey in return for giving up claims
            to Mosul

Jul 22 Shiite leaders told Yasin Hashemi they would back him for PM if they got
            majority of cabinet posts

Sep 25 Iraqi newspaper advocated for one party rule in Iraq under an autocrat King

Feb 3 US Charge d’Affaires in Iraq said when King Faisal walked streets of Baghdad
didn’t pay attention to him and was only acknowledged by foreigners that recognized him

Feb 11 Executive Committee of the Shias in Iraq issued Manifesto Said no Shiite had been
elected to parliament from north and only 1-2 from the south, no Shiite given Interior Ministry or any other important post, land policy angered sheikhs, schools promoted Sunnism, few Shiite officials and all in low positions, called on England to remove govt and empower them against Sunnis

May 31 Kurdish revolt led by Barzanji put down by RAF


Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from Britain

Nov 3 Naj Shawkat became PM

Dec 2 King Faisal gave speech praising his rule in Syria and said if he was still king
            there Syria would be independent like Iraq

Dec 12 Shiite leaders told Yasin Hashemi they would back him for PM if they got
            majority of cabinet posts

Mar 18 British official warned King Faisal was attempting to make himself dictator of

Mar 20 Rashid al-Gaylani became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Jul 21 600 Assyrians left Ninewa for Syria asking for asylum from French because didn't
want to be part of Iraq Were sent back Assyrians were enticed into revolt against the Ottomans during World War I by the Russians but were crushed. They fought their way to southern Turkey and finally reached the British who settled them in Mosul The Assyrians had been agitating for autonomy since Iraqi independence was announced because feared rule by Muslim Arabs but were ignored by British and Iraqi officials

Aug 4 French deported Assyrians who fled to Syria in July back to Ninewa
            Assyrians then clashed with Iraqi army and were driven back into Syria

Aug 6 Rumors spread that Assyrians had massacred Iraqi soldiers blown up bridges
            poisoned water

Aug 8 Iraqi army began executing all Assyrian males captured in Bekher mountains in
Aug 8 Mayor of Zakho began disarming Assyrians in town

Aug 9 Shammar and Jabour tribes attacked 60 Assyrian villages south of Dohuk
            Captured males given to Iraqi army who executed them

Aug 10 Kurds and Arabs looted Assyrian farms south of Dohuk

Aug 11 Assyrians in Zakho and Sumail were attacked by Iraqi army led by Gen Bakr
            Sidqi 300 killed
Aug 11 Another 40 Assyrian villages attacked and 600 more killed mostly by Kurds

Aug 16 Iraqi army campaign to kill Assyrians in north ended

Aug 18 Iraqi army held victory parade and given award by King Ghazi for massacring
            Assyrians in north

Sep 8 King Faisal I died

Nov 9 Jamil al-Midfai became PM, would hold office 5 times

Mar 31 Iraqi Communist Party founded
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof John Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Aug 27 Ali Aiyubi became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Nov 29 Border dispute between Iraq and Persia escalated

Jan 15 Persia presented its case over border dispute to League of Nations Rejected
Iraq’s control of Shatt al-Arab and questioned standing of 1847 Treaty of Arzurum

Mar 4 Jamil al-Midfai became PM of Iraq 2nd time PM Aiyubi forced to resign over
            threat of tribal revolt in mid-Euphrates

Mar 15 National Brotherhood Party revolt led King Faisal to create new cabinet with

Mar 17 Yasin al-Hashemi became PM of Iraq 2nd time PM Midfai forced to resign due
            to threat of tribal revolt

May 6 Govt arrested cleric Asadallah follower of Ayatollah Ghita who had been
demanding concessions from govt Led to revolt by Abu Hassan, Bani Zurayij and Zawalim tribes against monarchy

May 11 Iraq air force bombed rebel villages in Diwaniya held by Abu Hassan Bani
            Zurayij and Zawalim tribes

May 13 Muntafiq tribe joined revolt against monarchy

May 15 Tribes seized Suq al-Shuyukh and cut railway between Basra and Nasiriya
            during revolt against govt

Nov 28 UK Foreign Office rejected King Faisal mediate Palestine dispute believing he
            had aspirations over territory

Sep 19 British officials met with Nuri al-said in Paris for two days Wanted to ask him to
help mediate Palestine dispute Turned out he just wanted to promote Iraq and his pan-Arab agenda

Oct 29 Planes dropped flyers over Baghdad demanding PM Yasin Hashemi’s
            resignation as troops marched on capital in coup Parliament building bombed
Oct 29 PM Hashemi asked for King Ghazi’s supported but didn’t get it so he offered his
Oct 29 Defense Minister Askari was assassinated by Gen Bakr Sidqi coup plotters

Oct 30 PM Yasin al-Hashemi became 1st Iraqi PM overthrown in a coup King Ghazi
            Supported coup because didn’t trust Hashemi
Oct 30 Hikmat Sulaiman became PM leading to 1st govt with pan-Arabists out of power
Oct 30 Sulaiman govt banished former PM Hashemi, Rashid al-Gaylani and Nuri al-Said

Jun 19 Pan-Arab military officers withdrew their support for head of army Gen Bakr

Jul 4 Iraq-Iran Frontier Treaty signed attempting to resolve border dispute Accepted
demarcation process that was done by Ottomans and Persians pre-WWI Set up commission to finish border and created a body to work out navigation of Shatt al-Arab most of which was given to Iraq Political instability in Baghdad and outbreak of WW2 meant treaty never implemented

Jul 8 Sadabad Pact between Iraq Iran Turkey Afghanistan agreed to borders non-
            interference regional security

Jul 18 Friendship Treaty between Iraq and Iran Was mostly about setting border between

Aug 11 Gen Bakr Sidqi leader of 1933 Assyrian massacre and head of 1936 coup was
            assassinated in Mosul after pan-Arab officers withdrew their support for him

Aug 17 PM Hikmat Sulaiman govt resigned over threat of military revolt by Mosul
            Garrison commander Umari
Aug 17 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 3rd time in deal with the army

May 1 Iraqi constitution Article 89a criminalized communism

Dec 24 Golden Square army colonels overthrew PM Jamil Midfai for trying to remove
pan-Arab officers Backed by Nuri al-Said who became Prime Minister and Taha al-Hashemi who became Minister of Defense

Mar 30 King Ghazi gave pan-Arab speech saying he was interested in Arab brothers in
            Syria Palestine Kuwait

Apr 4 King Ghazi died in car accident King Faisal II took power but was only 3
            Leading to uncle Abd al-Ilah to become Regent

Mar 30 Golden Square officers forced PM Nuri al-Said to resign in deal with Regent
Replaced by PM Rashid Ali Gaylani
Mar 30 PM Gaylani embarked on anti-British, pro-German foreign policy

Jan 28 Regent of Iraq appointed 2 new ministers to try to dismiss PM Gaylani leading to
            Gaylani to plot against Regent

Jan 31 PM Gaylani forced from office by British pressure due to his pro-Nazi views

Feb 3 Gen Taha al-Hashemi became PM backed by military officers known as Golden

Apr 1 PM Gen Hashemi deposed in Golden Square officers coup Regent Ilah fled
            Iraq Gaylani became PM for 3rd time
Apr 1 New PM Gaylani started arresting pro-British politicians

Apr 2 Regent Abdullah arrived at British base in Habaniya, Anbar and taken out of Iraq
            fleeing military coup

Apr 3 British War Office asked commander in Middle East what forces available
for Iraq after Golden Square military coup
Apr 3 Nazi Germany sent letter saying it supported the Golden Square coup and would
            lend military aid

Apr 7 British Middle East commander told War Office military intervention in Iraq not
possible and diplomacy should be used instead

Apr 8 Churchill ordered Secretary of State for India to put together a military force to
            send to Iraq
Apr 8 German Foreign Office said it supported Arab action against British for their

Apr 9 Germany and Italy made joint statement of support for PM Gaylani promising
            military and financial aid

Apr 10 British expeditionary force put together in India to be sent to Iraq to deal with
            pro-German PM Gaylani govt
Apr 10 PM Gaylani said he would honor Anglo-Iraq Treaty of 1930
Apr 10 Hitler decided to give military aid to Iraq

Apr 12 British convoy left India for Basra with infantry brigade

Apr 16 Britain told Iraq that troops would be landing in Basra soon under Anglo-Iraq
Apr 16 PM Gaylani agreed to allow British troops landing in Basra but demanded that
they immediately set out for Palestine or Egypt
Apr 16 German letter arrived saying it would support Iraq revolt against British

Apr 17 PM Gaylani asked Germany for military aid in case of war with British
Apr 17 British naval convoy moved towards Shatt al-Arab waterway in Basra
Apr 17 British battalion from India started arriving at Shaibah air base

Apr 18 Britain landed 20th Infantry Brigade in Basra
Apr 18 British battalion from India completed deployment to Shaibah air base

Apr 19 British 20th Infantry Brigade finished its landing in Basra and 7 planes flown into
            Habaniya airbase

Apr 20 Churchill told Foreign Secretary Eden that British troops landed in Iraq to
            establish a base in Basra to establish control of province

Apr 23 PM Gaylani asked for German military intervention in case of war with England
Apr 23 London decided to land an entire division from India in Basra

Apr 26 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid against British

Apr 28 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid for second time to be used
            against British

Apr 29 More British troops from 20th Infantry Brigade arrived in Basra Iraq protested
Apr 29 British Ambassador told British women and children to leave Baghdad because
            of expected war with Iraq
Apr 29 British flew planes from Shaibah base to Habaniya base
Apr 29 PM Gaylani sent Iraqi forces to British air base at Habaniya, Anbar to confront
Apr 29 Iraqis flooded Habaniya area limiting movement of British troops there

Apr 30 PM Gaylani refused permission for British troops to land in Basra
Apr 30 2 brigades of Iraqi soldiers surrounded British Habaniya base ordered British
            to cease operations there
Apr 30 Iraqi forces surrounded British embassy in Baghdad
Apr 30 Iraqi troops seized Kirkuk oil field and cut off pipeline to Haifa
Apr 30 PM Gaylani hoped to pressure British to leave Iraq without a fight

May 1 Iraqi police opened fire on British workers in Rutba, Anbar England responded
            by sending forces from Transjordan to town
May 1 British bombers sent from Egypt to Shaibah air base


May 2 British planes bombed Iraqi forces that surrounded Habaniya Air Base
            Started Anglo-Iraq War/WW2
May 2 Iraq launched air strike upon Habaniya base in retaliation
May 2 Grand Mufti in Baghdad declared jihad against British after attack on Iraqi forces
            in Habaniya
May 2 Iraqi forces take British fort at Rutba, Anbar
May 2 British troops broke up angry mob of Iraqis at Zubeila, Basra

May 3 2nd day British planes bombed Iraqi forces outside of Habaniya air base and
            Rasheed air base in Baghdad
May 3 Iraqi air force bombed Iraqi army in Ramadi by accident in night raid
May 3 Churchill ordered British troops to march from Palestine to Iraq
May 3 Nazi Germany sent envoy to support PM Gaylani’s govt

May 4 British bombed Iraqi air bases in Baghdad and Baquba
May 4 British bombers arrived at Habaniya airbase from Egypt while Iraqis continued
            to shell base
May 4 British dropped leaflets on Baghdad saying war was with Gaylani govt not
            Iraqi people
May 4 Regent of Iraq broadcast radio message asking people not to follow Gaylani govt

May 6 British and Assyrian forces attacked and drove off Iraqi forces surrounding
            Habaniya air base 409 Iraqi soldiers captured
May 6 British and Assyrian forces took Sin al-Dhiban, Anbar captured 300 Iraqi soldiers
May 6 British planes destroyed Iraqi column heading for Habaniya inflicting over 1,000
            casualties and prisoners taken
May 6 German deal with Vichy France allowed military equipment to be moved from
            Syria to Iraq to fight British
May 6 German air unit sent to Syria bound for Mosul to confront British
May 6 More British troops landed in Basra

May 7 British troops took Ashar, Basra

May 8 British Arab Legion left Palestine to take back Fort Rutba, Anbar from Iraqi
police Legion was attacked by German aircraft and one regiment refused to cross Transjordan border into Iraq
May 8 British air strikes destroyed most of Iraqi air force

May 9 Start of 100 German and 20 Italian airplanes landing in Syrian bases to fight
            British in Iraq
May 9 British planes bombed Iraqi police holding Fort Rutba, Anbar while Iraqi
            reinforcements arrived

May 10 German air unit began arriving in Mosul to fight British
May 10 Iraqis abandoned Fort Rutba allowing British to capture it
May 10 British commander in Middle East Gen Wavell ordered that Baghdad was not to
            Be occupied

May 11 British forces left Haifa, Palestine heading for Habaniya, Anbar
May 11 More British planes landed as reinforcements at Habaniya air base
May 11 German military aid began arriving from Syria by train Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 11 German diplomat Dr. Grobba arrived in Baghdad along with 2 German fighter

May 12 Soviet Union recognized PM Gaylani’s govt
May 12 British reinforcements from Palestine and Transjordan attacked by a German

May 13 1st trainload of Nazi German war supplies arrived in Mosul to support PM
Gaylani’s govt Never used
May 13 Vichy France sent military equipment to Iraq
May 13 British forces from Palestine arrived at Fort Rutba and found it abandoned by
May 13 German planes attacked British forces at Habaniya air base

May 14 Churchill authorized British air force in Iraq to attack German planes in Syria
May 14 2 British fighters flew out of Iraq and attacked 2 German bombers in Syria
            damaging them
May 14 German war planes began landing in Mosul Were attacked by British planes

May 15 German major arrived in Baghdad to lead Brandenburgers Commando recon
            unit in Iraq
May 15 More German war planes landed in Mosul
May 15 British bomber attacked Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar
May 15 German plane bombed British force from Palestine heading towards Habaniya

May 16 While British planes bombed Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar English ground
            forces were attacked by German planes
May 16 German planes attacked Habaniya base
May 16 German commander in Iraq agreed with Baghdad’s plan to retake Habaniya but
            didn’t have forces to do it

May 17 British forces set out from Habaniya base to try to take Fallujah
May 17 More British planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt and launched
            attack on German planes in Mosul
May 17 British planes shot down 2 German fighters over Baghdad
May 17 German liaison officer with Iraqi govt killed by an Iraqi soldier flying into

May 18 British bombed Fallujah while troops begin surrounding town

May 19 British took Fallujah from Iraqi forces after heavy bombing Was necessary to
            cross Euphrates onto Baghdad

May 22 Iraq attempt to recapture Fallujah failed

May 23 German planes attacked British forces in Fallujah Iraqi artillery shelled town

May 25 Hitler Order 30 Germany would support Arabs against British especially in Iraq
May 25 British forces from Palestine arrived in Habaniya, Anbar to fight Iraqi forces

May 26 2nd trainload of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 26 12 Italian planes landed in Kirkuk from Syria to operate under Germans
            Immediately attacked British forces in Anbar

May 27 Operation Regulta began British forces marched north from Basra to Kut and
            onto Baghdad
May 27 British forces moved from Fallujah to cut Baghdad-Mosul road and railway

May 28 British forces captured Khan Nuqta fort on march from Fallujah to
May 28 British troops moved from Basra to Baghdad take Ur
May 28 British forces attacked Abu Ghraib canal but turned back by Iraqis
May 28 British intel spread rumor to Iraqi military that 100 tanks heading to Baghdad
            Led PM Gaylani to flee
May 28 3rd shipment of German military supplies arrived in Mosul Never used

May 29 Italian planes got into dogfight with British planes over Baghdad 1 Italian and 2
            British planes shot down
May 29 British defeated Iraqi forces at Abu Ghraib Turned back at Abu Ghraib canal in
            push on Baghdad for second time
May 29 British forces defeated by Iraqi army at Kadhimiya, Baghdad
May 29 PM Gaylani fled to Iran as British troops advanced on Baghdad

May 30 Last brigade of 10th Infantry Division landed in Basra
May 30 British troops reached Baghdad
May 30 German Amb to Iraq Grobba fled Baghdad to Mosul

May 31 Mayor of Baghdad worked out peace treaty with British surrendering city
May 31 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            and told Jews to stay in homes

Jun 1 Regent of Iraq returned to power after pro-Nazi govt of PM Gaylani overthrown
            by British
Jun 1 Regent welcomed at airport by group of Jews from Baghdad who were attacked
            on way home and violence continued into capital
Jun 1 Farhud anti-Jewish pogrom in Baghdad started Around 120 people killed and
            850 wounded
Jun 1 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader who appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            planned pogrom against Jews but deported by British

Jun 2 Jamil al-Midfai named PM in new govt after PM Gaylani overthrown by British
Jun 2 Anti-Jewish pogrom the Farhud in Baghdad continued until curfew imposed 187
            killed in 2 days
Jun 2 Regent of Iraq Ilah ordered end to Farhud
Jun 2 British intelligence officer asked why British troops were sent to Baghdad to stop
            the Farhud Thought London didn’t want to upset the Regent

Jun 3 3rd train load of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul after war
Jun 3 British troops occupied Mosul after overthrowing Gaylani govt

Jun 5 British forces occupied Kirkuk

Jun 6 British forces sent to Haditha and pushed insurgents led by Qawujki into Syria

Jun 7 British forces crossed from Iraq into Syria attempting to capture German diplomat
            Dr. Grobba

Jun 8 British campaign started against Vichy French in Syria using troops in Iraq
            Germany used Syria to supply pro-Nazi Gaylani govt in Iraq

Jun 9 Another British brigade landed in Basra

Jun 10 British air force destroyed train shipment of German military aid heading for
            Iraq from Syria Anglo-Iraq War already over

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

Oct 10 Nuri al-Said became PM 3rd time

Jan 6 Court sentenced former PM Gaylani and 3 colonels to death in absentia

Jul 1 Mustafa Barzani led rebellion against govt Iraqi troops backed by British airplanes
            suppressed revolt by Oct 1945

Jun 4 Hamdi al-Pachachi became PM

Sep 9 Iraq and Soviet Union established diplomatic relations

Sep 4 Iraqi forces launched new assault upon Kurdish forces in Barzan

Dec 27 Regent of Iraq promised political parties, new election law in political reform

Feb 23 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM for 2nd time

Mar 29 Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Would cooperate over Tigris & Euphrates
            security education communication economies

Jun 1 Arshad al-Umari became PM of Iraq, would hold office 2 times

Jul 3 Oil workers in Kirkuk led by Communists held meetings about their work
            conditions Led to strike

Jul 12 Police tried breaking Communist oil worker strike in Kirkuk Fired on workers
killing 8 wounding 50 Incident helped lead to fall of PM Arshad Umari’s govt in November

Aug 16 KDP founded by Mustafa Barzani and Hamzah Abdullah

Nov 21 PM Umari forced to resign in aftermath of Kirkuk Massacre where oil strikers
Nov 21 Nuri al-Said became PM 4th time

Mar 29 Sayid Salih Jabr became PM

Apr 26 Iraq left San Francisco Conference on creating UN to protest creation of Israel

Apr 28 Mustafa Barzani and 500 supporters returned to Iraq from Iran

May 27 Month after returning to Iraq Mustafa Barzani started another revolt against govt

Jun 15 Mustafa Barzani revolt against govt put down and he fled to Soviet Union

Nov 28 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamail told UN that creation of Israel would lead to
            unrest in Middle East

Jan 3 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamali said that Iraq was sensitive about the 1930 Anglo-
            Iraq Treaty
Jan 3 Independence Party held meeting and decided to protest against govt and 1930
            Anglo-Iraq Treat

Jan 4 Students in Baghdad protested against 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty Broken up by

Jan 6 College students went on strike in Baghdad after police broke up Jan 4 protest
            over 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Jan 8 College student strike in Baghdad ended when arrested students were released by

Jan 15 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty signed British troops withdrew but Iraq tied to England
            until 1973
Jan 15 One version of Anglo-Iraq Treaty included speeding arms sales to Iraq including
automatic weapons for Iraqi police that were really going to be turned over to Palestinians Also included Iraqi forces taking over all the areas the British withdrew from in Palestine to prevent creation of a Jewish state Was not included in final version of treaty

Jan 16 Communists led protests against new Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon leading to
            large sectors of country to turn against treaty

Jan 19 Kurds from Iraq and Iran met in Baku, Soviet Union Mustafa Barzani led plans
            for Kurdish movement

Jan 20 March by railway workers and students against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by
            police killing some demonstrators

Jan 21 Demonstrators against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon again Led Regent to
            repudiate treaty

Jan 23 More protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty this time leading to fights between
            Communists and Independence party

Jan 26 PM Said said that Anglo-Iraq Treaty was still on the table after Regent rejected it
            Led to new protests Said ordered suppression of demonstrations

Jan 27 Communists called for more protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty to try to topple
govt Mass demonstrations led to clashes with police who opened fire in Baghdad killing 300-400 people

Jan 29 PM Jabr forced to resign over protests over Anglo-Iraq treaty organized by his
            rivals and Regent Ilah
Jan 29 Sayid Mohammed al-Sadr replaced him as PM

Mar 18 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 4 Port of Basra strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 14 2nd Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty


Apr 20 Operation Hametz began with Jewish forces attacking Arab villages held by
            Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab-Israeli War

Apr 23 Kirkuk oil field protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 29 Battle of Katamon begins between Jewish forces attacking Iraqi volunteers and
            Arab Legion

Apr 30 Jewish forces took Jaffa, and 7 other towns held by Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab
            Israeli War

May 1 Iraqi volunteers defeated by Jewish forces in Battle of Katamon

May 2 Port of Basra protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 12 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 15 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty
May 15 Iraq Egypt Jordan Syria armies entered into Palestine to join in 1948 Arab-
            Israeli War
May 15 Iraqi army attacked Kibbutz Gesher in northern Palestine

May 18 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 22 Iraqi army defeated in Battle of Gesher and retreated to West Bank

May 25 Iraqi forces took Geulim and reached Kfar Yona and Ein Vered

May 29 Battle of Jenin between Jewish and Iraqi forces started

Jun 1 Jewish forces attacked Iraqi positions in Jenin but were turned back

Jun 26 Muzahim al-Pachachi became PM

Aug 28 Jews forbidden to work in banking or foreign currency transactions after creation
            of Israel

Oct 8 Export-import licenses for Jewish businesses forbidden after creation of Israel

Oct 19 All Jewish govt workers fired after creation of Israel

Dec 2 Baghdad told oil companies they should not employ Jews after creation of Israel

Jan 6 Nouri al-Said became PM for 5th time

Feb 10 Communist Party leader sentenced to death

Feb 14 Communist leaders hanged by PM Said to try to squash opposition

Feb 15 More Communist leaders hanged by PM Said

Feb 19 PM Said said Jews had been mistreated in Iraq and warned that things could get
            worse for them due to Israel

Dec 10 Ali Aiyubi became PM for 2nd time

Feb 5 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM 3rd time

Aug 21 Nuri al-Said threatened to revoke license of transport company if didn’t fill
            quota of shipping 500 Jews out of Iraq per day

Sep 15 Nuri al-Said became PM 6th time

Sep 18 PM Said threatened to expel Jews from Iraq

Jul 17 Iraq made last payment to Turkey of oil revenues in return for giving up claims to
            Mosul after WWI

Jul 15 Mustafa al-Umari became PM

Aug 23 Communist led strike at Basra port led to clash with police

Oct 26 Students led by Communists went on strike at Baghdad’s College of  Pharmacy
            against govt

Nov 22 Baghdad protests against Regent started

Nov 23 Gen Mahmoud formed new military govt & declared martial law to put down
Protests Nuredin Mahmoud became PM in new military govt

Nov 24 Soldiers opened fire on protests killing 18 and wounding 84

Jan 29 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 5th time

Sep 17 Mohammed al-Jamali became PM

Apr 29 Arshad al-Umari became PM for 2nd time

Aug 3 Nuri al-Said began crackdown on all opposition parties in Iraq

Aug 4 Nuri al-Said became Iraq’s PM 7th time

Feb 24 Iraq signed security treaty with Turkey which England eventually joined Would
            become anti-Communist Baghdad Pact

Sep 23 Iran joined Iraq, England, Turkey security agreement Would become anti-
            Communist Baghdad Pact

Nov 3 Pakistan joined Iraq, Turkey, England, Iran security agreement that became
            Baghdad Pact

Dec 21 Communist uprising in Al-Hay put down and leaders executed

Jan 5 Iraq backed Eisenhower Doctrine to oppose communism in Middle East

Jun 15 Nuri al-Said made cover of Time magazine

Jun 20 Ali Aiyubi became PM 3rd time

Oct 12 Meeting at Ayatollah Muhsin Hakim’s house founding Dawa Party
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

Dec 15 Abdul-Wahab Mirjan became premier

Feb 11 Jordan began talks with Iraq for a federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic

Feb 14 Iraq and Jordan announced Arab Federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic

Mar 3 Nuri al-Said became PM for 8th time

May 18 Ahmad Baban became PM Was a Kurd

Jul 13 Col Arif gained control of 20th Brigade and began march towards Baghdad from
            Diyala to start 1958 coup

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

Jul 14 Free Officers lead 1958 coup overthrowing King Faisal II and Iraq’s monarchy
Jul 14 Gen Qasim became head of state King Faisal II and family were killed

Jul 15 Deposed PM Nuri al-Said executed by Free Officers His body was later dug up,
            hung and burned in Baghdad streets

Jul 17 Gen. Qasim sent delegation to meet with Gen. Nasser of Egypt to talk about
            uniting 2 countries

Jul 21 Gen Qasim set up court to try “enemies of the people” meaning officials from

Aug 5 Communists held large demonstration in Baghdad against uniting with Egypt

Aug 7 Gen Qasim supported march by Communists to back federation of United
            Arab Republic between Egypt and Syria

Sep 3 Qasim govt gave amnesty to Kurdish rebels

Sep 10 Col Arif was dismissed as Deputy Commander in Chief of Armed forces
            because of his opposition to Gen Qasim

Sep 30 Agrarian Reform Law issued by Gen Qasim in attempt to redistribute land from
            large landowners to peasants
Sep 30 Gen Qasim removed Col Arif as Dep PM and Interior Minister because he was a
            threat to the govt

Oct 6 Mustafa Barzani returned to Iraq from exile in Soviet Union for talks with new
            Qasim govt

Oct 12 Gen Qasim sent Col Arif to Germany as Iraq’s ambassador to eliminate him as

Oct 19 Gen Bakr forced to retire after Col Arif lost power struggle with Gen Qasim
            within govt

Nov 5 Col Arif arrested on charges of attempting to assassinate Gen Qasim in coup

Nov 28 Shah criticized Iraq for refusing to settle navigation down Shatt al-Arab Qasim
            responded by claiming all of waterway

Dec 9 Rashid Ali al-Kailani arrested by Gen Qasim for plotting a coup

Jan 9 Gen Qasim blocked Communists’ application to be recognized as political party

Jan 25 Gen Qasim legalized trade unions

Feb 7 Former Dep PM Arif sentenced to death after being sent away as Ambassador to
            Germany and secretly returned to Iraq

Feb 23 Communists called for march in Mosul to counter rumors of military revolt
            against Gen Qassim there

Mar 6 Iran Iraq Algeria foreign ministers met and signed Algiers Agreement to settle
            Iran-Iraq border issues

Mar 7 Fighting broke out between Communists backing Gen Qasim and his opponents
            in Mosul
Mar 7 Col Shawaf led military coup against Gen Qasim

Mar 8 Fighting continued in Mosul between Communist backers of Gen Qasim and his
Mar 8 Coup leader Col Shawaf sent two planes to bomb Baghdad
Mar 8 Gen Qasim bombed Col Shawaf’s HQ in Mosul Afterward one of Shawaf’s
            soldiers killed him thinking coup failed

Mar 16 Gen Qasim signed economic agreement with Soviet Union to move away from
            England and west

Mar 24 Gen Qasim withdrew Iraq from anti-Communist Baghdad Pact

Apr 13 Gen Qasim made cover of Time magazine

Apr 28 Communists asked for positions in Qasim govt but turned down

Apr 30 Gen Qasim banned party activities in armed forces to try to block Communists’

May 1 500,000 Communists marched demanding role in Gen Qasim’s govt

May 14 Gen Qasim withdrew Iraq from anti-Communist Eisenhower Doctrine

May 30 Last British soldier departed Habaniya base in Iraq as English military
            withdrew from country

Jul 13 Gen Qasim appointed several Communists to his cabinet

Jul 14 Communists called rally to celebrate 1958 coup in Kirkuk Turned into 2 days of
            fighting between Kurds & Turkmen with around 30 killed 100 injured

Jul 20 Gen Qasim put several Communists on trial for taking part in July 14 fighting
            between Kurds and Turkmen in Kirkuk

Jul 27 Gen Qasim passed constitution promising Arab-Kurdish partnership after talks
            with Mullah Mustafa Barzani

Sep 20 Gen Qasim executed several leaders of Mosul coup attempt

Oct 7 Saddam and Baathists made failed assassination attempt on Pres. Qasim
            wounding him Saddam fled to Syria and then Egypt

Dec 18 Gen Qasim called Ahwaz and Mohammareh in Iran Arab Started supporting
            Arabs in Khuzestan province against Iranian govt

Jan 1 Gen Qasim issued new law of association promising to allow parties to be formed
            and more political freedom

Feb 12 Cleric Muhsin al-Haki issued fatwa against joining Communist Party

Jul 5 Islamic Party issued statement warning against Communist activities in Iraq

Oct 15 Islamic Party petitioned Qasim criticizing his govt for neglecting religion while
accepting Communists Called for govt to ban Communist Party and its papers, while releasing any clerics arrested since 1958 coup

Jun 25 Gen Qasim called for Kuwait to be re-united with Iraq Egypt said it was opposed
            to idea

Jul 1 UK sent troops to newly Kuwait to protect it from Gen. Qasim’s call that it be

Jul 25 Gen Qasim again claimed Kuwait was part of Iraq

Sep 11 After Gen Qasim rejected Barzani’s Kurdish rights plan he called for revolt
            against govt
Sep 11 Kurds ambushed an Iraqi army column starting Kurdish revolt against Gen
            Qasim Govt

Sep 13 Gen Qasim ordered airstrikes to put down Barzani revolt

Sep 16 Govt forces began ground offensive to put down Barzani revolt

Sep 23 KDP was banned by Gen Qasim Several leaders arrested due to Barzani’s revolt

Oct 10 Qasim govt ended ground offensive to put down Barzani’s Kurdish revolt

Nov 16 Mullah Mustafa Barzani asked for UN aid to Kurds

Dec 11 Qasim govt took 99.5% of Iraq Petroleum Companies concessions and created
            Iraq National Oil Company

Dec 26 Iraq announced it would reconsider diplomatic relations with any country that
            recognized Kuwait as independent country

Jul 9 Iraqi planes bombed Turkish border post during operation against Kurdish rebels
            killing 2 Turkish soldiers

Aug 16 Turkish planes shot down Iraqi plane in retaliation for Iraq bombing Turkish
border post while fighting Kurdish rebels

Aug 23 Govt census in Jazeera listed 120,000 Kurds as aliens during Kurdish revolt

Aug 30 KDP bombed Iraq Petroleum Company pipeline

Jan 3 Communists warned Gen Qasim to purge military to stop Baathist coup but were

Feb 4 Gen Qasim arrested one opponent as Communists warned of an impending coup


Feb 8 Baath-military coup overthrew Gen Qasim Baath started executing Communists
            main supporters of Qasim
Feb 8 Baathist Ahmed al-Bakr became PM Col Abdul Salam Arif president
Feb 8 CIA allegedly supported 1963 coup because Qasim’s Communist support Gave
            list of Communists to be arrested and executed to coup plotters

Feb 9 Gen Qasim executed after military-Baath coup

Feb 10 Estimated 5,000 Communists were executed by Baath after coup overthrowing
            Gen Qasim

Feb 19 New Arif govt started talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP to end Kurdish

Feb 28 Mulla Mustafa Barzani said Kurds would go back to fighting government if
            didn’t commit to Kurdish autonomy

Mar 19 Iraq sent delegation to Syria to talk about uniting two countries

May 6 Soviet Union said it supported Mustafa Barzani and his KDP

Jun 10 Arif govt launched offensive against KDP

Jun 12 Soviet Union condemned Arif govt military campaign against Kurds

Jun 13 Govt forces attacked Dohuk killing 165 Peshmerga

Jun 22 Govt forces captured Saqsaq and Tobzawa from KDP

Jul 3 Communist uprising at Rasheed military camp in Baghdad against Baathists

Jul 9 Soviet Union accused Arif govt of genocide against Kurds

Aug 4 Govt troops captured Barzan and Mazna in offensive against KDP in

Nov 1 Wandawi head of Baathist National Guard dismissed in fallout between
            nationalist and Baathist coup members

Nov 11 Baath election put moderates in control and Secretary General Ali Sadi was
            exiled to Spain

Nov 12 Baath founder Aflaq arrived in Iraq to solve internal Baath dispute Led to
            removal of most leaders of 1963 coup and rise of Col Arif within military

Nov 13 Baath National Guard commander Wandawi began bombing Rasheed Camp
            while Guard rampaged through Baghdad
Nov 13 Baath Secretary General Sadi said party run by new 15 member council headed
            by General Bakr

Nov 14 Baath Secretary General Sadi said 8 new Baathist leaders had been ousted and
            that he was returning to Baghdad with Syrian Baathists to resolve party splits

Nov 18 Pres Arif removed Baathists from positions in govt including PM Bakr Pres Arif
his brother Gen Arif and army put down Baath National Guard militia in Baghdad, Mosul and Kirkuk

Nov 20 Tahir Yahya became PM, held office 2 times

Dec 24 Arif govt promised to settle problems with foreign oil companies

Feb 10 Pres Arif agreed to ceasefire with Mulla Mustafa Barzani

Feb 15 Arif govt and Mustafa Barzani started talks to try to end KDP revolt

May 3 New provisional constitution said Iraq a democratic-socialist government but
            power was still with Pres Arif

May 26 Pres Arif established Joint Presidency Council with Egypt in failed attempt to
            unite 2 countries under pan-Arabism

Jul 14 Pres Arif announced pan-Arab Iraqi Arab Socialist Union party
Jul 14 Pres Arif nationalizes banks and insurance companies

Apr 3 Army and KDP clashed in Sulaymaniya killing 60

Apr 5 Arif govt launched military offensive against KDP

Sep 5 Imam Khomeini arrived in Najaf from Turkey spending next 13 years in Iraq He
            gained support of cleric Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim

Sep 6 Arif al-Razzaq became PM

Sep 21 Abdul al-Bazzaz became PM

Oct 22 Gen Nasser said he supported Iraqi govt against Mustafa Barzani’s Kurdish

Jan 8 Govt forces attacked KDP in Panjwin

Apr 13 Pres Arif died in helicopter crash

Apr 17 Abd Rahman Arif elected president to replace his brother 

May 4 Iraqi troops started military campaign against KDP

Jun 15 KDP defeated govt forces near Hendrin
Jun 15 PM Bazzaz made national speech saying Baghdad was ready to recognize
            Kurdish nationalism and rights

Jun 29 Baghdad-Kurdish deal called for recognition of Kurds in constitution and
            autonomy but never implemented
Jun 29 Some 10,000 killed and 80,000 displaced during fighting between Kurds and
            govt from 1961-1966

Aug 9 Col Naji Talib became PM Proved to be completely ineffective and was later

Jan 25 Pres Johnson met 5 Iraqi generals and Iraqi Amb Hani at White House and said
            that they would build closer ties

Feb 13 Pres Arif speech declared Freedom Socialism and Unity belonged to no party
            co-opting Baathist slogans

May 10 PM Naji Talib was forced to resign by military Abdul Rahman Arif became

May 31 Jordan invited Iraqi army to deploy troops in its territory for war with Israel

Jun 1 Iraq Foreign Minister Pachachi met with US officials about growing tension with
            Israel before 1967 Arab-Israel War

Sep 6 Baath demonstration called for renewing war with Israel after Khartoum
resolution called for continued confrontation


Jun 5 Iraqi airplanes attacked Jezreel Valley and Afula, Israel to little effect
Jun 5 Israeli airplanes attacked H-3 Iraqi base destroying 22 Iraqi planes

Jun 6 Most of Iraqi air force destroyed by Israel
Jun 6 8th Iraqi Brigade tried to cross Damiya Bridge destroyed by Israeli air strike

Jun 7 Iraq broke diplomatic relations with U.S. after defeat in 6-Day War with Israel

Jul 10 General Tahir Yahya became PM 2nd time Was later charged with corruption

Aug 16 Law No 97 gave more power to Iraqi National Oil Company

Oct 1 Law No. 123 gave Iraqi National Oil Company more power and right to develop
            north Rumaila oil field

Nov 24 Iraq signed deal with France ERAP to develop North Rumaila oil field

Dec 3 Arif govt issued new press law restricting freedom of the media

Jan 12 Baghdad Univ student strike demanded return to parliamentary govt and elections

Jan 13 6 ministers from Pres Arif’s govt resigned after anti-govt protests demanded
            return to democracy

Apr 10 Pres Arif said Iraqi National Oil Company would develop North Rumaila oil
            field without the Iraqi Petroleum Company

Apr 16 Baath Nasserites and other army officials called for coalition govt and return of

May 28 Communist uprising began in southern Marshes

Jun 15 Amid growing anti-Arif govt activity PM Yahya resigned but was asked to stay

Jul 12 PM Yahya threatened to resign over divisions within military that led to 1968

Jul 14 Coup against Pres Arif planned but called off after army officers backed out
            Baath would not drop coup

Jul 15 PM Yahya resigned over divisions within military over running country that
            would eventually lead to coup

Jul 16 Baath meeting after coup was called off Head of military intelligence Col Naif
            said he would join plot if he became PM Was agreed upon


Jul 17 Baath coup overthrew Pres Arif Gen Bakr became president Col Naif PM Col
            Daud Defense Minister

Jul 27 Communists issued demands to new Baath govt calling for National Front and
            coalition govt

Jul 29 Baath had Defense Minister Daud visit Jordan so that party could take control of
            military while he was out of the country

Jul 30 Pres Bakr accused Def Min Daud and PM Naif of attempting to take over the
Jul 30 Pres Bakr had PM Naif arrested and became Ambassador to Morocco Baath then
            purged govt of opponents
Jul 30 Pres Bakr became prime minister and commander and chief of armed forces
            consolidating his power

Aug 2 Iraq announced it would seek better ties with Soviet Union and China

Aug 5 Pres Bakr govt announced amnesty for KDP rebels Reconciliation attempt by
            new Bakr govt with Kurds

Aug 12 New Baath government of Pres Bakr said it was committed to uniting Iraq
            and Egypt

Aug 26 Mulla Barzani had his two ministers resign from Bakr govt because Baath was
            backing Jalal Talabani

Aug 30 Pres Bakr shut down Iraqi offices of Arab Socialist Union and ended Iraq-Egypt
            union plans

Sep 21 Provisional constitution drafted by three jurists and presented to Pres. Bakr
            Included return of parliament

Oct 1 Govt and KDP re-start fighting

Oct 3 Soviet Union called for negotiations between Baghdad and KDP rebels

Nov 5 Baath militia fired on Communist strikers at factory outside Baghdad killing 2

Nov 7 Baath National Guard fired on Communist march killing 3

Nov 10 Baath assassinated former Foreign Minister Nasir Hani and arrested Western

Nov 12 1968 coup member Nasir al-Hani special adviser to Pres Bakr assassinated

Nov 18 KDP called on UN to intervene in Iraq during Kurdish revolt

Jan 3 Pres Bakr launched new offensive against KDP

Jan 7 14 hung in Baghdad after show trial over alleged Israeli spy ring uncovered by

Jan 24 Former MP Bajari during spy trial claimed opposition leaders were trying
            to overthrow Pres Bakr’s govt

Mar 1 KDP launched offensive against Bakr govt

Apr 10 1st Spring Festival held in Mosul to highlight ancient Iraqi history as part of
            Baath campaign to create unified national identity

Apr 15 Iraq complained to Iranian Ambassador that Tehran violating 1937 agreement
over navigation of Shatt al-Arab Iran was sending ships down waterway with military escorts without paying fees Complaint was taken as a threat by Iran

Apr 16 Shah unilaterally voided 1937 treaty over Shatt al-Arab which wasn’t legal Iraq
took issue to UN Iran refused to go to court over matter probably knowing that it would lose Shah decided to give military support to Kurds to put political pressure on Pres Bakr over waterway

Apr 19 Iraq began expelling Shiites claiming they were Iranian nationals in response to
Shah voiding 1937 Shatt al-Arab treaty Started backing Iran dissident group Claimed Khuzistan as part of Iraq

Apr 22 After Shah voided 1937 border treaty with Iraq Iran sailed ship down Shatt al-
Arab waterway in violation of treaty Iraq retaliated by expelling 10,000 Iranians

Apr 29 Iraq condemned Shah of Iran for unilaterally ending 1937 border treaty over
            Shatt al-Arab waterway

May 1 Iraq became 1st Arab country to recognize East Germany as part of alliance
            with Soviet Union

May 12 Dispute over Shatt al-Arab discussed at UN after Iran protested Iraq expelling
            10,000 Iranians

May 23 Pres Bakr offered self-determination to Kurds

Jun 28 Baath created Dohuk province as part of 1966 June Declaration on Kurdish rights

Jul 4 Iraq signed technical agreement with Soviets to help with oil

Oct 9 Baath announced language and cultural concessions to Kurds as part of talks with
            Mullah Mustafa Barzani

Nov 9 Revolutionary Command Council went from 5 to 15 All new members were
            Baathists Saddam become vice chairman

Jan 20 Failed military coup against Pres Bakr led by ex-Gen Rawi and Col Samarraie
backed by Iran Tehran expelled Iraq’s ambassador, military attache and four embassy staff over failed coup Shah was opposed to Baathism’s Pan-Arabism and socialism He moved troops to border causing a war scare

Jan 21 Pres Bakr announced failed coup by army officers and a special tribunal would
            try the plotters Accused Iran of supporting coup
Jan 21 Imam Khomeini started lectures in Najaf outlining his concept of vilayat

Jan 22 3 coup plotters executed by Pres Bakr govt
Jan 22 Iraq expelled Iranian ambassador accusing Tehran of backing 1970 failed coup

Jan 23 33 conspirators in coup against Pres Bakr executed

Jan 24 42 sentenced to death for coup plot against Pres Bakr

Feb 2 Iraq went to UN over Shah placing troops on border after coup he backed vs Pres
            Bakr failed

Feb 3 Iraq went to Turkey to help mediate crisis with Shah of Iran Tehran suggested
both sides withdraw forces from border as neither wanted war ending problem

Mar 3 Committee created for economic cooperation between Iraq and Soviet Union

Mar 11 Bakr govt offered Kurds autonomy agreement Included self-rule under a local
council, elected assembly, recognized Kurdish language as equal to Arabic and promoted Kurdish culture Since 1968 some 60,000 had died in Kurdish rebellion 300,000 displaced

Mar 23 Communist leader in Baghdad Khadri found shot in street Baathists suspected

Apr 3 Defense Minister Tikriti and Interior Minister Ammash named co-VPs under Pres
            Bakr to try to end rivalry between two for power

Apr 20 Bakr govt restored citizenship to Patriach of Assyrian community

May 21 Pres Bakr issued Agrarian Reform Law to increase living conditions for
            peasants and increase farm production

Jul 16 2nd provisional constitution issued by Pres Bakr

Jul 20 Pres Bakr attacked Communists for not accepting Baathist leadership in govt

Aug 4 Saddam visited Soviet Union and asked for debt relief

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

Sep 1 Iraq said it supported Palestinians when Jordanian govt attacked them

Oct 9 Tikriti removed as VP under Pres Bakr and retired from army He was made
            ambassador to Spain to get him out of country

Mar 20 Ex-Defense Minister and VP Tikrit assassinated in Kuwait by Bakr govt

May 31 Nixon went to Tehran Shah asked U.S. help to aid Kurds against Baghdad
            leading to covert CIA operation

Nov 15 Baath issued Charter for National Action to try to draw Communists into govt

Dec 1 Iraq broke relations with Iran and UK, expelled Iranian nationals turned to
            Soviet Union for support

Jan 11 Kurds started rebellion against govt with support of US, Iran, Israel

Jan 13 Bakr govt said it would take power away from Iraq Petroleum Company

Feb 28 Iraq Petroleum Company came to terms with Baghdad over nationalization
            including compensation

Jun 18 Iraq allowed French to keep their share of Iraq Petroleum Company in return for
            technical aid to run oil industry

Apr 7 Soviet PM Kosygin inaugurated Russian company’s production at North Rumaila
            oil field

Apr 9 Pres Bakr signed 15 yr treaty of friendship with Soviet Union

May 14 Baath brought Communists into govt after Iraq-Soviet 15 year Friendship Treaty

May 17 Oil Ministry took hardline with Iraq Petroleum Company in 1st move towards

Jun 1 Pres Bakr with Public Law 69 nationalized Iraq Petroleum Company Created
            Iraq National Oil Company 

Oct 1 U.S. opened Interests Section in Baghdad after diplomatic relations were ended in

Mar 20 Kuwait sent troops to try to expel Iraq building base on its territory leading to
            gunfight 3 killed

Mar 22 Kuwait demanded Iraq withdraw its troops from its territory after gunfight on
            Mar 20 Iraq refused

Apr 28 Iraq offered to talk with Kuwait over border dispute

May 5 Kuwait agreed to Iraqi offer to discuss border dispute

May 17 Iraq rejected border agreement with Kuwait saying it was never ratified by Iraqi

Jun 30 Failed coup attempted by Nadhim Kazzar member of Baath security services
            against Pres Bakr

Jul 7 Govt announced coup plotters within Baath Party had been found guilty and 
Jul 7 Baath Regional Congress expanded membership to accommodate Saddam

Jul 8 More high level Baath members put on trial for role in failed 1973 coup plot
            Some already executed Jul 7

Jul 17 Baath created National Progressive Front with Communists
Jul 17 Pres Bakr claimed govt had implemented most of autonomy plan for Kurds but
            Kurds were undermining it

Aug 22 Sheikh Jabir al-Sabah visited Iraq and again offered to talk about border Iraq-
            Kuwait dispute Iraq demanded 2 islands from Kuwait which it refused to do

Oct 7 Iraq nationalized shares of US oil company and Shell in retaliation for West’s
            Support for Israel in 1973 Arab-Israeli War


Oct 12 Israeli 210th Div attacked Iraqi forces in Syria destroying 20 Iraqi tanks and
            forcing withdrawal
Oct 12 Later in day Israeli and Iraqi tanks re-engaged forcing Israelis to withdraw
Oct 12 3rd engagement between Israelis and Iraqis forced Iraqis to withdraw
Oct 12 Israel sent in paratroops 250km into Syria to disrupt Iraqi reinforcements
            moving to front and stopped their advance

Oct 13 Continued fighting between Israeli and Iraqi forces in Syria

Oct 14 3rd day fighting between Israeli and Iraqi forces in Syria

Oct 15 Syrian-Jordanian-Iraqi offensive in southern Syria failed to achieve results

Oct 16 Iraqi, Syrian and Jordanian forces attacked Israeli positions during Arab-
            Israeli War but were turned back

Oct 17 Saddam said govt and KDP were far apart on autonomy talks for Kurds

Oct 23 Baghdad ordered its units home in 1973 Arab-Israeli War

Dec 12 Govt offered new autonomy plan for Kurds but rejected by Mustafa Barzani and

Jan 7 Baath Party congress organized by Saddam called for one party state

Jan 17 Bakr govt held talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP

Feb 10 Border dispute between Iran-Iraq led to gunfight killing 23 Iraqis 30 Iranians

Feb 12 Iran-Iraq border dispute discussed at UN after firefight UN got Iran and Iraq to
            agree to talks to resolve border dispute

Mar 9 Bakr govt told Kurds had two days to accept government’s autonomy plan
Mar 9 Kurds objected to autonomy plan because didn't include Kirkuk Sinjar Khanaqin
            and wanted new census Bakr said no

Mar 11 After talks with KDP broke down Pres Bakr announced Autonomy Law for
Kurdistan would be implemented despite KDP rejecting it

Mar 12 KDP restarted rebellion after talks with Bagdad broke down

Apr 11 Govt executed 11 KDP members in Irbil during Kurdish rebellion

Apr 12 Iraqi planes bombed KDP bases during Kurdish rebellion

Apr 24 Iraqi planes bombed Qala Diza during Kurdish rebellion killing 130

May 21 UN Sec Gen said Iran and Iraq agreed to withdraw forces and open talks over
            border disputes

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

Oct 5 Kurdish parliament appointed by Baghdad took office

Mar 6 Iraq Iran Algeria foreign ministers met and signed Algiers Agreement to settle
            Iran-Iraq border issues

Mar 7 Iran and Iraq came to agreement over Shatt al-Arab and Iran said it would stop
            supporting Kurdish revolt
Mar 7 Iraqi army moved into Kurdistan after Iran withdrew support for Kurds under
            Algiers Agreement

Mar 9 Shah announced Algiers Agreement over border with Iraq

Mar 10 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council and Regional Command of Baath Party
            ratified Algiers Agreement with Iran
Mar 10 Mustafa Barzani sent letter to Kissinger saying that Kurds were being
            destroyed by Iraqi govt and asked for US help

Mar 13 KDP announced ceasefire with Baghdad after Iran said it would stop giving it
            aid following Algiers Agreement

Mar 16 Iraqi forces launched new offensive against Kurds

Mar 17 Iraq and Iran Foreign Ministers signed agreement to create three committees to
            resolve outstanding issues
Mar 17 US Sec State Kissinger responded to Barzani saying that US understood struggle
            Kurds were facing

Mar 22 Iran ended military aid to KDP

Mar 23 Mustafa Barzani and around 100,000 KDP members left Iraq for Iran ending
            Kurdish revolt

Mar 26 Iranian premier visited Baghdad and laid out steps to implement Algiers

Apr 1 Iraq amnesty offer to Kurdish rebels and army deserters expired
Apr 1 Iran closed border to Kurds fleeing Iraqi government offensive against them

Apr 2 Iraq army sealed border with Iran and declared Kurdish revolt over

May 2 Govt troops put down KDP rebellion Mustafa Barzani and 150,000 Kurds fled to
Iran 1972-75 some 17,000 killed 280,000 displaced during Kurdish rebellion

May 22 PUK formed when Maosit Komala led by Nirshurwan Mustafa social
            democratic Bezutnawa led by Ali Askari and KDP’s Talabani joined

Jun 1 PUK announced its formation and date celebrated as anniversary even though
            party created in May

Jun 6 Shah, Pres Bakr and Algerian Pres Bunidan met to discuss Iran-Iraq border issues

Jun 7 Iran-Iraq agreed on Shatt al-Arab border, Shah would stop arming Kurdish revolt
            neither would support opponents of each other

Jun 13 Iran-Iraq signed Reconciliation Treaty to resolve border issues

Jul 2 Iraq and Saudi Arabia agreed to divide neutral zone set up between two countries
            by British after WWI to set new border

Jul 17 Pres Bakr on 7th anniversary of Baath coup said Iraq would reach out to Gulf
            countries to improve relations

Sep 17 Iran and Iraq ratified border treaty between two

Oct 5 Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz went to Damascus to discuss uniting Iraq and Syria

Nov 17 France-Iraq agreement to build nuclear facility

May 10 New Kurdish rebellion led by PUK started Backed by Soviet Union, Syria, Iran,

Aug 12 Soviet-Iraq arms deal announced worth over $1 bil included 600 T-62s and T-64
tanks, 100 Mig-23s, SAM-6 and SCUD missiles and more Also included giving Russia secret access to Iraqi air bases

Feb 5 Dawa party turned pilgrimage to Karbala into anti-Baath protests Army called out
            Pres Bakr blamed Syria

Feb 6 Bak govt put down Shiite protests killing 16 and arresting around 2000 Ayatollah
            Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim and others arrested

Mar 22 Baath Regional Command kicked out members who wanted leniency after
            anti-govt riots during Karbala pilgrimage

Oct 23 Ayatollah Khomeini’s son Mustafa died in exile in Najaf Iranian secret police
            believed to be behind it

Sep 24 In Iran-Iraq deal Iraqi troops surround Imam Khomeini’s house in Najaf Told he
            could only stay in Iraq if abandoned politics

Oct 1 Revolutionary Command Council directive said it would work to get Arab League
            to reject Camp David Accord peace deal between Egypt and Israel

Oct 3 Ayatollah Khomeini left Najaf for Paris after Baghdad demanded he reject politics
            in deal made with Shah of Iran

Oct 5 Foreign Minister went to Damascus to discuss uniting Iraq and Syria

Oct 24 Pres Assad visited Baghdad to talk about unification Issued Declaration of a
            National Pact

Oct 26 Pres Assad visited Iraq to sign National Charter of Joint Action to counter
            Israel-Egypt peace treaty

Nov 1 Iraq hosted anti-Sadat conference to oppose Egypt-Israel peace treaty

Nov 2 Arab summit held in Baghdad VP Saddam worked to expel Egypt for Camp
David Accord with Israel Move was supported by Syria Pres Bakr said Iraq and Syria had to deal with Egypt-Israeli peace deal as one country causing controversy in Syria

Nov 5 Arab League condemned Camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel
            At Baghdad summit

Nov 7 Iraq and Syria announced they were working to unify their two states

Feb 4 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr began Islam Guides to Life series that
            outlined his ideas on Islamic political system

Feb 11 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr declared 3 day holiday for Najaf hawza
            after Iranian Revolution

Feb 12 Iraq recognized the new revolutionary government in Iran

Feb 13 Iraq sent memo to new provisional govt in Iran after revolution asking for
            Friendly relations

Mar 1 KDP leader Mustafa Barzani died in US where he went for medical treatment for
            lung cancer

Mar 26 Iraq hosted anti-Sadat meeting to oppose new Egypt-Israel peace treaty

Mar 27 Saddam told Baath meeting that Iraq was going to get a nuclear weapon with
help of Soviets to deter Israel Said having an atomic bomb would be a trump card in next Arab-Israeli war
Mar 27 Saddam discussed with advisers how to punish countries that backed Sadat’s
            peace treaty with Israel

Apr 15 Pres Bakr welcomed announcement of Islamic Republic in Iran and again
            Asked for good relations Invited PM Bazargan to Baghdad

May 22 Start of 9 days of protests in Iraq led by Dawa

Jun 10 Saddam gave Pres Bakr list of notables to be executed including army officers
            Bakr said no and was put under house arrest by Saddam

Jun 12 Govt put down 9 days of Dawa led protests capped off by arresting Ayatollah
            Baqir al-Sadr leading to protests in Iraq Lebanon UAE Britain France

Jun 24 Pres Assad arrived in Baghdad for more talks on unifying Iraq and Syria Came
up with United Arab Republic Disagreed about details leading Assad to depart and no further talks held

Jul 11 Pres Bakr resigned from the Revolutionary Command Council citing health
            Saddam took over chairmanship of council


Jul 12 Saddam elected new president and head of Regional Command Council of
            the Baath Party Izzat al-Dhuri elected new vice president
Jul 12 Revolutionary Command Council member Muhyi al-Din Abdul al-Hussein
            Mashadi objected saying Bakr should have been persuaded to stay in office
Jul 12 Saddam had Mashadi arrested

Jul 16 Saddam’s election to presidency made public
Jul 16 Nouri al-Maliki fled Iraq after his membership in Dawa Party was discovered by

Jul 17 Public celebrations held for Saddam’s election to presidency
Jul 17 Saddam called for Iraqi-Iranian friendship after Iranian Revolution

Jul 18 Saddam told Revolutionary Command Council Muhyi Hussin Mashadi
and four current and former ministers were involved in Syrian backed coup
Were put on trial and sentenced to death

Jul 22 Saddam videotaped speech at parliament accusing Baath members of  Syrian
            backed coup Most were executed 2 wks later

Aug 8 5 members of Revolutionary Command Council expelled and 16 members
            executed as opponents of Saddam

Sep 24 Iraq warned Iran to not to interfere in Bahrain after Ayatollah Khomeini’s son
            called on Shiites to rise up against their Sunni rulers

Nov 18 Naji Suwaidi became PM of Iraq

Dec 29 U.S. placed Iraq on list of State Sponsors of Terrorism for backing Palestinian
            terrorist Abu Nidal

Feb 8 Saddam proposed pan-Arab charter of non-aligned Arab states to oppose
            superpowers in region

Feb 23 Start of major military operation against Kurds

Mar 8 Iran withdrew its ambassador from Iraq Prelude to Iran-Iraq War

Mar 10 Iraq declared Iran’s ambassador persona non-grata as dispute built up leading
            to Iran-Iraq War

Mar 30 Baath made membership in Dawa punishable by death
(Musings On Iraq interview with Lowy Institute for International Policy’s Shanahan on the history of the Dawa Party)

Apr 1 Mustansiriya Univ in Baghdad bombed by Islamic Action Organization in
            attempt on life of Deputy PM Tariq Aziz

Apr 4 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr arrested in Najaf by Saddam

Apr 5 Saddam gave speech saying conflict with Iran was about Arabs vs Persians and
            denounced Ayatollah Khomeini
Apr 5 Bomb hit funeral procession in Baghdad of Mustansiriya bombing victims Done
            by Islamic Action Organization

Apr 6 Iraqi commandos fired rockets at Iranian oil field

Apr 7 Iran withdrew all its diplomatic personnel from Iraq
Apr 7 Iran put its military on full alert after accusing Iraq of repeated attacks upon
            its border area

Apr 8 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr and sister Bint al-Huda executed by Saddam
Apr 8 DIA said 50% chance Iraq would invade Iran Said Iraq thought Iranian military
            weak and could easily be defeated
Apr 8 Ayatollah Khomeini broadcast speech calling on Iraq’s people to topple their govt

Apr 9 Saddam deported 9,700 Shiites claiming they were Iranians Later deported
            another 16,000

Apr 15 Iraqi opposition group attempted to assassinate Information Minister Latif

Apr 22 Khomeini revealed that Ayatollah Baqir al-Sadr had been executed and called for
            overthrow of Saddam

Apr 30 By end of April around 20 Iraqi officials had been killed in bombings by
            Shiite opposition parties

May 24 Iraq backed failed coup vs Khomeini in Iran

Jun 14 Mossad assassinated Egyptian nuclear scientist Yahya El Mashad in Paris who
            Worked on Iraq’s nuclear program

Jun 20 Iraq held first elections since end of monarchy in 1958 Baath won 187 seats
            Independents 63

Jun 30 Newly elected parliament took office

Jul 9 Iraq backed failed military coup in Iran vs Khomeini

Aug 5 Saddam went to Saudi Arabia to discuss Iranian threat to region before invasion

Sep 2 Iraq-Iran border clash at Qasr-e-Shirin, Iran

Sep 4 Iran shelled Khanaqin and Mandali in Diyala and bombed two other border

Sep 6 Iran shelled more borders towns in Iraq from Zain al-Qas
Sep 6 Iraq threatened to seize Zain al-Qas area if Iran didn’t cede it in a week

Sep 7 Saddam claimed full sovereignty over Shatt al-Arab waterway
Sep 7 Iraq officially protested to Iran about shelling border towns Seized Zain
            Al-Qas in retaliation

Sep 8 Iraq demanded Iran surrender border towns that Iraq claimed

Sep 10 Iraq seized Saif Saad, Iran disputed town Iraq claimed Next two weeks were
            15 border incidents between two countries mostly in Basra

Sep 11 Iraq sent protest letter to Iran saying border incidents violated international law
and if they continued situation could escalate quickly Iraq said it would defend itself

Sep 12 Iraq began seizing border posts from Iran

Sep 13 In 2 days Iraq seized 5 border posts from Iran Tehran didn’t retaliate making
            Saddam believe reports that Iran was weak after revolution true

Sep 14 Iran’s Chief of Staff of military said it no longer abided by 1975 Algiers
            Agreement with Iraq over Shatt al-Arab border

Sep 16 Saddam said that Iran would not fight Iraq because it was afraid Said Iraq had
            to regain all the disputed territory it claimed

Sep 17 Saddam gave TV speech Said Iran violated 1975 Algiers Treaty was backing
Kurds Refused to return Iraqi territory Saddam then abrogated the 1949 Treaty of Good Relations and 1975 Algiers Treaty Also claimed sovereignty over Shatt al-Arab waterway
Sep 17 Heavy fighting broke out between Iraqi and Iranian forces in Shatt al-Arab

Sep 19 Iran began heavy shelling of Shatt al-Arab and attacked ships in waterway

Sep 20 Iran called up its military reserves

Sep 21 Iraq letter to UN outlined steps it took to try to work out outstanding issues with
            new revolutionary govt in Iran


Sep 22 Iraq invaded Iran started Iran-War War Iraq wanted to protect Kirkuk and
            Baghdad while seizing Khuzistan province in south Iran
Sep 22 Iraq started war by bombing 10 Iranian airfields hoping to destroy its air force
but failed Iraqi army crossed into Iran along 8 routes Attacked Pankwin to protect Sulaymaniya and Kirkuk Seized Qasr-e-Shirin to block road to Baghdad Took Meghan and reached Zagros Mountains to protect flank of southern thrust into Khuzistan 4 iraqi divisions attacked Khuzistan province taking Musian and moving on Dezful, Ahvaz, Shatt al-Arab, Khormashahr, Abadan
Sep 22 Iraq declared Khuzistan a new Iraqi province
Sep 22 UK Defense Committee discussed how to start selling weapons to Iraq during

Sep 24 Iranian navy attacked Basra and Fao Peninsula Destroyed 2 Iraqi oil terminals
            limiting Baghdad’s exports
Sep 24 Iran started naval blockade of Shatt al-Araba waterway

Sep 25 Iraq began attacking Dezful, Ahvaz, Khorramshahr in Khuzistan province
Sep 25 Iraq shelled Abadan refinery largest in world Iran retaliated with air raids on
            Iraqi oil fields in Basra Zubayr Mosul Kirkuk

Sep 26 Saddam sent letter to UN trying to explain why Iran-Iraq War started Claimed
            Iran refused to recognize Iraqi territory and sovereignty
Sep 26 Muslim countries set up committee to try to mediate war
Sep 26 Iran and Iraq temporarily stopped oil shipments due to attacks on each others’

Sep 27 Muslim countries’ committee sent delegation to Tehran to try to end Iran-Iraq

Sep 28 1st time UN Security Council discussed Iran-Iraq War Iraq’s UN ambassador
            blamed Iran for war saying it violated treaties and attacked Iraqi territory
Sep 28 UN Resolution 479 called for ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War Rejected by Iran
Sep 28 Muslim countries’ committee visited Tehran to try to mediate end to war
Sep 28 Saddam offered ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War if Iran accepted Iraq’s gains Saddam
said he wanted Iran to recognize its territory water rights non-aggression and non interference in internal affairs
Sep 28 Soviet Tass news agency criticized Iraq invading Iran as undermining national
            liberation movements in Middle East

Sep 30 Iranian air force launched Operation Scorch Sword attacking Iraq’s Osirak
            nuclear facility Only caused minimal damage
Sep 30 Iraqi forces were stopped outside Dezful, Ahvas and Abadan in Khuzistan
Sep 30 Soviet leader Bezhnev said Iran and Iraq were both friends of the USSR Two
            needed to negotiate end to war
Sep 30 Ayatollah Khomeini refused all talks with Iraq to end war
Sep 30 US State Dept told Italy’s Foreign Ministry that USSR turned down request by
            Iraq for additional military equipment

Oct 1 Iranian President Bani Sadr sent letter to UN saying Iraq started war Claimed Iraq
violated 1975 Algiers Treaty, sent agents into Iran to carry out sabotage, supported anti-revolutionary groups, expelled 40,000 Iraqis with joint Persian citizenship showing that Baghdad was hostile towards Tehran Said Iran not ready to follow UN calls for a ceasefire

Oct 3 Ayatollah Khomeini speech said goal of war was to punish the Baah and rejected
            negotiations to end it
Oct 3 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi presented Iraq’s case to UN claiming it acted in
            self-defense in Iran-Iraq War

Oct 4 Iraq announced unilateral ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War but Iran didn’t comply

Oct 5 Iraq ended unilateral ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War after Iran didn’t follow suite and
            went back to fighting

Oct 6 Iraqi army surrounded Khorramshahr, Iran and street fighting began

Oct 11 Iraq began second attack on Khorramshahr, Iran

Oct 14 Iraqi forces entered Khorramshahr, Iran Iranians began phased withdrawal from

Oct 15 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi presented Iraq’s case to UN claiming it acted in

Oct 17 UN Security Council discussed Iran-Iraq War Iran’s
Oct 17 Iran’s Premier Mohammed addressed the Council saying Iraq was the aggressor
in the war Claimed Saddam wanted to overthrow the revolution Claimed Iraq backed by superpowers, Saudis, Egypt, Jordan and Morocco
Oct 17 Iraq Foreign Minister Hamadi addressed Council accusing Iran of violating
Algiers Accord blamed Iran for border incidents noted Iraq sent several letters to Tehran calling for talks which were ignored
Oct 17 Security Council endorsed Secretary General’s efforts to negotiate ceasefire

Oct 18 Pres Carter called on Iraq to withdrawn from Iran Carter was trying to get US
            hostages held by Tehran released

Oct 19 Saddam speech said Iraq couldn’t win war because outnumbered by Iran

Oct 20 US said Iraq invasion of Iran threatened security in Gulf and land should not be
            seized by force

Oct 21 Iraqi forces reached city center in Khorramshahr, Iran

Oct 22 Iraqi forces surrounded and began siege of Abadan, Iran

Oct 23 US said Iran’s national integrity was threatened by Iraq

Oct 24 Iraq crossed Shatt al-Arab and took city center in Khorramshahr

Oct 25 Iraq fired missiles at Dezful, Iran

Oct 26 Iraq fired missiles at Dezful, Iran for 2nd day
Oct 26 Most of the Iranian forces driven out of Khorramshahr by Iraqi army
Oct 26 Soviet news agency accused Iraq of aligning with U.S. in Iran-Iraq War
Oct 26 Iran objected to Iraq abrogating 1975 Algiers Agreement in letter to UN Claimed
Iran still following agreement and it was Baghdad that violated it Month into war and two countries were still arguing over border

Oct 30 Saddam predicted Iran-Iraq War would only last 6-12 months

Nov 7 Iranian commandos attacked Iraqi oil export terminals at Mina al-Bakr and Fao

Nov 10 Iraq captured Khorramshahr Iraqis called it “city of blood” afterward
Nov 10 Iraq claimed Iran started Iran-Iraq War by bombing border towns in Sep 1980
Nov 10 Iraq gave up claim to break up Iran but said its right to Iranian territory would
            be determined on battlefield

Nov 16 Iraq sent letter to the Iran saying Baghdad was still following 1975 Algiers
            Accord on Shatt al-Arab and Tehran was violating it 

Nov 17 Iraq’s Susangard offensive failed after 3 days

Nov 26 Iraq sent letter to UN saying it was still following the 1975 Algiers Accord
            on Shatt al-Arab and Iran was violating it

Nov 28 Iran launched Operation Morvarid that destroyed 80% of Iraq’s navy in

Nov 29 Iranian attack on Iraqi oil facilities in Basra cut exports from 3.24 mil/bar/day to
            550,000 bar/day

Nov 30 Iranian air force attacked Iraq’s nuclear reactor at Tuwaitha and Fao Peninsula in

Dec 2 Saddam accused US of helping Iran during Iran-Iraq war

Dec 7 Saddam announced that Iraq was going on the defensive in the Iran-Iraq War
Saddam originally thought he could seize Khuzistan province in Iraq leading to an uprising and overthrow of Khomeini govt but didn’t happen

Dec 24 Iraq air forced bombed Iran’s main oil terminal at Kharg Island for 1st time

Dec 26 Saddam said frontline in war would be new border with Iran and demanded
            Tehran give self-rule to Arabs in southwestern Iran

Jan 4 Iran claimed it destroyed Iraq’s oil industry in Iran-Iraq War Was just

Jan 5 Iranian Pres Bani Sadr announced counter attack against Iraq using Basij militia
            and army in Susangard and Dezful

Jan 10 Iran accused Iraq of using napalm and chemical weapons on Ahvaz, Iran
Jan 10 Iraq defeated Iranian attack in Susangard in one of largest tank battles in Middle
            East Iran lost 300 tanks to 50 by Iraq

Jan 16 UN Envoy Palme visited Iran and Iraq to try to negotiate ceasefire

Jan 18 Saddam accused Iran of getting US spare parts despite US embargo
Jan 18 UN Envoy Palme warned that superpowers may get involved in Iran-Iraq War

Jan 25 Islamic Conference Organization created group to try to mediate end to Iran-Iraq

Feb 1 Iraq received 1st of 4 shipments of Mirage jets from France despite Paris claiming
            neutrality in Iran-Iraq War

Feb 4 Iraq received around 100 tanks from Eastern Europe

Feb 5 UK rejected requests by both Iraq and Iran for military equipment

Feb 9 Iran and Iraq agreed to visits by Islamic leaders who wanted to try to negotiate
            a ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War

Feb 11 Iraq offered Iran a ceasefire at Non-Aligned Movement conference Iran rejected

Feb 17 UN Rep Palme went to Iran and Iraq for 3rd time to try to negotiate ceasefire

Feb 22 Iran rejected UN attempts to negotiate ceasefire as long as Iraqi troops were on
            Iranian territory

Feb 28 Islamic Conference Organization delegation arrived in Iran Tehran said it wanted
aggressor in the war to be determined and punished and full withdrawal from Iranian territory
Feb 28 Speaker Rafsanjani later told Islamic Conference that he was sure Iran would
            win war so Tehran didn’t want negotiated settlement

Mar 1 Islamic Conference Organization group met with Ayatollah Khomeini He asked
for judgement on who was the aggressor in the war and wanted a plebiscite in Iraq to see whether the people wanted Saddam as their leader

Mar 2 Islamic Conference Organization delegation met with Saddam and his cabinet
Saddam said he wanted a ceasefire and wanted to now what Khomeini’s position was

Mar 3 Islamic Conference Organization group went back to Tehran to present its peace

Mar 4 Islamic Conference Organization’s peace plan was rejected by both Iran and Iraq
Mar 4 Italy authorized sale of 11 naval vessels and a floating dock worth $1.8 bil to Iraq

Mar 5 Iraq offered peace deal to Iran including a withdrawal from Iranian territory
Khomeini said no seeing offer as weakness by Saddam Iran’s rejection led to new round of attacks by Iraq
Mar 5 Report that Iraq wanted to buy military equipment from US but turned down

Mar 6 Iran demanded Islamic Conference Organization determine aggressor in the war

Mar 7 Iran rejected any ceasefire with Iraq Baghdad began bombing Iranian town of
            Ilam and oil refinery in Khuzistan in retaliation

Mar 14 Cuba’s foreign minister arrived in Lebanon as head of Non-Aligned Movement
            attempt to negotiate ceasefire in war

Mar 15 Saddam said unless Iran agreed to ceasefire he would aid Iranian opposition

Mar 18 US senator told press Iraq was trying to build a nuclear bomb

Mar 19 Iraq attacked Susangard, Iran after ceasefire offer rejected by Khomeini

Mar 20 Iraqi attack on Susangard failed after one day Turning point in war Iraq couldn't
            capture anymore Iranian land

Mar 22 Iraq fired missiles at Dezful and Ahvaz, Iran Was shift in war as Iraq stopped
            major land operations

Mar 23 Iran said it would not accept ceasefire with Iraq as long as Saddam was in power

Mar 27 Start of second attempt by Islamic Conference to negotiate ceasefire in Iran-Iraq

Mar 31 Egypt began selling military equipment to Iraq

Apr 3 Iranian air raid on Iraqi airbase destroyed 27-50 Iraqi air force planes

Apr 4 Iran bombed Iraq’s H3 airbase near Syria Destroyed Iraq’s strategic bomber force
            Damascus was believed to have helped the Iranian strike
Apr 4 Iran said it wouldn’t negotiate a ceasefire with Saddam
Apr 4 Head of US Interests Section in Iraq said that US and Iraq were growing closer

Apr 8 Secretary of State Haig said that Iraq was an important Middle Eastern country
            and hoped for better relations in future

Apr 19 Revolutionary Command Council member Tariq Aziz said he hoped for better
            relations with US but skeptical it would happen

Apr 21 Kuwait gave Iraq $2 bil interest free loan to help pay for Iran-Iraq War

May 4 Iraq began shelling Iran’s oil refinery at Abadan

May 4 Press report that Soviets sent military aid to Iraq through Eastern European allies
            Moscow claimed it was neutral when war started

May 28 Dawa blew up an ammo and fuel dump at Baghdad Airport

May 31 Iran attacked Iraqi forces in Qasr-e-Shirin and Dehloran in central and northern

Jun 7 Israel bombed Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor at Tuwaitha to stop Saddam’s
            bomb program

Jun 16 Iraq and Iran held 1st prisoner swap set up by Red Cross during Iran-Iraq War

Jun 17 Col Qaddafi announced he would go to Tehran and Baghdad to try to negotiate
            ceasefire Libya supported Iran in war

Jun 19 UN Resolution 487 condemned Israel’s destruction of Iraq’s Osirak
            nuclear reactor

Jun 21 UN representative Palme took 4th trip to Tehran to try to negotiate ceasefire to
            end Iran-Iraq War

Jun 24 UK signed trade pact with Baghdad that would expand trade to more than $2

Jun 28 Iraq offered Ramadan ceasefire but rejected by Iran

Jul 16 Saudis offer to finance reconstruction of Iraq’s Osirak nuclear reactor destroyed
            by Israeli air raid

Aug 6 Cuba China India Zambia PLO sent delegation to Tehran to try to end Iran-Iraq

Aug 26 85 POWs exchanged between Iraq and Iran in Cyprus 2nd prisoner exchange
            of Iran-Iraq War

Sep 15 Reagan administration discussed covert arms deal with Iraq to get a Russian
            T-72 tank in return Iraq rejected idea

Sep 22 Iran began Operation Samen ol Aemeh to break siege of Abadan Iran’s 2nd
            largest city

Sep 26 Iranian forces encircled Iraqi forces around Abadan breaking siege 600-1500
            Iraqis killed 2500 captured 3000 Iranian dead
Sep 26 International Atomic Energy Agency condemned Israel’s destruction of Osirak
            nuclear reactor and suspended aid to Israel

Sep 29 Iran retook Abadan, 2nd largest city in Iran, inflicted 2,100 casualties on Iraqis

Oct 2 Iran bombed 4 hydroelectric power plants in Iraq

Oct 22 UN backed Islamic Conference Organization’s attempt to end war

Nov 5 Iraq offered Muharram ceasefire

Nov 10 Iran rejected Iraqi call for a ceasefire and said it was a sign of weakness by

Nov 13 UN Resolution 36/27 again criticized Israel’s destruction of Osirak nuclear
            reactor and said Israel should pay for damages

Nov 29 Iran started Op Jerusalem Way in Khuzestan province Was start of human wave

Dec 7 Iran freed Bostan and forced an Iraqi retreat

Dec 10 Report that Soviet Union resumed arms deliveries to Iraq after ban when Iran-
            Iraq War started

Dec 15 Iraq said it was ready to end war if Iran recognized borders Iran rejected offer

Dec 21 Kuwait and UAE agreed to loan Iraq $2 bil to help during Iran-Iraq War

Dec 29 Syria said it would start talks with Iran to try to end Iran-Iraq War

Dec 31 End of 1st yr of Iran-Iraq War 22,000 Iraqi 38,000 Iranian dead

Jan 1 Peshmerga bombed Iraq-Turkey oil pipeline

Jan 26 Iran and Iraq agreed to family visits for prisoners of war

Jan 29 King Hussein said Jordanian troops would be sent to Iraq to help in Iran-Iraq War

Feb 27 US removed Iraq from list of terrorist countries in step towards restoring

Mar 1 UN Rep Palme said his 5th attempt to negotiate ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War failed

Mar 16 Iraq’s Deputy PM Yassin Ramadan said Iraq was ready to withdraw from Iran
            and would accept ceasefire

Mar 19 Iran broke Dezful siege Iraqis lost 10,000 dead 15,000 wounded 15,450 captured
Iran lost 4,000 dead 8,000 wounded 6,000 captured Iran recaptured 940 sq mi of Iranian territory
Mar 19 Saddam sent envoy to Islamic mediation mission with cease-fire proposal and
            offered to withdraw from Iranian territory

Mar 22 Iran launched Op Fath ol-Mobin to retake Shush Was largest military operation
            up to that time in Iran-Iraq War

Mar 25 Iraq asked US to stop Israel from sending weapons to Iran US Said it had no
            say in matter
Mar 25 Reagan admin officials warned that if Iran beat Iraq in Iran-Iraq War would
            endanger western interests

Mar 28 Saddam ordered Iraqi forces to withdraw from Shush Lost 3 divisions 25,000
casualties 15-20,000 captured Iran suffered 30,000 casualties due to human wave attacks

Mar 29 Saddam offered to withdraw to international border between Iran-Iraq Was
            rejected by Iran

Mar 30 Saddam admitted that Iraqi forces retreated from southern Iran

Apr 2 Deputy commander of Iran’s armed forces claimed end of Iran-Iraq War was near

Apr 8 Syria closed border to Iraq claiming Saddam backed Muslim Brotherhood
            against Assad

Apr 10 Syria closed Iraqi pipeline to Mediterranean to help Iran in war Cut Iraq oil
exports to just 600,000 bar/day Led Iraq to settle border disputes with Jordan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia to build land routes for its oil

Apr 12 Iraq again offered to withdraw from Iranian territory if Iran agreed to end war
            Rejected by Iran

Apr 27 French delegation returned to Iraq to help work on its Osirak nuclear reactor
            they had left after Iranian bombing of reactor in 1980

Apr 29 Iran launched Op Bait al-Moqaddas with 70,000 troops to liberate Khorramshahr
            Gained 300 sq mi

May 3 Iraq counterattacked in Khuzistan ending Iran’s Op Bait al-Moqaddas

May 8 Iran announced it had reached pre-war border with Iraq

May 9 Iran cut off 2 Iraqi divisions and regained 116 sq mi in Khuzistan province

May 12 Iran drove Iraqi forces out of Susangerd area

May 20 Iraq counterattacked against Iran in Khorramshahr

May 22 Iran broke through Iraqi defenses around Khorramshahr

May 23 Iraq invoked Arab League 1950 defense agreement to get military aid from
            members to help in war Got nothing League divided

May 24 Iran’s Op Beit al-Moqaddas ended with Iraqi forces pushed back to Iran-
Iraq border in Khuzistan province Iran captured 12,000-15,000 Iraqis, regained 2,077 sq mi of Iranian territory
May 24 Israeli press reported US sent arms to Egypt which were then sold to Iraq

May 30 Protests and riots in Karbala Basra Nasiriyah Baghdad over battlefield losses
            in Iran-Iraq War

Jun 2 Gulf Cooperation Council offered peace plan to end Iran-Iraq War Israeli
            invasion of Lebanon ended plan

Jun 3 Iraqi intelligence made attempt on life of Israeli ambassador to England Was
Evidence Iraq tried to provoke Israeli invasion of Lebanon via assassination to try to end Iran-Iraq War by uniting Middle Eastern countries including Iran vs Israel

Jun 4 Tariq Aziz went to Moscow seeking military aid for Iran-Iraq War but was turned

Jun 6 After Israel invaded Lebanon Saddam offered ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War and for
            Iraq to send troops to help Palestinians

Jun 9 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council offered ceasefire with Iran but was

Jun 10 Saddam announced unilateral ceasefire and withdrawal from Iranian territory
            Rejected by Iran
Jun 10 Soviet Union renewed military supplies to Iraq which it had stopped when war

Jun 12 U.N. called for ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War

Jun 20 Ayatollah Khomeini said war would end when Saddam was out of power

Jun 21 Ayatollah Khomeini said that Iran was planning to invade Iraq

Jun 22 Saddam said Iraqi forces would withdraw from Iran in 10 days Khomeini said
            that war would not end
Jun 22 Commander in chief of Iranian army said Iran-Iraq War would continue until
            Saddam overthrown

Jun 24 9th Regional Baath Party Congress held in secret Saddam said party
            infiltrated by enemies and suffered from bad decisions
Jun 24 After congress Saddam changed party leadership to ensure his control

Jun 28 Saddam dismissed all the members of the Revolutionary Command Council

Jun 29 Iraq claimed it had withdrawn all its troops from Iranian territory Iraq still held
            border areas

Jul 8 Saddam survived assassination attempt in Dujail Saddam ordered town
destroyed 1500 residents arrested 150 executed

Jul 9 Pres Rafsanjani said Iran would accept peace if 1975 border treaty retained
            $100 bil in reparations paid by Iraq and Saddam tried as war criminal

Jul 12 UN offered ceasefire and withdrawal from territory to try to stop Iran from
            invading Iraq Iran said no

Jul 13 Iran’s Op Ramadan invaded Iraqi territory for 1st time in attempt to seize
Basra Took 10 miles of territory, but was then stopped Iran used 5 human wave attacks with 100,000 troops against Iraqi lines Iraq used tear gas to turn back Iranian attacks

Jul 22 Iran made second attempt to seize Basra City Turned back

Jul 27 US official sent to Baghdad to share CIA satellite imagery of Iranian troop

Jul 28 During Iranian Op Ramadan Ayatollah Baqir al-Hakim crossed into province
            from Iran Called for uprising vs Saddam
Jul 28 During peak of Op Ramadan Iran held 120 sq mi of Iraqi territory By end only
            had 32 sq mi

Jul 31 Iraq claimed it crushed Iranian Op Ramadan to seize Basra

Aug 1 Iraq announced exclusion zone around Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal
            would attack any ships that entered
Aug 1 Dawa bombed Planning Ministry in Baghdad

Aug 2 Iran ended Op Ramadan attempt to take Basra with very little gains but large

Sep 11 Iraq agreed to Arab League ceasefire proposal including withdrawing from
            Iran and $70 bil in reparations Iran said no

Oct 1 Iran launched Op Muslim ibn Aqil in Diyala Aim was to take Baghdad Recovered
            150 sq km of Iranian territory

Oct 3 Sudan said it would send troops to help Iraq in Iran-Iraq War

Oct 4 Secretary of State Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko met and agreed
            Iran-Iraq War should end as soon as possible

Oct 5 UN called for ceasefire Iraq accepted Iran rejected

Oct 7 During Op Muslim ibn Aqil Iranian forces reached Mandali, Diyala but stopped
            from further advances

Oct 10 Iran made 2nd attack on Diyala Entered Mandali but forced out Aim was
            reaching Baghdad Iran recaptured 80 sq mi of Iranian territory

Oct 31 Iran launched Muharram al-Haram attacking Diyala and Maysan Took Back 120
sq mi of Iranian territory 330 sq mi of Iraqi land Iraq called up its military reserves

Nov 9 Saddam called for referendum in Iraq and Iran to see who was more popular he or

Nov 10 Saddam said Iran wanted to rule Iraq not just get rid of him

Nov 11 Iran ended Op Muharram after failing to gain much territory in Maysan and Diyala

Nov 13 Saddam ran informal referendum backed by pro-Saddam marches

Nov 17 Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim announced Supreme Assembly of the Islamic
            Revolution in Iraq formed in Iran

Nov 20 Tariq Aziz accused US and Soviet Union of allowing weapons to be sent to Iran

Dec 12 Iran attacked Qasr e-Shirin central Iran

Jan 13 Report China was supplying both Iraq and Iran with weapons during war

Jan 15 Saddam went to Riyadh and got approval for oil pipeline through Saudi Arabia
            Was meant to diversify export routes while Persian Gulf threatened during war

Feb 7 Iran launched Op Fajr al-Nasr attacking Basra-Baghdad highway in Maysan
with 6 divisions Iran regained 100 sq mi of Iranian territory but turned back in Maysan

Feb 14 Secretary of State Shultz met with Iraq’s Foreign Minister Hammadi who asked
            for expanded trade deals

Feb 26 Iran’s Op Fajr al-Nasr in Maysan to seize Basra-Baghdad road ended with only
            marginal gains

Mar 1 Iraq attacked Iran’s Nowruz oilfield along Persian Gulf

Mar 3 Iraq claimed it destroyed several Iranian oil rigs and 5 Iranian ships in Persian

Mar 5 Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko met with Iraqi and Iranian delegations to try to
            mediate end to Iran-Iraq War

Mar 14 Secretary of State Shultz ordered US diplomat in Baghdad to discuss US
            financing of trade deals with Iraq

Mar 20 Saddam executed 6 members of the Hakim family including 3 brothers of
            Ayatollah Hakim

Mar 22 Helicopter crash revealed Italy providing advanced electronic equipment to Iraq

Apr 4 Iraq offered 1 day ceasefire in order to clean up oil spill Iran rejected offer

Apr 8 Dawa bombed offices of Iraqi Airways in Baghdad

Apr 10 Iran launched Op Wa al-Fajr 1 attacked Ain al-Qaws with goal of cutting
Baghdad-Basra highway in Maysan using human waves Seized 69 sq mi of Iranian territory

Apr 12 Iraq said it would start using new weapons for 1st time meaning WMD in war

Apr 14 Iraq claimed it repulsed Iran’s Op Wa al-Fajr 1 killing 9,800 Iranians

Apr 17 Iran ended Op Wa al-Fajr 1 to try to cut Baghdad-Basra highway in Maysan
Apr 17 Saddam invited Ayatollah Khomeini to Baghdad for Islamic conference to try to
            End war

Apr 19 Baath meeting in Amara over army desertions in southern Iraq Came up with
            military operation to arrest them

May 2 Iran and Iraq exchanged 55 prisoners of war in Turkey

May 3 Iraqi Op Salam launched in southern Iraq to capture and kill army deserters

May 13 Tariq Aziz went to Paris to ask for new arms deal with France

May 25 7,000 Turkish troops moved 18 mi into Kurdistan to attack PKK bases Iraq and
Turkey had agreement to allow each other to conduct cross border operations to attack Kurds

Jun 7 Iraq offered ceasefire in war Rejected by Iran

Jun 27 France agreed to lend Iraq 5 Super Entendard fighter bombers that Baghdad
            wanted to use to attack Iranian oil fields and installations

Jul 5 Tariq Aziz returned from trip to Egypt to improve relations and ensure Cairo would
            continue to supply Iraq with ammunition

Jul 12 Reagan signed NSDD 99 to review US policy in Middle East Led to tilt towards

Jul 22 Iran’s Op Wa al-Fajr 2 attacked Kurdistan Seized 150 sq mi of territory half in
            Iraq KDP and Badr Brigade helped Iran in offensive
Jul 22 Iran seized Haj Umran in Kurdistan Tehran sent SCIRI to set up offices in town

Jul 27 Iraq announced it would increase attacks on Iran’s oil facilities

Jul 30 Iran ended Op Wa al-Fajr 2 after seizing 14 km of Kurdistan and capturing Hajj
            Omran garrison
Jul 30 Iran started Op Wa al-Fajr 3 to free Mehran, Iran

Jul 31 Iraqi army took 8,000 men from Barzani clan and executed them

Aug 9 Iran’s Op Wa al-Fajr 3 to recapture Mehran, Iran failed Did seize 60 sq mi half in

Sep 7 US-Iraq began high level diplomatic talks to restore full relations Iraq asked US
            for help to end Iran-Iraq War

Sep 19 Iran said if major powers kept backing Iraq they would have oil cut off to them

Sep 20 Iran threatened to close Persian Gulf if West and Gulf States continued to aid

Oct 1 After international pressure France said it would delay shipping 5 Super Enendard
fighter bombers to Iraq but went ahead secretly

Oct 3 US report Iran turning tide in Iran-Iraq War and US already starting to tilt towards

Oct 8 France secretly began delivering 5 Super Entendard fighter bombers to Iraq

Oct 20 Iran launched Wa al-Fajr 4 in Kurdistan taking 25 mi of Iraqi land

Oct 25 Iran claimed Iraqi troops destroyed Kurdish town of Penjwin

Nov 1 Sec of State Schultz told Iraq using chemical weapons almost every day in Iran-
            Iraq War

Nov 2 Iraq warned merchants ships to avoid northern end of Persian Gulf due to war

Nov 21 Iran’s Op Wa al-Fajr 4 ended taking a few miles of territory in Kurdistan

Nov 23 Iraq sank Greek cargo ship at Iranian port of Bushehr

Nov 26 Pres Reagan signed NSDD114 saying U.S. would back Iraq in Iran-Iraq
            War to prevent it from losing

Dec 10 Dawa members including Abu Muhandis set off 5 bombs at US and French
            embassies and other targets in Kuwait killing 6 wounding 80

Dec 12 Iraq fired missiles at 6 Iranian cities killing 24 and wounding 283

Dec 14 State Dept memo said that major setback for Iraq in war would be strategic
            defeat for West

Dec 19 Reagan Special Envoy to Middle East Rumsfeld arrived in Baghdad to try
            to improve US-Iraq relations

Dec 20 Reagan envoy to Middle East Rumsfeld met with Saddam as part of new
            US policy to back Iraq in war

Dec 23 Jordan gave Iraq $125 mil line of credit to help Baghdad in war

Jan 1 Report US told Persian Gulf allies that it supported Iraq in Iran-Iraq War

Jan 10 Iraq announced plan to build oil pipeline to Jordan’s Aqaba

Jan 30 State Dept memo said that US considered stopping discouraging military exports
            to Iraq

Feb 7 Iranian offensives led Iraq to counter with 1st War of Cities

Feb 10 Iraq fired missiles at Dezful, Iran shelled Basra, Khanaqin, Mandali

Feb 12 Iraq launched missiles and air strikes on Dezful, Iran leaving 105 casualties
            during war of cities

Feb 15 Iraq, Egypt, Argentina and Swiss companies signed contract to develop long
            range missile
Feb 15 Iran started Op Dawn 5 and 6 largest operations to date in war Involved 500,000
troops on both sides Aimed at cutting Baghdad-Basra road

Feb 16 Iran cut Basra-Baghdad highway between Maysan and Wasit

Feb 18 UN negotiated deal for Iran and Iraq to stop attacking civilian areas Didn’t last

Feb 21 Iraq warned that it could use chemical weapons against next Iranian offensive

Feb 22 Iraq’s bombing raids on Iranian cities stopped ending 1st War of the Cities

Feb 24 Iran ended Ops Dawn 5 and 6 attacking Basra after just 9 days with few gains
Feb 24 Iranians started Op Khaibar attacking Hawizeh Marshes in Basra

Feb 25 Iraqis used mustard gas against Iranians to try to turn them back in southern
Feb 25 Iraq began offensive attacking Iran’s ports and oil facilities along with shipping in
            Persian Gulf

Feb 27 Iran captured Majnoon Islands
Feb 27 Iraq bombed Iran’s main oil terminal Kharg Island Said it would continue to
            attack oil industry until Iran agreed to end war
Feb 27 Iraq used leased French Super Entendard jets for 1st time attacking two Iranian

Feb 29 Iran reached outskirts of Qurna, Basra Turned back by Iraqi counterattacks
            and chemical weapons

Mar 1 Iran made another attack through Iraq’s southern marshes Suffered heavy
Mar 1 France agreed to $500 mil loan to Baghdad that would pay for French contractors
            in Iraq

Mar 2 Iraqis used mustard gas against Iranians to try to turn them back in southern

Mar 3 US stopped company from selling products to Iraq that could be used for
            chemical weapons

Mar 4 Iraqi general quoted as saying that Iraq had right to use chemical weapons against
            Iran to defend itself

Mar 5 US condemned Iraq’s use of WMD for 1st time in Iran-Iraq War

Mar 7 Iraq again used mustard gas against Iranians to try to turn them back in southern

Mar 8 UN sent team to Iraq to investigate Baghdad’s use of chemical weapons against

Mar 9 Iraqis used mustard gas against Iranians to try to turn them back in southern

Mar 11 Report Iraq had 3 poison gas plants producing chemical weapons for Iran-Iraq

Mar 13 UN team arrived in Iraq to investigate use of chemical weapons while Iran
            made new claims its forces hit with mustard gas in Manjoon Islands

Mar 16 Iran fought off Iraqi effort to free Majnoon Islands

Mar 17 Belgian labs confirmed mustard gas used by Iraq from samples taken from two
            wounded Iranians

Mar 22 Soviet Union agreed to build a new nuclear power plant in Iraq to replace Osirak
            facility destroyed by Israel in 1981

Mar 26 US Special Envoy Rumsfeld arrived in Iraq for 2nd time Rumsfeld presented
            secret proposal for Israeli aid against Iran Iraq rejected offer

Mar 27 Iraq began tanker war

Mar 29 US intel found Iraq buying equipment from West German company to make
            chemical weapons W. Germany denied story
Mar 29 US intel reported Iraq had 5 sites producing chemical weapons

Mar 30 UN condemned use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War but didn’t mention
            Iraq as perpetrator
Mar 30 US banned export of 5 chemicals to Iraq that could be used to make chemical

Apr 5 Reagan issued NSDD 139 that US would help Iraq in Iran-Iraq War

Apr 6 Iran and Iraq announced end of 4th round of war of cities
Apr 6 Report UK firms sold agents to Iraq to make mustard gas and sarin

Apr 15 State Dept said that Iraq stopped using chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War
            after U.S. warning in 1983 but started again in Feb 1984

Apr 18 Iraq escalated its attacks on tankers heading for Iran

May 9 State Dept memo said that new pro-Iraq policy could lead to export of dual
            use equipment for Baghdad’s nuclear program

May 13 Iran attacked Kuwait tanker carrying Iraqi oil in Persian Gulf Was retaliation
            for Iraq attacks on Iranian oil industry Started tanker war

May 16 US offered to provide air cover to any Arab country’s oil tankers in Persian Gulf
            to protect them from Iranian attack

May 20 Iraq sank Panamanian oil tanker in Persian Gulf in tanker war

Mar 22 Reagan briefed on study that said there should be a military embargo on both
            Iran and Iraq Reagan agreed to policy

May 29 US backed UN resolution condemning Iranian attacks on Persian Gulf shipping
            Didn’t mention Iraq’s attacks

Jun 1 UN Security Council condemned Iran and Iraq attacking tankers in Persian Gulf

Jun 7 Soviets delivered new missiles to Iraq which Baghdad said it would use
            against Iran’s oil industry

Jun 11 2nd time UN got Iran and Iraq to agree to not attack each others cities Didn’t last

Jun 15 UN brokered deal between Iran and Iraq to stop attacks on civilian targets

Jun 24 Iraq bombed Iran’s main oil terminal Kharg Island 2nd time Only minimal

Aug 8 Germany announced restrictions on sale of chemical manufacturing equipment
            to Iraq after reports used to make WMD

Aug 19 France agreed to refinance $1.4 bil in debts Iraq owed France biggest western
            backer of Iraq

Aug 28 Senate Foreign Relations Committee report said US and Soviet Union both
            backing Iraq in Iran-Iraq War

Sep 27 Japan offered ceasefire proposal to UN to end Iran-Iraq War

Oct 8 Iraq broke 3 week ceasefire in Tanker War with attack upon ship leaving Iran’s
            Kharg Island main oil facility

Oct 10 Tariq Aziz complained that Western Europe was still sending military equipment
            to Iran despite US efforts to stop them

Oct 12 Saddam told Arabic newspaper he was ready to reestablish diplomatic relations
            with U.S.

Oct 18 Iran launched Op Dawn 7 to recapture the city of Mehran Won back some
            Iranian territory

Oct 24 US Info Service reopened office in Baghdad Closed since 1958 in first step to
            reestablish formal relations between US and Iraq

Oct 25 Iranian troops recaptured Mehran, Iran ending Op Dawn 7

Oct 26 Tariq Aziz told Sec of State Shultz Iraq ready to resume full diplomatic relations
            with Iraq after 17 yr break

Oct 27 Iraq restored diplomatic relations with US which had ended in Oct 1967

Jan 28 Iraq launched first offensive since 1981 attacking Qasr e Shirin central Iran
Jan 28 Iraq tried to re-take Majnoon Islands but failed

Jan 30 Iraq attacked Said Saad

Feb 20 US and Soviet officials met to discuss ways to end Iran-Iraq War Nothing
            came of it

Mar 1 Iraqi diplomat and son assassinated in Kuwait Iraq blamed SCIRI Iraq executed
10 Hakim family members in retaliation for assassination of its diplomat in Kuwait

Mar 5 Iraq bombed Ahvaz in Khuzistan province Started new war of cities

Mar 11 Iran bombed Baghdad and 10 other Iraqi cities
Mar 11 Iran started Op Badr trying again to cut Basra-Baghdad highway

Mar 14 Iran fired SCUD missiles at Kirkuk War of Cities

Mar 15 Iraq carried out air raid on Tehran Iran fired SCUDs at Baghdad in War of Cities

Mar 17 Iran captured section of Basra-Baghdad highway for first time

Mar 18 Iraq bombed Tehran in retaliation for Iran bombing Baghdad War of Cities
Mar 18 Iran claimed it controlled all the marshes south of Amarah, Maysan Iraq
            launched counterattack

Mar 20 Iraqi counter attack forced Iranians back into Maysan-Basra marshes 20,000
            Iranians 14,000 Iraqis killed

Mar 21 State Dept spokesman claimed US thought Iraq had defeated Iran and
            said Tehran should accept negotiated settlement

Mar 22 Tehran Tabriz Shiraz and Isfahan bombed by Iraqi air force War of Cities

Mar 23 Iran ended Op Badr failed attempt to attack Basra city Iraq 10-12,000 casualties
            Iran 15,000

Mar 25 US intel reports Iraq used chemical weapons in fighting in southern Iraq

Mar 26 Iraq threatened to spread war to all sections of Iran if it didn’t agree to a peace

Mar 31 UN Sec Gen arrived in Iran Told Iraqi air raids killed 1450 civilians and
            wounded 4000

Apr 5 Iranian delegation to Soviet Union said that Tehran would only accept complete
            Iraqi surrender to end Iran-Iraq War

Apr 6 UN Sec Gen deCuellar announced he would go to Baghdad and Tehran to try to
            negotiate end to Iran-Iraq War

Apr 8 2nd War of the Cities ended
Apr 8 UN Sec Gen de Cuellar went to Baghdad where Saddam said Iraq was ready to
            enter into talks to end war

Apr 9 UN Sec Gen deCuellar left Baghdad saying he had not been able to bridge divide
            between Iraq and Iran

Apr 30 Secretary of State Shultz asked Defense Secretary Weinberger to speed up
            approval of technology exports to Iraq
Apr 30 State Dept intel reported no evidence Iraq had started on a nuclear weapons
            program It had

May 5 Iraq bombed Ahvaz and Bushahr starting 2nd War of the Cities Iran fired
            missiles at Baghdad and shelled Iraqi border towns

May 7 Iraq shelled Kharmashahr

May 11 Iran launched attack into southern Iraq marshes to seize Basra-Baghdad

May 20 Iranian offensive into Iraqi southern marshes to seize Basra-Baghdad
            highway ended in failure
May 20 Saudis offered peace deal while Prince Faisal visited Iran Rejected by Tehran

May 30 Iraq carried out heavy air raid on Iran oil terminal at Kharg Island

Jun 4 Iraq carried out heavy air raid on Iran oil terminal at Kharg Island

Jun 14 Iraq halted air raids for 2 wks on Iran calling on Iranians to push Khomeini
            towards peace
Jun 14 From March to June 1985 43 Iraqi air raids on Tehran Only 12 Iranian SCUDs
hit Baghdad in response Iraqi raids did little damaged Failed to push Iran towards peace talks

Jul 1 Defense Dept official said that US should watch technology exports to Iraq
            because they could be used for its nuclear weapons program

Jul 25 Congress agreed to State Dept request to remove Iraq from list of states
            supporting terrorism

Aug 14 Iraq started air campaign against Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal Air
strikes would reduce capacity at facility by 1/3 forcing Iran to move most of its shipping south out of range of Iraqi jets

Aug 16 Iraq claimed it destroyed Iran’s main oil terminal at Kharg Island but only
            damaged it

Sep 8 Iran attacked Rawandoz, Kurdistan with KDP seizing large amount of land

Sep 11 Iran seized western Majnoon Islands Iraq counterattacked but failed
            to dislodge Iranians Did stop advance

Sep 27 At UN Iraq’s Foreign Minister Aziz blamed Iran for starting and continuing the
            Iran-Iraq War Said Tehran wanted to overthrow the Iraqi govt

Oct 5 Iraq ended air strikes on Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal Hit 21 times but
            no lasting damage

Dec 5 Saudis announced attempt to end the Iran-Iraq War through dialogue with

Dec 9 Saudis announced attempts at talks with Iran failed

Jan 6 Iraq started op to try to retake Majnoon Island

Feb 9 Iran Op Wa al-Fajr 8 Largest so far 50% of army 2/3 of Revolutionary Guard
            attacked Fao Peninsula, Basra

Feb 11 Iranians captured Fao Peninsula Iranians launched diversionary attack in Basra
            marshes to draw away Iraqi forces from counterattacking in Fao
Feb 11 Iraq blamed US for not providing intelligence on Iranian offensive

Feb 12 Iraq counter attacked to retake Fao

Feb 14 Iraq counter attack to retake Fao Peninsula failed

Feb 19 US condemned Iraq’s use of chemical weapons against Iran in Fao Peninsula

Feb 21 Iraq fired poison gas shells at Iranians in Fao Peninsula Bad weather dissipated

Feb 23 2nd Iraq counterattack to re-capture Fao Peninsula
Feb 23 KDP launched preparatory attacks in Sulaymaniya to support Iranian offensive
            starting next day in area

Feb 24 2nd Iraqi attempt to retake Fao failed 10,000 Iraqis and 30,000 Iranians killed
Feb 24 Iran’s Wa al-Fajr 9 attacked Sulaymaniya to try to draw Iraqi forces away from
            Fao Peninsula
Feb 24 UN Resolution 582 deplored use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War but
            didn’t say who was using them Also called for immediate ceasefire in war

Mar 3 Iran ended Op Dawn 9 that reached within a few miles of Sulaymaniya City but
            then got pushed back

Mar 9 Iraq made 3rd attempt to re-capture Fao Peninsula

Mar 10 Iraq’s 3rd attempt to re-capture Fao Peninsula failed Iraq lost 8,000-12,000
            dead Iran 20,000 dead
Mar 10 Fao Peninsula was first time Iran took and held a sizeable amount of Iraqi
            Territory Took 130 sq mi of Iraqi land

Mar 14 UN mission found that Iraq had used chemical weapons several times in Iran-
            Iraq War

Mar 20 US condemned Iraq at UN for violating international law by using chemical
weapons in Iran-Iraq War

Mar 24 UN condemned Iraq’s use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War

Apr 2 Khomeini called for all able bodied men to join armed forces to overthrow

Apr 9 Iraq made 4th attempt to re-capture Fao Peninsula

Apr 10 Iraq’s 4th attempt to free Fao Peninsula from Iran failed

May 12 Iraq launched operation to seize Mehran, Iran Iraq hadn’t carried out any
            offensives in almost a year
May 12 US intel report Iraq was talking with China to build a covert nuclear power

May 14 Iraq captured Mehran, Iran 1st Iranian city seized since 1980 Offered to trade it
            for Fao Peninsula Rejected by Iran

May 17 Iraq attacked area around Mehran and seized 60 sq mi of Iranian territory
May 17 Saddam said Iraqi offensive meant to drive Iran to negotiate peace

May 22 US Amb to Iraq asked Eximbank to open up new lines of credit to Iraq to help
            it through Iran-Iraq War

Jun 28 Iraqi planes attacked Sardasht, Iran using mustard gas 1st civilian town
            attacked by WMD 133 killed

Jun 30 Iran started Op Karbala 1 to recapture Mehran from Iraq

Jul 1 Iraq escalated air strikes on Iran’s economic infrastructure

Jul 3 Iranian forces recaptured Mehran from Iraqis

Jul 4 Iraqis launched counter attack but failed to retake Mehran

Jul 15 UK Official told Geneva conference that Iraq chemical weapons had caused
            10,000 Iranian casualties in Iran-Iraq War

Jul 23 US briefing said that Iraq might need more US help because facing setbacks
            in Iran-Iraq War

Jul 24 Saddam said unwise to clash with rising Islamism in Arab World but Iraq should
            be ready to strike against it if threatened
Jul 24 Saddam decided to reach out to Muslim Brotherhood in Sudan

Aug 2 Saddam offered peace agreement to Iran Was rejected by Tehran

Aug 4 VP Bush used Egyptian Pres Mubarak to pass message to Iraq that it should
            expand air campaign against Iran in Iran-Iraq War

Aug 6 Iraq air strike hit 5 of Iran’s 11 tankers at Kharg Island Iran’s main oil terminal

Aug 12 Iraq air strike hit Iran’s main oil terminal in Sirri Island Iraq got air support
            from either Kuwait or Saudis

Aug 13 US State Department said Iraq was trying to negotiate peace but Iran-Iraq War
            continuing because of Iran

Aug 24 Ayatollah Khomeini said Iran had to fight until victory and Saddam deposed

Aug 31 Iran started Op Karbala 2 in Haj Umran Advanced deep into Kurdistan in
            retaliation for Iraq air attacks on oil facilities

Sep 3 Iran started Op Karbala 3 attacking Fao Peninsula and Majnoon Island Built
            bridge across Shatt al-Arab Didn’t gain much

Sep 16 Iraq air strike on Iran’s Lavan oil terminal

Sep 23 Iran ended Op Karbala 3 in Fao Peninsula and Majnoon Island
Sep 23 Soviet Foreign Minister Shevardnadze told UN that USSR was attempting to
            Negotiate end to Iran-Iraq War

Sep 29 Heavy Iraqi air strikes on Kharg Island Iraq oil terminal

Oct 6 Heavy Iraq air strikes on Kharg Island Iran oil terminal

Oct 8 UN Resolution 588 said Iran and Iraq should follow Resolution 582 to resolve
            Iran-Iraq War Iran rejected 588 because didn’t blame Iraq for starting the war

Oct 10 Iran carried out commando raid on pipeline near Kirkuk

Nov 13 Revolutionary Command Council meeting believed Israel was behind Reagan
            selling weapons to Iran in Iran-Contra scandal

Nov 15 Saddam told aides US wanted to keep Iraq and Iran balanced Was reason why
            US sold weapons to Iran in Iran-Contra scandal

Nov 25 Iraq air strike on Iran’s Larak Island oil facilities Longest air rid of
            war Used Saudi air base for refueling

Dec 23 Iran launched Op Karbala 4 attacking Basra Iraq warned beforehand by US

Dec 25 Iran’s Karbala 4 attack on Basra failed 8,000-10,000 casualties vs 3,000 Iraqi

Jan 6 Iran launched Op Karbala 5 at Basra city with 4 divisions Seized Dujail
            Took east bank Shatt al-Arab
Jan 6 Saddam called for ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War Rejected by Iran

Jan 13 Iran started Op Karbala 6 in Qasr-e-Shirin central Iran to divert Iraqi forces
            from Basra Freed 100 sq mi of Iranian land

Jan 17 Iraq conducted missile and air strikes on Tehran and other major cities 3rd War
            of the Cities

Jan 18 Iran ended Op Karbla 6 seized western bank of Shatt al-Arab

Jan 19 Iranian attack on Basra city caused population to start fleeing

Jan 21 Saddam sent letter to Iranians asking them to challenge Khomeini’s right to
            rule and conduct of Iran-Iraq War

Jan 25 3rd War of the Cities ended

Jan 26 Islamic Conference Organization invited Iran and Iraq to summit in Kuwait Iran
            said no
Jan 26 UN Secretary General de Cuella addressed Islamic Conference Organization
            saying aggressor in Iran-Iraq War needed to be determined

Feb 3 Report US analysts said that Iraq would not be able to reverse recent Iranian gains
            in southern Iraq

Feb 11 Pres Khamenei said that aim of Iran-Iraq War was to punish Iraq and overthrow

Feb 12 Iran started Op Fatah 4 attacking Kurdistan

Feb 19 NSC official said US attempting to assist Iraq in Iran-Iraq War without
            providing it with arms

Feb 28 Iraq ended one stage of war of cities after Soviet appeals and new arms deal
Feb 28 During war of cities 1984-87 35 Iranian cities hit 3,000 dead 9,000 injured
            Baghdad and Basra hit 300 dead 1,000 wounded
Feb 28 Ali Hassan al-Majid made governor of northern Iraq provinces and told to end
            Kurdish insurgency Would start Anfal Campaign

Mar 1 Iraq counterattacked in Basra but failed to regain much territory from Iranian

Mar 3 Gulf Cooperation Council condemned Iran’s occupation of Fao Peninsula

Mar 4 Iran Op Karbala 7 in Haj Umran Kurdistan Made little gains

Mar 21 Saddam held march in Baghdad for not being defeated in Iran-Iraq War

Mar 29 Ali Hassan al-Majid given special powers over all govt agencies in northern
            Iraq to deal with Kurds

Apr 3 Iran Op Karbala 8 started in Basra Made little gains

Apr 9 Iran ended Op Karbala 8 failed to take Basra City
Apr 9 Iran started Op Karbala 9 attacking Qasr e-Shirin northern Iran and into Kurdistan
Apr 9 Dawa attacked Saddam’s motorcade outside of Mosul to commemorate
            execution of Ayatollah Baqir al-Sadr

Apr 13 Iran and KDP captured strategic mountains near Sulaymaniya city

Apr 15 Iraqi attacked KDP HQ in Zewa Shkan, Dohuk PUK HQs in Sergalou and
Bergalou, Sulaymaniya with chemical weapons WMD attacks were retaliation for KDP and PUK helping with Iranian offensives

Apr 16 Iraqi planes dropped poison gas on Sheikh Wasan and Balisan villages killing
            over 100 civilians

Apr 20 Iraq agreed to allow UN team to visit and investigate its use of chemical weapons

Apr 26 Jordan and Saudis arranged meeting between Saddam and Syria’s Assad

Apr 27 Iran Op Karbala 10 took 2 towns and 100 sq mi in Sulaymaniya
Apr 27 Syria agreed to stop backing Iraqi Kurds, both would not other opposition groups

May 13 UN investigation said Iraq used chemical weapons against Iranian civilians

May 17 Iraqi fighter hit USS Stark with 2 missiles killing 37 US sailors

May 20 Iraq ended 1st phase of attacks upon Kurdish villages

May 21 2nd phase of campaign to destroy Kurdish villages started

May 29 Assistant Deputy Secretary of Defense Armitage said U.S. couldn’t see Iraq
            defeated in Iran-Iraq War

Jun 1 Iran captured Darbandi Khan Lake dam in Kurdistan

Jun 20 Peshmerga mounted offensive in Sulaymaniya supported by Iran
Jun 20 Ali Hassan al-Majid issued order for random attacks on Kurdish areas to kill as
many people as possible Also said that any Kurd captured between 15-70 should be interrogated then executed

Jun 28 Iran accused Iraq of killing and wounding 650 Kurdish civilians in mustard
            gas attack in northwest Iran

Jul 7 UN Resolution 598 called for ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War

Jul 20 Iraq accepted UN Resolution 598 Iran didn’t reject it which was a first

Jul 23 Iraq Foreign Minister Aziz wrote UN saying Iraq welcomed ceasefire proposal
            UN Resolution 598

Jul 27 US asked Iraq to stop attacks on shipping in Persian Gulf in hopes that Iran
            would follow suit

Aug 10 Iraq began bombing campaign against Iran’s Tabriz oil field Iran said it would
            make Persian Gulf a killing field

Aug 11 Iran told UN that Resolution 598 only included Iraq’s view of war

Aug 17 Iraq told UN it wouldn’t accept any changes to Resolution 598

Aug 20 Dawa set off car bomb in Baghdad killing 20

Aug 26 Iraq demanded UN arms embargo on Iran for not accepting ceasefire deal and
            threatened new air strikes
Aug 26 U.S. signed 5 year trade agreement with Iraq mostly for farm products

Aug 29 Iraq attacked 2 Iranian merchant ships 40 ships hit by both Iran and Iraq in next
            2 weeks

Sep 6 Ali Hassan al-Majid issued order to deport Kurdish families and arrest all males
            from age 12-50 during Anfal

Sep 13 Iran said it would agree to UN ceasefire if Iraq named as aggressor in war

Sep 15 Saddam told UN delegation he would accept ceasefire if UN punished Iran

Sep 22 Iranian speech at UN rejected UN ceasefire talks

Oct 17 Iraq held national census

Nov 11 Arab League meeting condemned Iran for not ending Iran-Iraq War

Dec 1 Iran attacked Fakeh area north of Basra

Jan 1 Iran Launched Bait al-Moqaddas 2 in Mawet Kurdistan

Jan 17 Mahdi Hakim killed in Sudan by Iraqi intelligence

Feb 10 Iraq restarted attacks on Iranian shipping Iran retaliated in kind

Feb 12 Saudi King Fahd called Saddam worried about Iran’s new Basra offensive

Feb 22 Iraq renewed war of cities by firing missiles at Tehran Iraq wanted to provoke
            UN to get involved again with peace talks

Feb 23 Anfal Campaign targeted PUK HQ in Jafati Valley, Sulaymaniya Yakhsamar
            Sergalou Bergalou attacked

Feb 27 Iraq fired missiles on Saqqez Iran killing 26

Feb 29 Iran fired SCUD missiles at Baghdad Iraq fired missiles on Tehran

Mar 1 Iraq fired missiles at Tehran for 2nd day

Mar 2 VP Bush told Iraq that it could buy dual use equipment for its WMD
            program from US

Mar 5 Iran told UN that it was ready to accept ceasefire

Mar 7 USSR submitted new proposal for negotiating end to Iran-Iraq War

Mar 11 Iran and Iraq signed truce in war of cities in Ankara Didn’t last War of Cities
            lasted another month

Mar 13 Iraq launched Op Zafar 7 in Khurmal and Bait al-Moqaddas 3 in Sulaymaniya
            Captured 7 Kurdish villages

Mar 14 Iranian Revolutionary Guards and Peshmerga launched Wa al-Fajr 10 capturing
            Halabja district quickly conquering area

Mar 15 First detention center for Kurds displaced during Anfal campaign set up

Mar 16 Iraqi forces dropped mustard and nerve gas on Halabja killing 5,000 Kurds to
            recapture town

Mar 19 End of 1st Anfal campaign that destroyed PUK’s bases in Sergalou and Bergalou,

Mar 22 Start of 2nd Anfal Campaign to destroy PUK and DKP bases in Sulaymaniya and
Mar 22 Qara Dagh, Sulaymaniya hit with chemical artillery shells as start of 2nd Anfal

Mar 23 PUK base in Sulaymaniya attacked

Mar 24 KDP base hit with poison gas Civilians rounded up and men executed by govt

Apr 1 End of 2nd Anfal campaign

Apr 7 Start of 3rd Anfal campaign focused upon Germian, Sulaymaniya Civilians
            in area rounded up and many executed

Apr 10 Iran started Op Bait al-Moqaddas 5 in Panjwin, Kurdistan Meant to draw
            Iraqi forces away from south Didn't work

Apr 16 Iraq offensive to recapture Fao Peninsula Basra from Iran began Largest
            Iraq land offensive since 1986 Used mustard and nerve gas

Apr 18 Iraq recaptured Fao Peninsula

Apr 20 End of last war of cities Iran-Iraq War Iraq fired 200 missiles at Iran killing
            2000 Iran fired 77 missiles at Iraq
Apr 20 End of 3rd Anfal campaign that targeted PUK in Sulaymaniya Civilians were
            rounded up and put into camps Mass executions

May 3 Start of 4th Anfal campaign focused on Lesser Zab River, Sulaymaniya Kogtapa
            attacked with chemical bombs

May 15 Start of 5th Anfal Campaign aimed at destroying last of PUK’s bastions in
            Balisan Valley, Sulaymaniya

May 23 Iraq launched offensive to re-capture all of its lost territory from Iran
May 23 Towns in Balisan Valley, Sulamaniya hit by chemical weapons in 5th Anfal

May 25 Iraq using chemical weapons pushed Iran out of Shalmache bridgehead in

Jun 13 Iran launched counterattack in Shalmache, Basra Moved 7 miles into Iraq

Jun 18 Iraq Op Fury Stars working with Mujahadeen e-Khalq started attacking Iranian
forces using nerve gas aimed Mehran Nearly 3500 Iranians killed Destroyed Iranian Revolutionary Guard Division Hit 10 oil fields

Jun 19 Iraq captured Mehran, Iran then handed it over to Mujahedeen e-Khalq’s
            National Liberation Army

Jun 25 2nd Op Tawakal ala Allah using chemical weapons Iraq attacked Majnoon Islands

Jun 26 Iraq recaptured Majnoon Islands from Iran

Jun 30 Iraq recaptured Mawet, Kurdistan from Iran

Jul 1 Iraq For Min Aziz admitted that Baghdad used chemical weapons but said
            Iran started using them first

Jul 9 Iraq recaptured 23 mountain peaks in Mawet area of Kurdistan

Jul 10 Iraq recaptured 14 mountain peaks in Panjwin area of Kurdistan

Jul 12 Iran withdrew from Halabja district Kurdistan
Jul 12 Iraq started withdrawing from 2,260 sq mi of Iranian territory
Jul 12 Iraq recaptured Musian border region from Iran

Jul 13 Iraq threatened to invade southern Iran if it didn’t withdraw from Kurdistan
Jul 13 Iraq launched another offensive operation into Iranian territory to increase its
            negotiating position with Tehran

Jul 14 Iran said it would withdraw from Kurdistan after Iraq invaded southern Iran
Jul 14 Iranian leadership agreed to accept UN Resolution 598 calling for end of Iran-Iraq

Jul 15 Iran’s cabinet endorsed decision to accept UN Resolution 598 ending Iran-Iraq War

Jul 16 After capturing 30 mi of Iranian territory along the border Iraqi forces withdrew
            back into Iraq
Jul 16 Iran’s Assembly of Experts agreed to present ceasefire proposal in Iran-Iraq
            war based upon UN Resolution 598 to Ayatollah Khomeini
Jul 16 Khomeini agreed to ceasefire

Jul 17 Saddam speech at 20th anniversary of Baath seizing power Said Iraq wanted
            to end Iran-Iraq War
Jul 17 Iran told UN it would accept ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War if both sides withdrew
            from each others’ territory

Jul 18 Iran and Iraq agreed upon ceasefire under UN Resolution 598

Jul 19 Iraq used poison gas against Kurdish villages

Jul 20 Ayatollah Khomeini said that he endorsed Iran-Iraq War ceasefire
Jul 20 Iraq tried to add 3 more requirements to UN Resolution 598 ceasefire including
direct talks with Iran Was meant to delay talks so Iraq could gain more territory on battlefield to increase its position

Jul 22 Iraq attacked Iran on all fronts to test Iran’s commitment to peace talks
Jul 22 Iraq didn’t believe Ayatollah Khomeini was really committed to UN Resolution 598
            ceasefire Thought he just wanted break and then return to war
Jul 22 Saddam also wanted one last try at victory in Iran-Iraq War with new
Jul 22 Iraqi forces turned back in Kurdistan and Basra but gained 40 mi in Khuzistan
            province Iran

Jul 26 Mujahedeen e-Khalq took 2 Iranian towns with Iraqi air support hoping
            to start revolt against Ayatollah Khomeini

Jul 29 Mujahedeen e-Khalq forced to withdraw from 2 Iranian towns ending hopes
            of Iraq backed revolt against Ayatollah Khomeini

Jul 30 Iran and Iraq started talks at UN for ceasefire

Aug 2 Iraq bombed Oshnaviyah, Iran with mustard gas wounding 2,680 people

Aug 6 Saddam said he would accept ceasefire to end Iran-Iraq if Iran would hold direct
talks Iran said no Saddam was trying to add his own demands to UN ceasefire proposal

Aug 7 Iran accepted ceasefire and direct talks with Iraq after implemented
Aug 7 Iraq Interior Minister Wahab visited Kuwait to talk about resolving border
            between two countries

Aug 8 UN said ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War would start Aug 20 effectively ending the war

Aug 9 Iraq held victory celebrations for end of Iran-Iraq War

Aug 12 Pres Khamenei speech claimed Iran won Iran-Iraq War

Aug 20 Ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War announced 350 UN peacekeepers deployed along

Aug 23 UN said that Iraq used poison gas in attack on Oshnaviyeh, Iran on Aug 2
that wounded around 2,600 civilians Was 7th time UN documented Iraq using WMD in war

Aug 24 Iran and Iraq started peace talks in Geneva to officially end Iran-Iraq War
Aug 24 Start of 6th and final Anfal campaign focused upon destroying KDP bases in
            Dohuk KDP HQ attacked

Aug 25 Villages in Dohuk hit by chemical weapons in 6th Anfal campaign

Aug 26 End of 5th Anfal campaign

Aug 29 Bazi Gorge in Kurdistan attacked by Iraqi forces with chemical weapons killing
            around 3,000 Kurds

Sep 6 Revolutionary Command Council offered amnesty to all Kurds in Iraq and Turkey
after Anfal campaign Led to release of most Kurdish women and children captured during Anfal From February-September 1988 50,000 had been killed during the campaign

Sep 8 US accused Iraq of using poison gas against Kurds during Anfal

Sep 22 Pres Khomeini addressed UN condemning it for never doing anything about
            Iraq’s aggression during the war

Jan 17 US report said Iraq was working on typhoid cholera anthrax for its chemical
            weapons program

Feb 16 Iraq formed Arab Cooperation Council with Egypt Jordan Yemen to counter
            Gulf Cooperation Council

Mar 31 Iraq exported oil for 1st time from Basra after Iran-Iraq War closed down ports
Mar 31 Israel said Iraq embarked on crash course to build a nuclear bomb and a missile
            to deliver it

Apr 1 Saddam held elections for new parliament as part of political reform after
            Iran-Iraq War 160 of 250 seats went to Baathists

Apr 23 Ali Hassan al-Majid’s special powers over northern Iraq for Anfal ended

May 4 Saddam’s cousin and Defense Minister Adnan Kairallah died in mysterious
            helicopter crash

Jun 26 Iraq said it was clearing all civilians from 20 mil border area with Iran and
            Turkey in Kurdistan relocating 200,000-5000,000 Kurds

Sep 15 Iraq arrested UK Observer reporter Baztoft for reporting on missile program
            Led to condemnation in UK media

Sep 23 Kuwait Emir given medal by Saddam in Baghdad for help during Iran-Iraq

Oct 2 US NSDD26 said U.S. would try to improve relations with Iraq

Oct 26 Sec of State Baker memo said that ties with Iraq important to shape Middle
            East politics

Nov 9 Sec of State Baker offered Iraq $1 bil in grain credits even though knew Iraq
            was abusing program by demanding kickbacks

Jan 9 Iraq opened 2nd oil pipeline with Saudi Arabia

Jan 17 Iraq ended foreign travel ban for citizens
Jan 17 Bush admin signed directive for normalized relations with Iraq

Jan 25 OPEC said Kuwait and UAE agreed to limit exports to try to settle dispute with

Jan 26 Exile groups accused Iraqi army of 2 weeks of attacks on Shiite villages in south

Feb 11 Bush sent Undersecretary of State Kelly to Baghdad to discuss improving Iraq-US
relations Saddam told Kelly US was in a position to dominate the Middle East with the decline of the Soviet Union Saddam said he was willing to work with Bush but wanted to make sure he wasn’t just going to follow Israel Kelly said Bush wanted better cooperation

Feb 15 Voice of American commentary called for end of dictatorships after fall of
            Ceausescu in Romania Named Iraq

Feb 19 Saddam demanded that US warships leave the Persian Gulf

Feb 24 Saddam gave speech about liberating Jerusalem and warning US could take
over Persian Gulf Saddam was trying to determine how Israel felt about Iraq before he decided to invade Kuwait

Feb 28 Saddam warned of Israeli aggression backed by US at Arab Cooperation Council

Mar 15 Iraq executed UK Observer journalist Batoft for reporting on missile program
            Condemned in west

Mar 22 Canadian Gerald Bull working on supergun for Iraq found dead in Brussels
            Mossad believed to be responsible

Mar 28 US-UK officials seized equipment at Heathrow Airport meant for nuclear

Apr 1 Saddam speech said if US supported Israeli attack on Iraq he would burn Israel

Apr 2 Saddam threatened to use WMD against Israel if it was attacked 

Apr 5 Iraq said it would destroy its WMD if Israel did the same and signed 1968
            nuclear non-proliferation treaty

Apr 9 Saudi Ambassador to US Bandar told Pres Bush Saddam would not attack Israel but
wanted guarantee that Israel would not attack Iraq Bush told Bandar he didn’t understand Saddam’s threats unless he intended some actions against Israel Saddam wanted to make sure his western flank was protected from any Israeli action before he invaded Kuwait

Apr 10 UK seized parts for Iraq’s supergun

Apr 12 5 US senators visited Baghdad to criticize Iraq over its WMD and nuclear
programs that Congress was investigating Privately US Senators told Saddam Pres Bush wanted better relations with Iraq US Ambassador to Iraq Glaspie added that was US policy
Apr 12 Saddam told US senators America was plotting with Israel to attack Iraq Saddam
            wanted to determine Washington’s position before he decided to invade Kuwait

Apr 16 White House met to discuss limiting military equipment sales to Iraq

Apr 19 Saddam met with Yasser Arafat and discussed retaliatory attacks upon Israel and
            US if Iraq was attacked
Apr 19 White House rejected limiting high-tech exports to Iraq that could be used for

Apr 26 Report Bush pushed greater economic ties with Iraq

Apr 28 Iraq hosted Arab summit Saddam attacked Kuwait for economic warfare vs Iraq
Apr 28 Saddam asked Emir of Kuwait if Iraq could use two of its islands Emir said no

Apr 30 Jordanian prosecutor report detailed fake bank accounts Ahmed Chalabi ran
            with his Petra Bank

May 8 Saddam claimed Iraq could build high tech capacitors for use in nuclear triggers

May 12 Italy said it seized parts headed for Iraq to make a 130 ft long supergun

May 15 West Germany seized parts headed for Iraq for its 130ft long supergun

May 24 US National Security Council deputies meeting told that US still sharing
            intelligence with Iraq

May 28 Arab summit in Baghdad Saddam spoke about freeing the Palestinians Saddam
accused Kuwait of breaking OPEC quotas driving down oil prices costing Iraq $14 bil Saddam called Kuwait’s oil policy an act of war against Iraq Saddam personally warned Sheikh Sabah of Kuwait he was being manipulated in US conspiracy against Iraq Saddam demanded $27 bil in compensation from Kuwait
May 28 Arab summit backed Iraq’s right to protect itself from any Israeli attack
May 28 PLO chief Arafat said Saddam was bringing new leadership to pan-Arab cause

Jun 8 US Commerce Dept wanted to limit technology sales to Iraq that could be
used for missile program Rejected by White House

Jun 18 International Islamic Popular Conference backed Iraq against Zionist aggression
            and conspiracy led by US and England

Jun 27 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council meeting gave Saddam okay to use force
            against Kuwait

Jul 9 US Amb to Iraq Glaspie said that US working on releasing 2nd half of $1 bil loan
            guarantees to Baghdad

Jul 15 At Arab League Iraq complained Kuwait tapping into Rumaila oil field in Basra
costing Iraq $1 bil/year Iraq demanded that UAE and Kuwait loans given during Iran-Iraq War should be forgiven Iraq threatened to use force against Kuwait and UAE accusing them of being tools of the US

Jul 16 Saddam on TV accused Kuwait and UAE of breaking OPEC quotas and driving
            down oil prices
Jul 16 Iraq moved a division to border with Kuwait as feud between two escalated Saddam
            wanted to see how west would react to his deployment of forces
Jul 16 Iraq Foreign Minister Aziz letter to Arab League said Kuwait stealing oil from
Rumaila field driving down oil prices destroying Iraq’s economy Called on Arab govts to forgive Iraq’s debt and help pay for rebuilding after Iran-Iraq War

Jul 17 Saddam accused Kuwait and UAE of overproducing oil Said some Gulf states
were working with US against Iraq Warned that if those states didn’t change their policies Iraq would take action to protect its interests

Jul 18 Saddam moved 3 tank division to Iraq-Kuwait border
Jul 18 Saddam demanded that Kuwait repay for allegedly stealing oil and nullify
debt from Iran-Iraq War
Jul 18 Kuwait cabinet believed Iraq threats were to get it to continue financial
aid to Baghdad Thought if there was any military action it would only be along border
Jul 18 Sec Def Cheney said US would defend Kuwait Pentagon later said press
            exaggerated his statement

Jul 20 Pentagon report said Iraq unlikely to use force against Kuwait

Jul 21 Iraq announced that it had placed troops along border with Kuwait

Jul 24 Saddam said he felt betrayed by US forces moving through the Persian Gulf
Jul 24 State Dept US had no defense treaties or special relationship with Kuwait Did
            support Gulf States right to self defense

Jul 25 OPEC agreed to raise oil prices and follow quotas allaying Iraq complaints
            Kuwait & UAE overproducing and lowering prices
Jul 25 Saddam met with US Amb to Iraq Glaspie Saddam said he wanted meeting to be a
message to Pres Bush Saddam said US and Iraq didn’t have close understanding of each other that could lead to problems and misunderstandings Saddam accused US of plotting against Iraq Saddam told her UAE and Kuwait were forcing down oil prices, which was an attack upon Iraq He believed this was happening with US support Said US had to choose sides Saddam went on to say that he would not threaten Kuwait if it forgave its debt and agreed to follow OPEC quotas He was open to talks over this issue, but he was not willing to wait forever as Kuwait waged economic war upon Iraq Saddam went on that the Gulf States were refusing to renegotiate Iraq’s debt which was also part of a conspiracy Saddam threatened that if Kuwait didn’t give into Iraq’s demands he would act Ambassador Glaspie said Pres Bush wanted better Iraq-US relations Apologized for bad press Iraq getting in US media Asked why Saddam had placed troops near Kuwait border Said US had no opinion the on Iraq-Kuwait border dispute but warned against using force This was another attempt by Saddam to determine Washington’s position before he invaded Kuwait
Jul 25 Defense Special Assessment said Iraq trying to pressure Kuwait to give into its
            demands and didn’t think it would use military force
Jul 25 Sec of State Baker told Commerce Dept export controls needed on US technology
            going to Iraq that could be used for weapons programs
Jul 25 Egypt’s Pres Mubarak called Saddam worried about Iraq putting troops on Kuwait
Border Mubarak claimed Saddam promised not to attack Kuwait which Saddam later denied

Jul 27 Congress voted to impose sanctions on Iraq for threats against Kuwait Israel
            nuke and WMD programs
Jul 27 Israel Science Minister threatened retaliation with chemical weapons if Iraq

Jul 28 Bush letter to Saddam asked him not to use force in region and hoped for
            continued good US-Iraq relations
Jul 28 Pentagon tried to block Bush note to Saddam fearing an Iraq invasion of Kuwait
Jul 28 CIA briefed Bush warning that Iraq was going to invade Kuwait

Jul 29 OPEC agreed to raise prices 20% that year under pressure from Iraq that
            wanted to boost revenues to rebuild after Iran-Iraq War

Jul 30 Saddam offered to withdraw its troops from Iran to prepare for Kuwait invasion
Jul 30 DIA analyst told DIA Dir Gen Soyster Iraq could overrun Kuwait and northern
Saudi Arabia Warned that US would have no warning if Iraq attacked Said that Saddam was going to use force because he never bluffed and Kuwait would make no concessions to Baghdad Soyster disagreed with analyst but passed along assessment to Secretary of Defense Cheney and Joint Chiefs head General Powell

Jul 31 King Fahd and Pres Mubarak tried to mediate between Iraq and Kuwait
Jul 31 Kuwit emir told his representative to not give into any Iraqi demands at meeting
            in Saudi Arabia between 2 nations
Jul 31 Assistant Secretary of State Kelly told House US had no defense treaty with Gulf
States and didn’t take position on border disputes or OPEC Said US would be concerned if Iraq invaded Kuwait but had no treaties with it

Aug 1 Iraq walked out on talks with Kuwait held in Saudi Arabia
Aug 1 Kuwait offered to cancel Iraq’s oil debts worth $14-$15 bil and lease Werba
Aug 1 Kuwait and Saudis offered to pay $10 bil to Iraq for ending dispute Iraq
            said no and demanded $27 bil
Aug 1 US intelligence found Iraq moved divisions within 3 miles of Kuwait border
Aug 1 Chief DIA analyst for Middle East believed Iraq would invade Kuwait CIA thought
            invasion imminent
Aug 1 Pentagon meeting including Secretary of Defense Cheney and Joint Chiefs head
Gen Powell agreed Iraq would not invade Kuwait Powell said since Iraq totalitarian govt and US didn’t have any good intelligence inside regime couldn't determine Saddam’s intentions Thought deploying troops was posturing by Baghdad and not for an invasion Cheney said couldn't’ tell whether Iraq meant to pressure Kuwait or use military force
Aug 1 DIA found Iraq artillery units deployed along Kuwait border
Aug 1 NSC Deputies Committee decided Iraq was going to invade Kuwait after artillery
            units detected
Aug 1 NSC Deputies Committee decided Bush should send Saddam warning not to
            invade Kuwait
Aug 1 NSC’s Haas convinced Natl Sec Adv Scowcroft to talk to Bush about warning
            Saddam not to invade Kuwait
Aug 1 NSC’s Haas and National Security Adviser Scowcroft convinced Bush to call
            Saddam to warn him about invading Kuwait Then got news of invasion


Aug 2 Saddam invaded Kuwait originally claiming there was a coup and emir called on
Iraq for help Then changed story to Provisional Free Kuwait govt asked for help against ruling Sabah family
Aug 2 Iraq said it would only be in Kuwait for days-weeks until Provisional
            Free Kuwait Govt asked it to leave
Aug 2 Iraq accused Kuwait of being involved in foreign and Zionist plots
Aug 2 Most of Arab world did not report on Iraq’s Kuwait invasion until 2 days
Aug 2 UN Resolution 660 demanded Iraq’s immediate withdrawal from Kuwait Said
            Iraq and Kuwait had to use talks to resolve problems
Aug 2 Iraq banned foreign travel for its nationals
Aug 2 Bush NSC meeting focused on how Iraq invasion of Kuwait would allow
Baghdad to control oil market Wondered if Iraq would invade Saudi Arabia to seize its oil Administration made no decision on what policy to take
Aug 2 National Security Adviser Scowcroft talk to Bush said he wanted to address next
NSC meeting and express steadfastly that US would not allow Kuwait invasion to stand Bush agreed
Aug 2 NSC’s Near East Dir Haas drafted memo on using sanctions and military
            options to deal with Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait 
Aug 2 Bush met Thatcher who said Kuwait invasion couldn't stand and troops had to
            be sent to Middle East Bush agreed
Aug 2 US stopped loan guarantees to Iraq due to Kuwait invasion
Aug 2 Bush told reporters he was not thinking of using force in response to Iraq’s
            invasion of Kuwait
Aug 2 Joint Chiefs chairman Gen Powell told Gen Schwarkopf he thought US would
            go to war over Saudi Arabia but not Kuwait
Aug 2 National Security Adviser Scowcroft thought Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait could
            not stand

Aug 3 Iraq moved troops to Kuwait-Saudi border
Aug 3 Amnesty International said Iraqi army had arrested Iraqi exiles in Kuwait
Aug 3 Arab League said it would mediate dispute between Iraq and Kuwait after
Aug 3 2nd NSC meeting on Kuwait invasion National Security Adviser Scowcroft said US
would not accommodate Iraq Defense Secretary Cheney said Iraq was close to Saudi oil fields and if didn't take them would threaten them in the future Deputy Secretary of State Eagleburger said US couldn’t allow seizing countries in post-Cold War world Bush advisers agreed force would be used if necessary and sanctions would probably fail
Aug 3 Bush met Saudi Ambassador to US Bandar and convinced him to support US
            troops being sent to his country

Aug 4 Bush met Kuwait emir Sabah and said US would free Kuwait and return emir
            to power
Aug 4 Joint statement by US and Soviet Union condemned Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
            and called for withdrawal
Aug 4 European Community imposed sanctions on Iraq for invasion of Kuwait
Aug 4 Iraq announced Provisional Government of Free Kuwait
Aug 4 King Hussein said Saddam was a patriot and wanted good Jordan-Iraq
Aug 4 White House went over military plans in response to Kuwait invasion Included
200,000-250,000 troops deploying to Saudi Arabia Preparations for offensive operations would take 8-12 months Bush said focus of the initial deployment was to protect Saudi Arabia

Aug 5 Pres Bush said Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait would not stand
Aug 5 Bush ordered CIA to come up with covert plan to overthrow Saddam
Aug 5 Saudi King asked for briefing on US military plans to respond to Kuwait

Aug 6 UN Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq for its invasion of
Aug 6 US delegation convinced King Fahd to invade US troops to Saudi Arabia after
            Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait
Aug 6 Bush authorized Def Sec Cheney to start deploying troops to Saudi Arabia
Aug 6 Iraq issued statement saying reports about its forces heading towards Saudi border
            were false
Aug 6 Saddam met with US Charge De’Affaires Wilson Said he respected US interests
            and was not going to attack Saudi Arabia

Aug 7 Iraq declared Kuwait a republic
Aug 7 Saddam gave victory speech for invading Kuwait Said Kuwait’s al-Sabahs didn't
stand with masses but foreigners and got what they deserved Talked about a new day for Arabs
Aug 7 Saddam told aides that he didn’t fear war with US because all they would do is
            bomb and rally Arab world behind Iraq
Aug 7 Bush announced Operation Desert Shield to deploy US troops to Saudi Arabia

Aug 8 Iraq announced merger of Kuwait and Iraq 
Aug 8 Pres Bush said a line had been drawn in the sand at the Saudi-Kuwait border to
            stop anymore Iraqi advances

Aug 9 US forces arrived in Saudi Arabia to protect it from Iraq after invasion of Kuwait
Aug 9 UN Resolution 662 said that Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait was illegal
Aug 9 Turkey and Saudi Arabia closed pipelines to Iraq due to Kuwait invasion

Aug 10 Arab League split over Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait

Aug 12 Saddam said all occupations should end including Israel-Palestine and
            Syria-Lebanon to stave off criticism of Kuwait invasion
Aug 12 Were marches in Amman and Mafraq, Jordan, Sanaa in Yemen, Sidon in
            Lebanon in support of Iraq and Saddam after Kuwait invasion

Aug 15 Iraqi opposition in Iran claimed they could field 50,000 to fight Saddam
Aug 15 Iraq offered to fully implement UN Resolution 598 that ended Iran-Iraq War and
restore Shatt al-Arab Algiers Agreement to try to win favor with Iran while facing international criticism for invading Kuwait

Aug 18 Saddam said foreign workers and visitors could not leave Iraq after Kuwait
Aug 18 UN Resolution 664 demanded Iraq release foreign nationals it held

Aug 23 Saddam appeared on state TV with western hostages in Iraq Told them they
            were being held to prevent war

Aug 24 PLO Foreign Minister Qaddumi said PLO supported Iraq against colonialists

Aug 25 UN Resolution 665 strengthened economic sanctions on Iraq for Kuwait

Aug 28 Kuwait formally annexed as 19th province of Iraq
Aug 28 Egypt’s Pres Mubarak attempted to mediate between Iraq and Kuwait

Sep 3 Defense Secretary Cheney told Senate Armed Services Committee White House
            didn’t need anymore congressional authorization to take action vs Iraq

Sep 5 Saddam called for overthrowing Saudi and Egyptian govts for their opposition to
            Kuwait invasion

Sep 6 King Fahd of Saudi Arabia promised $15 bil to help pay for Operation Desert
            Storm to protect the kingdom from Iraq

Sep 7 Emir of Kuwait agreed to pay $15 bil to help pay for military operations in Saudi
            Arabia to protect it from Iraq

Sep 9 Joint US-Soviet statement said that Iraq’s aggression in Kuwait would not stand

Sep 10 Iran and Iraq renewed relations as Saddam attempted to secure his eastern
            border before Gulf War

Sep 11 Iraq released edited version of Saddam’s meeting with US Amb Glaspie
Sep 11 Saddam told Amb Glaspie Iraq would take military action vs Kuwait if it
            didn’t give into Iraq’s Demands

Sep 16 Bush said sanctions on Iraq would end when it withdrew from Kuwait and
            released foreign hostages
Sep 16 UN Resolution 667 demanded Iraq release foreign nationals it detained in

Sep 18 Iraq Army Chief of Staff Gen Khazraji told Saddam Iraq would lose any war
            with US

Sep 20 British intel report said lots of unknowns about Iraq’s ballistic missile program

Sep 21 Revolutionary Command Council said it would not retreat from Kuwait and ready
            for mother of all battles

Sep 22 Iraq said if sanctions started to hurt it would attack Saudi Arabia and Israel

Sep 24 Kurd, Shiite and Communist opposition parties claimed united front against

Oct 5 Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz addressed UN saying Iraq wouldn’t compromise on

Oct 9 Bush said willing to give sanctions chance but would not allow Iraq to annex

Oct 10 CENTCOM presented war plans at Pentagon to expel Iraq from Kuwait

Oct 11 CENTCOM presented war plan to White House to expel Iraq from Kuwait
Oct 11 Pres Bush decided to give up on sanctions and use force to expel Iraq from

Oct 14 Iran and Iraq officially restored diplomatic relations as Saddam tried to secure his
            Eastern flank as war neared with US

Oct 29 UN Security Council said overtures to Iraq had failed and talked about alternatives
            but came up with nothing
Oct 29 Bush said US wouldn’t rule out use of force against Iraq for Kuwait invasion

Oct 30 Meeting of Bush advisers on Kuwait National Security Adviser Scowcroft said US
policy at fork in road Could continue defense or go on offense against Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait Joint Chiefs head Gen Powell said Gen Schwarzkopf asked for troops for offensive operations against Iraq in Kuwait Defense Secretary Cheney said offensive action against Iraq should be on the table
Oct 30 Bush decided to double number of US troops in Saudi Arabia

Nov 1 Bush authorized offensive planning and preparations for Gulf War

Nov 2 IAEA inspection said Iraq had not diverted any nuclear material to its bomb

Nov 6 Secretary of State Baker convinced China to abstain in UN vote on resolution to
            allow use of force against Iraq for Kuwait invasion

Nov 9 UK intel report said Iraq had weaponized anthrax and plague and could use
            them at any time Was based upon single source with reliability not established

Nov 23 Bush said Saudis Egypt Syria agreed on UN resolution to allow use of force vs
            Iraq for invasion of Kuwait

Nov 29 UN Resolution 678 gave Iraq until 1/15/91 to withdraw from Kuwait

Dec 6 Iraq began issuing passports for Iranians to visit Shiites shrines in Iraq
Dec 6 Iraq announced it would release foreign nationals it held since Kuwait invasion

Dec 15 Saddam told officials that US started war against Iraq in 1986 when it sold
            weapons to Iran in Iran-Contra Affair

Dec 27 100 congressmen asked Bush to give Iraq sanctions chance to work

Dec 29 Joint Chief head Gen Powell told CENTCOM Cmdr Gen Schwarzkopf to be
            ready to start Gulf War by 1/17/91

Jan 9 Secretary of State Baker met with Iraq For Min Aziz Aziz and failed to end Kuwait
crisis Baker warned Aziz not to use WMD in upcoming Gulf War Baker thought Iraq didn’t believe US threats because believed US still stuck on Vietnam Bush sent Baker to Baghdad to convince people he was trying all options to end Kuwait crisis
Jan 9 Iraq said that if it was attacked it would strike Israel
Jan 9 Bush sent request to Congress to use force against Iraq in Kuwait

Jan 10 Congress began debate on Bush’s request to use force against Iraq in Kuwait

Jan 12 Bush administration authorized by Congress to use force to make Iraq
            withdraw from Kuwait

Jan 13 UN Sec Gen deCuellar went to Baghdad to try to avert Gulf War

Jan 14 Saddam called on Iraqis to fight to the death to hold Kuwait

Jan 15 UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait ended
Jan 15 Saddam added Allah Akbar to Iraqi flag


Jan 17 Operation Desert Storm started to expel Iraq from Kuwait US led Coalition began
            air campaign against Iraq

Jan 18 Iraq launched missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia
Jan 18 Iraqi terrorist tried to blow up US ambassador’s house in Indonesia

Jan 19 Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim said that Supreme Council was against U.S.
            aggression against Iraq over its Kuwait invasion
Jan 19 US 5th Special Forces Group entered Iraq to carry out covert ops behind Iraqi
Jan 19 Iraqi terrorist tried to bomb US Information Service HQ in Philippines

Jan 22 Iraqi SCUD missile and 2 U.S. Patriot missiles landed on Israeli city of
Ramat Gan
Jan 22 Iraqi forces set fire to 700 Kuwaiti oil wells

Jan 23 Iraq dumped 400 mil gallons of oil into Persian Gulf to try to prevent
            US retaking Kuwait

Jan 29 Iraq launched probing attack upon Saudi city of Khafji occupying it

Jan 30 Saddam ordered Op Samarra hit and run air attacks on Coalition air force

Jan 31 US and Saudis pushed Iraqi forces out of Saudi city of Khafji after 2 days of

Feb 6 Jordan’s King Hussein condemned Saudis for letting Arab land be used to attack

Feb 12 Russian Premier Primakov went to Baghdad to try to arrange withdrawal from
            Kuwait Saddam demands end of sanctions in return

Feb 13 Amiriya shelter in Baghdad bombed by U.S. during Gulf War 408 killed

Feb 14 During funeral for member of Hakim family anti-Saddam slogans chanted in

Feb 15 Pres Bush called on Iraqi military and people to overthrow Saddam twice
Feb 15 US Task Force 1-41 first Coalition troops to cross into Iraq to carry out
            reconnaissance and combat missions
Feb 15 US 1st Cav Div launched probing attack into Iraq
Feb 15 US Task Force 1-32 breached Iraqi defensive berm and enters Iraq in deception
            attack to convince Iraq that invasion would come through Wadi Al-Batin

Feb 16 US troops destroyed Iraqi radar facility while Apache helicopters conducted raid
            in depth behind Iraqi lines in Iraq

Feb 19 US 1st Cav division launched probing attack into Iraq

Feb 20 US 1st Cav Div launched large attack into Iraq Engaged 7 Iraqi divisions
            to deceive Iraqis on where invasion would come from

Feb 21 Russia announced proposal for Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait in return
            for lifting of sanctions US rejected offer

Feb 22 Iraq set Kuwait oil fields on fire
Feb 22 Report Saudis tried to organize Iraqi exiles for post-Saddam Iraq

Feb 23 Operation Desert Sabre started with Coalition forces sweeping into southern Iraq
            to cut off retreating Iraqi forces from Kuwait

Feb 24 US led Coalition attacked Iraqi ground forces to liberate Kuwait
Feb 24 US-Saudi Voice of Free Iraq began broadcasting calling on Iraqis to rise up
            and overthrow Saddam 
Feb 24 Saddam told aides that Coalition airpower would limit troop movement but
            Iraqi soldiers were better because of experience in Iran-Iraq War
Feb 24 Saddam and aides believe that U.S. casualties will lead to end of Gulf War

Feb 25 Iraqi SCUD missiles hit US army barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
            killed 28 and wounded over 100
Feb 25 US 3rd Inf Div attacked Iraq 26th Inf Div and took 299 prisoners
Feb 25 US Task Force 1-37 took HQ of Iraq 26th Inf Div
Feb 25 Radio Baghdad announced withdrawal from Kuwait
Feb 25 Secretary of State Baker National Security Adviser Scowcroft said if Saddam
            remained in power UN sanctions would stay in place

Feb 26 Saddam announced withdrawal from Kuwait Iraqi army started pulling out
Feb 26 US 3rd Inf Div attacked 52nd Armored Div 17 Div Adnan and Tawakalna
Feb 26 Battle of 73 Easting US 2nd Armored Cav Rgt battle Iraq Tawakalna Div
Feb 26 Battle of Norfolk US 1st Armored Div UK 1st Armored Div destroyed Iraq 26th,
            25th, 31st, 48th Div and 52nd Armored Div
Feb 26 US aircraft begin attacking retreating Iraqi forces from Kuwait on Highway of
Feb 26 Iraq said it was willing to end annexation of Kuwait and pay reparations for a
            ceasefire in Gulf War and end of sanctions
Feb 26 Bush admin officials said they wanted to keep sanctions on Iraq to provoke a

Feb 27 Battle of Medina, Basra US 1st Armored Div and 3rd Inf Div defeated Iraq’s
Medina and Adnan Div in largest tank battle of Gulf War
Feb 27 Battle of Kuwait Airport US 1st Marine Div took airport
Feb 27 Pres Bush declared Kuwait liberated
Feb 27 Voice of Free Iraq radio station aired broadcast calling on Iraqis to rise up against
Feb 27 Joint Chiefs head Gen Powell said he was ready to recommend end of Gulf War
            in 24 hrs Bush said should end it now then

Feb 28 Bush announced cease-fire in Gulf War
Feb 28 Jalal Talabani tried to tell State Dept of impending Kurdish revolt but was turned

Mar 1 Iraqi army units in Basra began revolt after end of Gulf War
Mar 1 Pres Bush said that the Iraqi people should overthrow Saddam

Mar 2 Shiite revolt spread to Suq al-Shuyukh and Nasiriyah in Dhi Qar
Mar 2 Shiite rebels attacked military intelligence headquarters in Basra
Mar 2 UN Resolution 686 required Iraq to pay reparations to Kuwait Baghdad accepted

Mar 3 Iraq signed ceasefire with US to end Gulf War
Mar 3 Demonstrations against Saddam started in Najaf following Gulf War Fired upon
            by security forces

Mar 4 Najaf and Kufa joined Shiite revolt
Mar 4 Iraqi forces began retaking Basra from rebels

Mar 5 Police tried to arrest army deserters in Rania that started Kurdish revolt
Mar 5 Karbala joined Shiite revolt
Mar 5 Ayatollah Khoei issued fatwa for people in Najaf to follow Islamic Law Protect
            property during uprising
Mar 5 Secretary of Defense Cheney said US would not be able to hold coalition together if
            it moved on Saddam
Mar 5 US Gen Brandtner said US would not let weapons go to Shiite rebels in southern
Mar 5 Iraq officially renounced annexation of Kuwait

Mar 6 Saddam appointed cousin Ali Majid Interior Minister to put down uprisings
Mar 6 State Dept spokesman said foreign powers should not get involved in Iraqi
Mar 6 Kurdish uprising starts in Kol Sanjaq

Mar 7 Ayatollah Khoei issued 2nd fatwa calling for clerical leadership to run Najaf
            and restoring order during uprising
Mar 7 Iraqi officials asked for WMD to put down rebellion in Najaf
Mar 7 Bush Admin warned Iraq not to use WMD against Shiite & Kurdish
Mar 7 Govt forces began artillery and rocket fire on Najaf shrine
Mar 7 Peshmerga began uprising in Sulaymaniya
Mar 7 Saddam offered Shiites and Kurds share in govt in exchange for loyalty oath but
            turned down

Mar 8 Peshmerga captured Sulaymaniya from govt forces
Mar 8 Iranian Pres Rafsanjani called on Saddam to step down from power

Mar 9 Kurdish rebellion started in Halabja and Arbat
Mar 9 Hussein Kamal led Iraqi forces to retake Karbala from rebels

Mar 10 Iranian Revolutionary Guard attacked 2 Mujahedeen e-Khalq camps in Iraq during
            Shiite uprising
Mar10 Kurdish uprising spread to Tuz Kharmato and Dohuk
Mar 10 Govt imposed curfew in Kirkuk to try to stop unrest
Mar 10 US troops began withdrawing from Persian Gulf

Mar 11 Shiite uprising in Hillah put down
Mar 11 Kurdish uprising started in Irbil
Mar 11 Massoud Barzani offered amnesty for soldiers who surrender to Peshmerga
Mar 11 Peshmerga began attacking Kirkuk, Iraqi army responded by taking hostages
            inside city
Mar 11 Rebels from Najaf met French forces who said they would meet Gen Schwarzkopf
            Never happened

Mar 12 Govt operation to retake Najaf from Shiite rebels began

Mar 13 Pres Bush said Iraqi helicopters should not be used to put down Shiite and
            Kurdish uprisings
Mar 13 Kurdish uprising spread to Zakho
Mar 13 325 Iraqi opposition leaders from 23 factions met in Beirut to discuss uprising
            in Iraq

Mar 14 Pres Bush warned Iran not to take advantage of Iraq uprisings to try to annex
            any territory

Mar 15 Saddam declared southern revolt over
Mar 15 Iraqi govt forces began operation to retake Tuz Kharmato from Peshmerga
Mar 15 U.S. shot down Iraqi fighter after warned it no flights allowed during uprisings

Mar 16 Saddam made 1st address since Gulf War Blamed southern uprising on Iran Said
            Kurds worked with foreigners & always defeated

Mar 17 Iraqi army began assault to retake Karbala from Shiite rebels
Mar 17 Refugee claimed govt killed 250-300 people of Najaf after Shiite uprising
Mar 17 Kurds began fleeing Tuz Kharmato in face of govt offensive to retake it
Mar 17 Saddam said he would introduce democracy and create a new constitution
Mar 17 Baghdad held 1st tribal loyalty ceremony to shore up support during uprising

Mar 18 Secretary of State Baker after tour of Middle East and Soviet Union said most
            leaders thought Saddam would be gone by end of year

Mar 19 Saddam’s troops recaptured Karbala from Shiite rebels Went district to district
            taking young men and executing them
Mar 19 Govt forces arrested Ayatollah Khoei following Shiite uprising 105 relatives staff
            students & clerics arrested in Najaf by govt forces
Mar 19 Bush admin officials accused Iran of trying to overthrow Saddam and place
            friendly Shiites in power in Baghdad

Mar 20 Kirkuk fell to Kurdish rebels
Mar 20 Kurdish leaders said that all of Iraqi Kurdistan had been liberated from Iraqi
Mar 20 Ayatollah Khoei made to appear with Saddam on TV to denounce Shiite uprising
            The Ayatollah was then placed under house arrest in Najaf

Mar 21 Govt offensive to retake Kirkuk from peshmerga began day after Kurds took it
Mar 21 UN survey of Gulf War damage to Iraq called it almost apocalyptic Said
            bombing had put Iraq in preindustrial age

Mar 22 US shot down another Iraqi fighter after warned it no flights during uprisings

Mar 23 Sadoun Hammadi, a Shiite became premier as Saddam tried to appease Shiites
            while putting down uprising

Mar 26 Fierce fighting between Iraqi forces and Peshmerga on Khanaqin-Jalawla road,
Mar 26 Talabani returned to Iraq after 3 years during Kurdish revolt
Mar 26 White House meeting on Iraq revolts Was split over whether to help Iraqis or not
Mar 26 Bush administration said they would not stop Iraq from using helicopters to
            put down uprisings

Mar 27 2nd day of fighting between Iraqi forces and Peshmerga on Khanaqin-Jalawla road,

Mar 28 SCIRI head Hakim said Shiite rebels in south only fighting in rural areas after
            lost cities to Iraqi army
Mar 28 Iraqi intelligence memo said it had contacts with bin Laden

Mar 29 Iraqi troops recaptured Kirkuk from Kurdish rebels following Gulf
Mar 29 Iraqi troops captured Tanuma, Basra from rebels

Mar 30 Saddam’s troops re-entered Dohuk and Irbil to put down Kurdish rebellion
Mar 30 Majid al-Khoei met with Saudi intelligence and was turned down for aid because
            US objections

Mar 31 Govt op to retake Sulaymaniya from Peshemerga began

Apr 1 Peshmerga repelled govt attack to retake Sulaymaniya
Apr 1 Saddam’s forces put down Kurdish revolt in Zakho

Apr 2 UN Resolution 687 said Iraq had to respect Kuwait’s sovereignty destroy
WMD and long range missiles to remove sanctions
Apr 2 State Dept U.S. never said that it was for removing Saddam
Apr 2 Turkey said that 30,000 Kurds had entered country and 220,00 more coming as
            Saddam put down Kurdish revolt
Apr 2 Iran and Turkey went to UN about Iraq’s suppression of Kurd and Shiite revolts
            and refugee crisis it was creating
Apr 2 Kurds began fleeing Sulaymaniya in face of govt offensive to retake it from

Apr 3 Saddam’s troops captured Sulaymaniya last major town held by Kurdish rebels
Apr 3 Saddam told aides that Iraqi army was psychologically defeated by Gulf War
            and that was why Shiites and Kurds rose up against govt

Apr 4 Report Pres Bush gave CIA okay to support opposition in Iraq led to creation of
            Voice of Free Iraq radio station run by Saudis
Apr 4 Britain offered $37 mil in humanitarian aid to Kurds

Apr 5 Saddam declared that Kurdish and Shiite rebellions were crushed following Gulf
Apr 5 Bush authorized airdrops of supplies to Kurds
Apr 5 UN Resolution 688 condemned Saddam’s repression of its civilian population

Apr 6 UNHCR est 750,000 Kurds fled to Iran and 280,000 to Turkey and 300,000
            on Iraq-Turkey border
Apr 6 Baghdad accepted UN resolution 687 that said Iraq had to recognize Kuwait
            sovereignty and destroy WMD and missiles

Apr 7 Sec of State Baker condemned Iraq crimes against its people but said US would
            not get involved
Apr 7 US began humanitarian airdrops to Kurds

Apr 8 Plan to create UN safe haven in northern Iraq for Kurds approved at European
            Union meeting
Apr 8 US agreed to $10 mil in humanitarian aid to Kurds
Apr 8 European Community agreed to provide humanitarian aid to Kurds

Apr 10 US ordered Iraq to end all military action in northern Iraq above 38th parallel 
            Northern no fly zone created

Apr 11 Cease fire between Iraq and coalition went into effect
Apr 11 Japan agreed to $10 mil in humanitarian aid to Kurds

Apr 12 Report Bush admin decided that Shiite and Kurdish uprisings after Gulf
            War strengthened Saddam and ended hopes of coup
Apr 12 US began Op Provide Comfort to set up safe haven for Kurds in northern Iraq

Apr 13 Pres Bush said US would send humanitarian aid to Iraq and condemned govt
            attacks on civilians but would not get more involved

Apr 16 Pres Bush said that US would set up relief camps in Kurdistan to help refugees
            after Saddam put down revolt
Apr 16 Bush said UN sanctions on Iraq would stay until Saddam removed from power
Apr 16 State Dept met with Iraqi opposition including Ahmed Chalabi for first time

Apr 17 British intelligence report said Iraq had around 600 ballistic missiles left after Gulf
Apr 17 US forces began moving into Kurdistan to set up camps for displaced
Apr 17 Germany agreed to $262 mil in humanitarian aid to Kurds

Apr 18 Saddam agreed to UN setting up offices in Iraq to help displaced following
            Shiite and Kurdish uprisings
Apr 18 Iraq provided first disarmament declaration to UN was incomplete and hid
            lots of activities like nuclear and WMD programs

Apr 20 Bush White House didn’t think Saddam was going to be overthrown anymore
            after Gulf War
Apr 20 SCIRI claimed it started attacks upon govt forces in southern Iraq Came after
            Shiite revolt put down
Apr 20 Kurds went to Baghdad to hold talks with Saddam to end revolt
Apr 20 500 Marines landed in Kurdistan to set up safe-haven for displaced Kurds

Apr 21 Iraqi govt forces began attack on southern marshes in Maysan Basra and Dhi Qar
            to root out rebels

Apr 22 Report that Iranian intelligence and Revolutionary Guard working in Iraq to help

Apr 24 Kurdish leaders announced tentative deal with Saddam over autonomy and
            returning refugees who fled during revolt

Apr 25 Kurdish parties agreed to deal with Saddam including autonomy to end
            revolt after Gulf War
Apr 25 Turkey told UN 30,000 Iraqi Kurds had entered Turkey in 2 days and 220,000
            were on there way as Kurdish uprising put down

Apr 27 Iraq made declaration of its nuclear program to UN inspectors but was hiding
most of it

Apr 28 US led Coalition created safe zone for Kurds near Dohuk after uprising
            put down

May 1 Saddam said that fighting spirit of Iraqis led Bush to call a cease-fire in Gulf War

May 2 Shiite rebels claimed to have killed 180 Iraqi soldiers in 9 different attacks in

May 6 Iraq letter to UN accused US of sending in counterfeit dinars to undermine

May 9 US forces withdrew from southern Iraq after Gulf War

May 10 Iraq rejected US French UK proposal for international police force to deploy
            to Kurdistan

May 11 UK PM Major said was against ending UN sanctions on Iraq until Saddam
May 11 CIA hired Rendon Group for propaganda ops in Iraq Would help create Iraqi
            National Congress

May 12 Baghdad took journalists to mass grave with 100 bodies it claims were killed
            by Iranians and Shiite rebels in southern Iraq

May 14 UN nuclear inspectors arrived in Iraq

May 15 International Atomic Energy Agency started first weapons inspection in Iraq

May 18 Massoud Barzani announced deal with Saddam for greater Kurdish

May 20 Bush said he would oppose lifting sanctions on Iraq as long as Saddam
            was in power

May 21 Kuwait asked for half of Iraq’s oil earnings as reparation for invasion

Jun 3 Survey found Gulf War damage to Iraq infrastructure far more than originally
            claimed Destroyed most of electrical grid

Jun 7 UN began taking over camps run by US military to help Kurds following 91

Jun 9 1st UN weapons inspection of Iraq’s WMD begins

Jun 11 Iranian Amb to UN warned that Iraqi army ready to launch op against
            displaced in southern Iraq hiding after 91 uprising

Jun 17 UNSCOM created for inspecting Iraq’s WMD program along with IAEA

Jun 23 US Gen said in opening day of bombing during Gulf War US tried to
            kill Saddam

Jun 25 Iraqis fired on UN weapons inspectors at suspected nuke site

Jun 28 UN inspectors denied access to Fallujah nuclear site while trucks took equipment

Jun 30 Saddam created special committee headed by Tariq Aziz to conceal weapons
            programs from UN inspectors

Jul 4 Saddam introduced law to parliament ending one party rule in Iraq

Jul 7 Iraq Foreign Min Hussein told UN that it would make a declaration of its
nuclear program Hussein said Iraq had not violated Non-Proliferation Treaty or IAEA safeguards
Jul 7 Concealment committee met Decided to reveal details about nuke program after
inspectors found site Concealment committee decided to secretly destroy WMD programs and materials to hide them form inspectors Would prove long term problem because could never fully prove what it destroyed and what it was hiding to inspectors

Jul 8 Iraq admitted to UN inspectors it had 3 secret programs to enrich uranium to
            build a nuclear bomb Beforehand Iraq denied it had any nuclear weapons program

Jul 10 UN set up camps at Lake Hammar to take in displaced from southern marshes
            but govt did not allow people to enter

Jul 11 Iran warned that Iraqi forces about to launch new military operation into southern
            marshes against rebels and displaced
Jul 11 UK intel report said Iraq had tried 4 methods to enrich uranium for its nuclear
            program and might have made enough for 1 bomb
Jul 11 Pres Bush said that coup vs Saddam might be best way to assure that Iraq didn’t
            continue with its nuclear weapons program

Aug 4 Baath ordered property in Kirkuk to be given to Arabs and building over 2700
            new homes for them

Aug 6 Iraq told UN weapons inspectors that it worked on anthrax and botulin toxin as
            part of its biological weapons program

Aug 15 UN Resolution 706 proposed Iraq import petroleum products to alleviate
            humanitarian situation caused by sanctions Iraq rejected plan
Aug 15 UN Resolution 707 said Iraq was in flagrant violation of weapons inspectors 

Aug 22 Bush announced no fly zone over southern Iraq to stop Saddam offensive to
            clear out southern marshes

Aug 2 Kuwait and Saudi officials argued that Iraq should be divided along
            ethnosectarian lines to stop threat of country to Persian Gulf

Aug 10 Govt curfew in Najaf to try to stop march after death of Ayatollah Khoei

Aug 11 U.N. Iraq Rapporteur went to Security Council about Iraq draining southern
            marshes and new counterinsurgency campaign against rebels in south
Aug 11 UK France US condemned Iraq campaign to clear southern marshes and warned
            of possible consequences

Aug 26 US, UK, France started Operation Southern Watch creating southern no fly
            zone over Iraq

Aug 27 Report US funneled in counterfeit dinars into Iraq to try to undermine economy
            and Saddam

Aug 30 Reports that govt arrested Shiites in south and moved them into camps

Aug 26 Iraqi Vanguard for National Salvation took responsibility for car bomb in

Feb 19 Saddam representatives met with bin Laden in Sudan who asked for broadcast of
            jihadist lectured & asked for joint ops against Saudis

Aug 7 Hussein and Saddam Kamal Saddam’s cousins and sons in law defect to Jordan
            with their wives, Saddam’s daughters Hussein ran Iraq’s WMD programs

Aug 8 Iraq claimed Hussein Kamal responsible for hiding weapons programs from UN
            inspectors after he defected to Jordan
Aug 8 Iraq admitted that it weaponized biological weapons to UN inspectors

Aug 11 Saddam gave speech denouncing son-in-law Hussein Kamal for defecting to
Aug 11 Ali Hassan al-Majid issued statement saying Hussein Kamal was a traitor for
            defecting to Jordan

Aug 12 Saddam’s son-in-law Hussein Kamal held news conference in Jordan saying he
            would overthrow Saddam after defecting

Aug 15 Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq denounced Jordan taking in
            Saddam’s son-in-law Hussein Kamal calling him a murderer

Aug 20 Iraq admitted to UN inspectors that its crash program to build a nuclear bomb

Aug 22 UN interviewed Hussein Kamal Saddam’s son-in-law that defected to Jordan
Kamal said Iraq hid its WMD and nuclear program from inspectors but all the programs had ended after Gulf War US and UN didn’t believe Kamal’s claim that the programs were over Kamal did convince them that Iraq would always hide them

Aug 24 UK intelligence report said Iraq had hidden much of its nuclear program
            destroyed its SCUDs and didn’t have a hidden chemical stockpile

Jul 30 CIA report head of Iraq intel met bin Laden in Sudan and provided bomb making
know how Was false Bin Laden left Sudan May 96 and no reports he returned afterward

Aug 8 UN agreed to plan for Oil For Food Program

Aug 20 PUK attacked KDP positions in Sulaymaniya with Iranian artillery and
            helicopter support

Aug 22 Massoud Barzani wrote Tariq Aziz asking for Baghdad’s help to fight PUK
            and their Iranian backers in Irbil

Aug 27 PUK attacks forced KDP out of most of its territory PUK was receiving backing
            from Iran

Aug 28 US provided info to UN that Iraq smuggling oil in violation of sanctions

Aug 29 Iraqi National Accord discovered impending Iraqi attack on Kurdistan and KDP
            had made deal with Saddam

Aug 30 State Dept attempted to mediate ceasefire between KDP-PUK KDP denied that
            it had any deal with Baghdad

Aug 31 30,000 Republican Guards began attack upon PUK captured Irbil city to back
Aug 31 PUK gave orders to flee to hills to escape Iraqi attack upon Irbil
Aug 31 INC camp in Qushtapa, Irbil captured by Iraqi forces 96 INC members killed
Aug 31 Clinton said he was concerned about Iraqi attack on Irbil but US not ready to
Aug 31 Defense Secretary Perry said US should not get involved in Kurdish civil war

Aug 20 Iraq agreed to allow Iranian pilgrims to go to Najaf and Karbala as way to get
            around UN sanctions

Oct 8 IAEA report Iraq started centrifuge program in 1987 but was way behind schedule
            Iraq might have had a bomb by 1996 if not for Gulf War

Jan 26 Project for New American Century sent letter to Clinton demanding US
overthrow Saddam 11 of 18 that signed letter would later join Bush administration in 2011

Feb 3 Report Al Qaeda’s Zawahiri met Iraq’s Vice President in Baghdad to talk about
            setting up camps Another story said Iraq gave Zawahiri $300,000

Feb 17 Clinton told Pentagon US had to stop Iraq from getting WMD and nuclear

Feb 19 Blair said UN weapons inspections had to continue or action taken against Iraq
Feb 19 Committee for Peace & Security in the Gulf publishes letter to Clinton saying US
            should overthrow Saddam
Feb 19 Report Al Qaeda operative was to travel to Iraq to talks with govt

Mar 5 Report Al Qaeda operative arrived in Baghdad for talks

Aug 5 Iraq stopped cooperating with UN weapons inspectors and demanded changes to

Aug 14 Iraq found violating UN sanctions by smuggling oil

Aug 24 US intelligence claimed Iraq was involved in Al Qaeda chemical plant Clinton
administration bombed in Sudan Cited phone calls to head of Iraq’s chemical weapons program

Sep 17 Italian paper said Iraq offered bin Laden safe haven

Oct 7 Congress passed Iraq Liberation Act saying policy was to remove Saddam
            Opened up money to Iraq opposition

Nov 4 NSC counterterrorism dir Clarke sent memo to National Security Adviser Berger
            saying Iraq WMD experts were at Sudan factory probably working with Al Qaeda

Dec 28 Italian paper claimed Saddam and bin Laden made pact to act against US and
            Iraq offered Saddam safe haven

Jan 1 French paper claimed in 1998 Iraqis offered bin Laden safe haven

Jan 5 UN weapons inspector report said Iraq had not accounted for 550 mustard gas
artillery rounds These unaccounted for stocks would become a major argument by the Bush White House that Iraq was hiding its WMD

Jan 11 Newsweek report Iraq and Al Qaeda had meetings

Jan 14 ABC reported on Dec 98 meeting with Iraqi intelligence officer and bin laden

Jan 23 NSC counterterrorism director Clarke said US was right to bomb factory in Sudan
            because connected to Al Qaeda and Iraq WMD experts

Jan 31 Soviet paper claimed hundreds of Afghan Arabs were being trained in terrorism
            in south Iraq to fight US

Feb 1 NY Post claimed Saddam was making contacts with bin Laden and Abu Nidal to
            strike US

Feb 6 Guardian reported that Dec 98 Iraqis met with Al Qaeda in Afghanistan Claimed
            Iraq offered bin Laden asylum

Feb 13 AP reported that Saddam offered bin Laden shelter after being kicked out of

Feb 18 Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr assassinated by Saddam
(Musings On Iraq interview with Unif of Haifa’s Prof Amatzia Baram on the legacy of Ayatollah Sadiq al-Sadr)
Feb 18 Former CIA counterterrorism officer Cannistraro said Iraqis met bin Laden in
            Dec 98

Apr 13 CIA had four reports that Iraq offered safe haven to bin Laden

Aug 17 Iraq reopened Saddam International Airport to get around UN sanctions

Jan 10 Outgoing Clinton Defense Secretary Cohen briefed President elect Bush on Iraq
Said Saddam contained and strong action vs Iraq would cause problems in region

Jan 30 1st NSC meeting of Bush admin talked about how Iraq destabilizing Middle East
            CIA Dir Tenet provided intel Iraq working on WMD at factory
Jan 30 Treasury Secretary O’Neil asked about WMD intel Tenet admitted no
            confirmation that Iraq producing WMD

Feb 1 2nd NSC meeting of Bush admin Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said US objective
            was not getting rid of Saddam but his WMD

Feb 5 National Security Adviser Rice chaired meeting to go over Iraq policy Agreed that
Saddam had won PR war over sanctions by convincing most of international community that they were hurting Iraqi public Also that sanctions were not forcing Saddam from power Secretary of State Powell argued for smart sanctions that would just focus upon military imports to Iraq Rice wanted review of No Fly Zone Led to less flights to try to avoid plane getting shot down Told US agencies to increase Intelligence gathering on WMD

Feb 6 US & UK launched largest air strike sin Iraq in 2 yrs to destroy fiber optic
            communications system Iraq trying to install for its military

Feb 7 CIA report to Congress no evidence Iraq reconstituted WMD program since 1990s

Feb 12 Rumsfeld said Iraq is probably not a nuclear threat at this time

Feb 24 Powell said Iraq had not developed any significant WMD capability and UN
            sanctions worked

Mar 1 NSC meeting on Iraq policy Powell told to devise smart sanctions proposal for UN
Powell and Rumsfeld argued over dual use equipment that should be banned from Iraq
Mar 1 Separate NSC meeting discussed working with Iraqi opposition and INC Talked
            about arming them but couldn’t agree on anything
Mar 1 State Dept report said unlikely Iraq bought uranium from Niger in response to
            request by Cheney for info

Apr 10 CIA report that Iraq had tried to buy aluminum tubes for centrifuges 2nd report
            questioned assessment

Apr 30 NSC meeting on Al Qaeda threat Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz asked
why US should focus on bin Laden when Iraq terrorism real threat Deputy CIA Director McLaughlin told Wolfowitz no evidence of Iraq terrorist threat to US Deputy Secretary of State Armitage told Wolfowitz Al Qaeda was the main threat to US

May 9 US Energy Dept said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy might have been for
            rockets not centrifuges CIA analyst disagreed

Jun 1 UN Res 1352 extended Oil for Food program
Jun 1 White House national security meeting on revising Iraq policy but no decisions
made Asked NSC for new ways to pressure Iraq

Jul 26 Last of 4 NSC Deputies Committee meetings on revising Iraq policy

Aug 1 Paper on increasing pressure on Saddam and supporting Iraqi opposition
            presented to US National Security Council

Aug 1 Paper on increasing pressure on Saddam and supporting Iraqi opposition
            presented to NSC

Aug 7 US Energy Dept said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy could be for centrifuges
            but probably for rockets

Aug 15 UK Foreign Office legal adviser Sir Wood said that British forces could be sued
            if not given legal basis for going to war with Iraq

Aug 17 US Energy Dep report said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were probably for
            rockets not centrifuges for nuclear weapons program

Sep 10 US and UK planes hit three Iraqi air defense systems in largest strikes since Feb
Sep 10 Time reported Bush administration discussed overthrowing Saddam

Sep 11 Bush asked whether Iraq was involved in 9/11 because Saddam backed
            Palestinian terrorists
Sep 11 Rice told UK Amb to US Meyer that White House was looking into whether Iraq
            involved in 9/11
Sep 11 5 hrs after 9/11 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld wrote memo asking for info on
            whether should attack Saddam and Iraq
Sep 11 Rumsfeld told Pentagon lawyer to talk to Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz
            about Iraq-Al Qaeda connections
Sep 11 At NSC meeting Rumsfeld brought up bombing Iraq
Sep 11 Counterterrorism chief Clarke said Rumsfeld and Deputy Defense Secretary
            Wolfowitz were taking advantage of 9/11 to push their Iraq agenda
Sep 11 Bush said that US should get rid of Saddam and told some aides to look into
            Iraq-Al Qaeda connections
Sep 11 In 2003 Bush said that 9/11 changed his mind about the problems Saddam could
            pose Said he no longer believed in containment afterward

Sep 12 Bush asked Counterterrorism chief Clarke to look into whether Iraq involved in
Sep 12 Top officials within Bush White House talked about Iraq being behind
            9/11 attack
Sep 12 Pentagon meeting on 9/11 CIA said was sure Al Qaeda behind attack Deputy
Defense Secretary Wolfowitz questioned that and said Iraq must have been involved
Sep 12 Rumsfeld said not enough good targets to bomb in Afghanistan so US should
            bomb Iraq instead
Sep 12 Rumsfeld said that Saddam should be overthrown Joint Chiefs Head Gen
            Shelton said that was only possible via large invasion
Sep 12 White House told CIA to come up with covert plan against Iraq
Sep 12 Czech intel source said he saw 9/11 hijacker Atta meet with Iraqi intel in Prague
            Apr 2001
Sep 12 Ex-CIA Dir Woolsey said didn’t matter who was responsible for 9/11 solution
            had to include removing Saddam from power

Sep 13 Bush asked CIA Dir Tenet whether he was looking into Iraq-Al Qaeda
Sep 13 Rumsfeld said attacking Iraq would be good deterrent to countries that support
Sep 13 Rumsfeld told army to come up with plans for seizing Iraq’s southern oil fields
Sep 13 Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz told press US would eliminate states that
            sponsor terrorism
Sep 13 US intelligence and counterterrorism agencies meeting agreed no connection
            between Iraq and al Qaeda Report sent to Bush
Sep 13 Fmr CIA Dir Woolsey said US needed to look into whether Iraq rather than
            Al Qaeda was behind 9/11
Sep 13 Iraq conspiracy theorist L. Mylroie Wall St Journal OpEd said Al Qaeda not            capable of 9/11 and was probably Iraq

Sep 14 Fmr CIA Dir Woolsey said Saddam could be working with Al Qaeda
Sep 14 Bush told Blair that there might be an Iraq-Al Qaeda connection

Sep 15 Bush held meeting at Camp David to determine response to 9/11 Iraq brought
up several times Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz said 10-50% change Iraq behind 9/11 and US had to take on Saddam if serious about war on terrorism Wolfowitz worried that US would get bogged down in Afghanistan and argued Iraq would be easy in comparison Secretary of State Powell told Wolfowitz he had no proof Iraq involved in 9/11 and was just using it for his Iraq agenda Said that if US attacked Iraq it would lose international support Rumsfeld said it might be good to attack Iraq because no good targets in Afghanistan VP Cheney said that if US attacked Iraq it would lose its good guy image in the war on terror Cheney did add that Iraq would be dealt with later on Chief of Staff Card said Iraq should not be the target and CIA Director Tenet thought Afghanistan shuld be the focus
Sep 15 Def Dept paper for Camp David meeting said 3 priorities in war on terror:
            Al Qaeda, Taliban, Iraq
Sep 15 Bush admin voted on whether to deal with Iraq after 9/11 Was 4-0 against with
            Rumsfeld abstaining
Sep 15 Bush said he thought Iraq involved in 9/11 but told Rice it would be dealt with

Sep 16 Bush said unless Iraq connected to 9/11 it would be dealt with diplomatically not
            with force Told National Security Adviser Rice Iraq would be handled later
Sep 16 Cheney asked on NBC was there any evidence linking Iraq to 9/11 He said no
            Said focus was on Al Qaeda
Sep 16 Fmr CIA Dir Woolsey said stories of 9/11 hijacker Atta meeting with Iraqi
            intel showed Iraq needed to be investigated

Sep 17 Bush said he believed Iraq was involved in 9/11 to his national security staff
Sep 17 Bush told Rumsfeld to continue to revise Iraq war plans but that it wasn’t a
            priority with Afghanistan
Sep 17 Bush told Pentagon it needed to be ready to deal with Iraq if it acted against US
Sep 17 Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz sent memos to Rumsfeld advocating
            for attacking Iraq
Sep 17 Senator Allen told CNN US might think of regime change in Iraq

Sep 18 Richard Clarke’s counterterrorism office sent National Security Adviser Rice
            memo saying no Iraq-9/11 links found
Sep 18 Reuters reported 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraqi intelligence in Europe Story
            was false

Sep 19 Iraq intelligence paper said Afghan source claimed bin Laden Taliban and Iraq
            worked together to target America Story was never confirmed
Sep 19 Bush asked CIA Dir Tenet to look into Iraq Al Qaeda ties and said VP Cheney
            had info on links
Sep 19 Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz sent ex-CIA Dir Woolsey to England to
            look into Iraq-9/11 connections

Sep 20 Under Secretary of Defense Feith complained about lack of good targets in
            Afghanistan and suggested bombing Iraq for 9/11
Sep 20 Project for a New American Century in letter to Bush said Iraq might have
            supported 9/11 and Saddam had to be targeted in war on terror
Sep 20 US intel officials told press they were looking into Iraq’s connections to 9/11
Sep 20 Israeli intelligence said they thought Iraq connected to 9/11 Claimed Al Qaeda
            funded by Iraqi Intel Service

Sep 21 1st CIA report on Iraq and 9/11 found no connection but two had contacts
in 1990s Bush was briefed on findings Also didn’t think 9/11/ hijacker Atta met with Iraqi intelligence officer in Prague in 2001
Sep 21 CIA Dir Tenet told Bush CIA Czech office questioned 9/11 hijacker Atta meeting
            Iraqi intel officer in Prague
Sep 21 DIA analyst at Pentagon’s Office of Special Plans said CIA report had good
            information but  findings of no Iraq-Al Qaeda ties should be ignored
Sep 21 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith sent DIA analysis of CIA report to
            Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz and Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld
Sep 21 Admin officials told Wash Times Saddam talked with bin Laden just before 9/11
Sep 21 Iraqi defector claimed Iraq was training terrorists to take over airplanes at Salman
            Pak, Baghdad

Oct 3 Weekly Standard article argued Iraq connected to 9/11 and Saddam had to be

Oct 15 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith briefed NSC on plan for governing
            postwar Iraq with 3-star general in charge of military and civilian administrator

Nov 12 INC presented Iraqi defector Lami who claimed Iraq training terrorists at Salman
            Pak and had anthrax

Nov 21 Bush told Natl Sec Adv Rice he wanted Rumsfeld to start planning for Iraq
Nov 21 Bush told Rumsfeld to update war plans for Iraq Wanted it done secretly Was
            first step in eventual invasion of Iraq

Nov 26 Bush called Saddam a terrorist who would be held accountable and said Iraq
            needed to allow UN weapons inspectors back in
Nov 26 White House spokesman Fleischer said US afraid Al Qaeda might try to get
            nuclear weapons from Iraq

Nov 27 Rumsfeld told CENTCOM commander Gen Frank he wanted to completely
            revise Iraq war plan
Nov 27 Saddam rejected Bush’s call for UN weapons inspectors to return to Iraq
Nov 27 Wash Post survey found 78% of Americans supported military action against

Dec 1 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld issued order to Joint Chiefs to begin revising war
planning for Iraq CENTCOM commander Gen Franks was only given 3 days to revise the plan and present it to Rumsfeld
Dec 1 NY Times article quoted Deputy Secretary of State Armitage saying that US was
going to force Iraq to allow UN inspectors back in Other administration officials said that White House was looking into how to support Iraqi opposition groups

Dec 4 Gen Franks briefed Rumsfeld and Joint Chiefs Chairman Gen Meyers on
revised Iraq invasion plan Franks revised 1990s Op Plan 1003 Cut troops from 500,000 to 400,000 to be deployed in 6 instead of 7 months Franks said couldn't’ scrap Op Plan 1003 because never knew what it would be needed Said would take a long time to revise it Rumsfeld said Afghanistan showed US didn’t need such a large and long invasion plan for Iraq He wanted a battle plan that could be executed in a very short time not months Franks agreed with Rumsfeld but said Op Plan 1003 only thing they had at moment Rumsfeld told Franks goal of any military action against Iraq would be removing Saddam Franks was given one week to revise plan General that Rumsfeld went from plan not important to it being urgent
Dec 4 Blair told Bush Iraq was a threat because it had WMD could export it and
            violated UN resolutions
Dec 4 Blair paper to Bush said that they had to consider regime change in Iraq

Dec 9 VP Cheney told NBC Iraq was hosting terrorists and developing WMD Claimed
story 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraq intel officer in Prague was pretty much confirmed

Dec 19 Gen Franks made 3rd presentation to Rumsfeld of revised Iraq war plan

Dec 28 CENTCOM commander Gen Franks presented latest version of Iraq war plan to
Bush in Crawford, Texas Franks had 7 lines of operation that could be used independently or in conjunction Were bombings and missile attacks Special Forces penetrating into Iraq Ground operations by army and marines Information deception and psychological operations CIA support for Iraqi opposition diplomacy and humanitarian aid to Iraqi population Included 9 “slices” of Iraq that could be targeted Were Leadership internal security and intelligence agencies WMD missiles Republican Guard territory of Iraq Iraqi army infrastructure and civilian population Plan would need support of Kuwait Saudi Arabia Jordan Turkey Bahrain Qatar UAE Oman and England Could start with just 105,000 troops and then 230,000 more coming in next 60-90 days Franks wanted to start building up forces and supplies in region immediately get CIA to start building up support within Iraq and diplomacy to build up support amongst Gulf States Franks said US would be ready for Iraq invasion by April to June 2002
Dec 28 CIA Director Tenet said US had worked with Iraqi opposition before and
abandoned them Said they would not cooperate with US without seeing real and large scale commitment from Washington
Dec 28 Bush told Secretary of State Powell and Defense Secretary Rumsfeld that they
needed to start building up support amongst countries around Iraq for US action
Dec 28 Bush asked Gen Franks if war plan good enough to win Franks said yes with

Jan 3 CIA Director Tenet and staff briefed VP Cheney and his chief of staff Scooter
Libby on what they could do in Iraq Said covert action would not be able to overthrow Saddam only an invasion would Said containing and training to overthrow Saddam at same time wouldn’t work and needed a unified Iraq policy
Jan 3 CIA Director Tenet gave same briefing to Bush President said dual Iraq policy
            would stand

Jan 9 Gen Franks briefed Rumsfeld on latest war plan
Jan 9 Secretary of State Powell called Franks and voiced his concern that Rumsfeld was
trying to push a small an invasion force as possible and not give into that pressure

Jan 27 Gen Franks briefed Rumsfeld on latest war plan Franks said review found Iraqi
military seriously degraded by sanctions Claimed that more US got involved against Iraq the less the Iraqi people would support regime Cut war plan down from 7 months to just 150 days with 245,000 troops Franks wanted to lesson timeline even more Wanted to start information campaign against Saddam immediately to pressure him

Jan 29 Bush State of Union called Iraq part of Axis of Evil Said it still had WMD
programs Iran and North Korea were added to speech because White House didn’t want to be seen as focusing upon Saddam

Jan 30 CIA unclassified report to Congress said Iraq trying to rebuild its nuclear

Feb 1 Gen Franks briefed Rumsfeld on war plans with start time April 2002 with 300,000

Feb 5 2nd CIA report claimed foreign govt reports claimed Iraq tried to buy uranium from
Feb 5 CIA received fake documents claiming Iraq-Niger uranium deal Never analyzed
Feb 5 CIA report said Iraq had 7 mobile WMD labs

Feb 6 CIA officials told NY Times Iraq not taken part in any anti-U.S. terrorism since
            1993 attempt on ex-Pres Bush
Feb 6 US intel officials told NY Times 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraqi intel in Prague

Feb 7 Gen Franks presented revised Iraq invasion plan to Bush at White House

Feb 11 Fmr CIA Dir Woolsey told Pentagon about Iraqi defector with intel on Iraq’s
            WMD provided by INC

Feb 12 Powell told Senate that regime change in Iraq was US policy since Clinton
            Said no plans for invasion though
Feb 12 DIA report Iraq tried to buy 500 tons of yellowcake uranium from Niger

Feb 13 Bush at press conference said he had a number of options for dealig with Iraq
Feb 13 Bush admin officials told several media outlets they had decided to move against

Feb 16 Bush signs secret NSC directive calling for covert action against Iraq by CIA
Had budget of $189 mil for 2 years Included supporting Iraqi opposition carrying out sabotage inside Iraq working with third countries to support covert action an information campaign against Baghdad attacking Iraqi revenue sources and disrupting Baghdad’s smuggling operations

Feb 18 CIA said that it was looking for information about Iraq-Niger uranium deal and
            Joseph Wilson would meet with Niger Foreign Minister

Feb 19 CIA met with fmr Amb Joseph Wilson before his trip to Niger

Feb 20 Secret CIA team entered Kurdistan to prepare for ops inside Iraq Called Northern
            Iraq Liaison Elements
Feb 20 UK’s Joint Intel Comm chief Scarlett briefed Foreign Secretary Cook on Iraq’s
            WMD Cook thought Iraq didn’t have capability for large scale WMD attack
Feb 20 CIA gave former Amb Johseph Wilson talking points for his trip to Niger to
            investigate Iraq-Niger uranium deal

Feb 21 Former Amb Joseph Wilson leaves for Niger to investigate Iraq buying uranium
            from it

Feb 26 Former Amb Wilson arrives in Niger to investigate Iraq trying to buy uranium

Feb 28 Blair told Australian TV Iraq was a threat because it had WMD
Feb 28 Gen Franks delivered target list for air strikes in Iraq to Rumsfeld

Mar 6 Blair wrote article for UK paper saying Iraq had WMD and would use them
Mar 6 Gen Franks briefed VP Cheney on which Middle East countries needed to be
            Lobbied to help with Iraq invasion before trip to region
Mar 6 CIA held meeting on covert and unconventional warfare capabilities against Iraq
Mar 6 US war game held on political and military implications of Iraq invasion

Mar 12 Blair Foreign Policy Adv Manning met with National Security Adviser Rice and
            said UK supported regime change in Iraq but needed good strategy
Mar 12 2 CIA reports said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for centrifuges for
            nuke program

Mar 21 Gen Franks met with US commanders in Germany to go over war plans Said war
            was going to happen and they needed to be ready

Mar 23 Joint Chiefs did paper drill running through Iraq invasion plan

Mar 28 Arab League called on Iraq to comply with all UN resolutions and end
            sanctions Rejected military action
Mar 28 Gen Franks briefed Joint Chiefs on Iraq war plans Said he would be ready by

Apr 7 Blair & Bush meeting Blair pushed going to UN against Iraq Some claimed Blair
            okayed war with Iraq at meeting Blair denied that
Apr 7 Bush told network he’d decided Saddam must go

Apr 9 State Dept started Future of Iraq project bringing together 240 Iraqi exiles to chart
            out post-Saddam Iraq

Apr 11 Gen Franks talked with Rumsfeld about war preparations that could start now
            without gaining much notice

Apr 20 Gen Franks briefed Bush on Iraq war plans Franks said he wanted to cut timeline
            by 1/3 and could start with 180,000 troops

Apr 24 Gen Franks me with commanders in Qatar Said they needed to start war

May 9 Gen Franks ordered commanders to plan for including Turkey in Iraq
invasion plans Franks didn’t believe Ankara would agree to allow US troops to use country for invasion but needed to plan for it

May 10 Gen Franks discussed war plans with Rumsfeld who was afraid Iraq might take
            initiative and launch a pre-emptive attack
May 10 Gen Franks briefed NSC on Middle Eastern countries and their role in
            invasion plans

May 11 Gen Franks briefed Bush on war plans at Camp David Said he would attack Iraq
on 5 fronts: west for special operations south would be main invasion front from Kuwait north would be Turkey if it agreed to be involved center would be Baghdad attacked by air strikes and last would be information campaign

May 20 Rumsfeld asked Gen Franks to plan for a fortress Baghdad scenario where
            Saddam would withdraw all his forces into capital for an urban battle

May 21 Gen Franks lied to press saying he had no Iraq war plans and had not been
            asked to make any

May 23 During trip to Germany Bush said he had no Iraq war plans

May 24 Rumsfeld issued order to Joint Chiefs to begin Phase Four postwar planning
            for Iraq

May 26 During trip to France Bush said he had no Iraq war plans

Jun 21 CIA report on Iraq-Al Qaeda relationship Said two had contacts but no

Jul 2 UK Defense Minister Hoon told Blair he had to push US to think about postwar
            Iraq planning

Jul 22 DIA officer told to start making secret intelligence briefings to Rumsfeld on Iraq-
            Al Qaeda ties based upon request by Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz

Jul 23 Blair cabinet meeting John Scarlett head of Joint Intel Com said Saddam
could only be removed by invasion MI6 chief Sir Dearlove said Washington decided war was inevitable and Bush wanted to justify invasion via terrorism and WMD Dearlove said that intelligence and facts were being used to justify invasion by White House Blair’s foreign policy adviser said Iraq was fourth most dangerous country with WMD behind North Korea Iran and Libya

Aug 1 Senate Foreign Relations Committee began hearings on possible postwar Iraq
Scenarios Senator Biden warned that unless US gained international support it could spend $70-$80 bil rebuilding Iraq
Aug 1 Iraq invited Chief UN Inspector Blix to Baghdad for talks about new inspection

Aug 4 Under Secretary of Defense for Arms Control Bolton told BBC US didn’t care
            whether new UN inspections happened because goal was regime change in Iraq
Aug 4 Former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft came out against invading

Aug 5 Secretary of State Powell told Bush that Iraq invasion would dominate 1st term
and US would be responsible for Iraq afterward Said US had to go through UN to disarm Iraq
Aug 5 CENTCOM cmdr Gen Franks briefed Bush on latest version of Iraq war plan

Aug 7 VP Cheney said he was skeptical UN inspectors would find anything in Iraq Said
            Iraq could get a nuclear bomb soon

Aug 8 House Majority Leader Armey said that if US didn’t have provocation it would
            not have international support for action vs Iraq

Aug 9 Defense Policy Board member Richard Perle said that removing Saddam would
            lead to more peaceful and stable Middle East

Aug 12 Iraq invasion plans leaked to Time Supported Rumsfeld’s ideas of a small force
            or supporting an Iraqi revolt

Aug 14 National Security Presidential Directive included liberating people of Iraq and
            spreading democracy

Aug 15 National Security Adviser Rice said US needed to launch pre-emptive strike
            against Iraq before it got too strong
Aug 15 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office briefed CIA officials on its
            findings that Iraq and Al Qaeda had cooperated for years
Aug 15 1st President Bush’s National Security Adviser Scowcroft wrote Wall St
            Journal OpEd saying Saddam not threat to US and not connected to 9/11

Aug 16 US decided Bush would go to UN to present case against Iraq
Aug 16 Member of Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office claimed its
Aug 15 briefing convinced CIA Director Tenet to reconsider Iraq-Al Qaeda relationship Tenet denied that saying the briefing had provided nothing new CIA’s intelligence said Iraq and Al Qaeda had connections but no cooperation which Feith’s office claimed

Aug 20 Rumsfeld said Al Qaeda operatives were in Iraq and that US needed to launch
            pre-emptive strike because couldn't wait for Iraq to get stronger

Aug 26 Cheney speech called Iraq a mortal threat to US Claimed Iraqi defectors like
Hussein Kamal proved Iraq had renewed its nuclear program Kamal actually said Iraq had ended its nuclear program in the 1990s and was killed in 1996 so had no way to know what Iraq was doing in 2002 Cheney said no doubt that Iraq had WMD and that it was good at deceiving weapons inspectors
Aug 26 Powell argued that US had to go through UN to deal with Iraq at National
            Security Council

Aug 27 Cheney gave speech calling Saddam a threat that needed a pre-emptive strike to
            remove him

Aug 29 Bush okayed war plans for Iraq
Aug 29 Bush signed Iraq: Goals, Objectives, Strategy that said US would use all means
            to remove Saddam
Aug 29 Bush and Blair talked about tough UN resolution on Iraq disarmament and how
            Saddam wouldn't comply leading to conflict
Aug 29 UK Foreign Office paper said rebuilding Iraq would be a long and costly affair
Aug 29 IAEA spokesman in London Times No evidence Iraq rebuilding nuclear
            facilities Would be easy to find by spy satellites

Aug 30 Blair decided UK strategy would be to get UN to issue resolution that would
            give ultimatum to Iraq on inspectors or else

Sep 1 Bush said that the US may only be certain Iraq had a nuclear device when it used

Sep 1 Bush told Blair Iraq had WMD and unclear how quickly it could get nukes
Sep 2 NSC met to discuss how to approach UN on Iraq Powell wanted new inspections     Cheney said that would be useless Bush decided to ask for new inspections

Sep 4 Rep Ike Skelton wrote letter to Pres Bush “To win victory is easy, to preserve its
            fruits, difficult”
Sep 4 UK Defense Ministry paper said that US had no clear postwar strategy for Iraq
            and that meant no winning plan

Sep 7 Blair and Bush met and decided on new UN resolution demanding new
inspections in Iraq Blair told Bush they should seek 2 UN resolutions 1 for inspectors 2nd for if Iraq didn’t comply Blair said that UK would take part in any military action against Iraq
Sep 7 Bush and Blair press conference Both said IAEA found Iraq had nuclear program
and was 6 months away from getting a bomb They were referring to 1996 IAEA report during UN inspections not new one
Sep 7 Secretary of State Powell brought up his concerns about size of Iraq invasion force
            at NSC

Sep 8 Day 1 of White House PR campaign about Iraq WMD and nuclear threat
Sep 8 NY Times article quoted Iraqi defector saying Iraq renewed WMD program Had
large stockpiles 2nd Iraqi defector said Saddam wanted to restart his nuclear program
Sep 8 Bush administration leaked story to NY Times that Iraq was trying to buy
            aluminum tubes for centrifuges for its nuclear program
Sep 8 National Security Adviser Rice and Vice President Cheney went on TV repeating
            claim Iraq rebuilding nuke program Used aluminum tubes as proof
Sep 8 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld Secretary of State Powell Joint Chiefs head Gen
Myers all appeared on talk shows promoting Iraq as a threat due to WMD and nuke program
Sep 8 1st time admin official said proof of Iraq’s nuke program “may be a mushroom
            cloud” that would be repeated by others later on

Sep 9 UK intel report Iraq probably wouldn’t use WMD without being attacked
Sep 9 State Dept spokesman mentioned that Iraq tried to buy aluminum tubes
            for centrifuges for nuke program to reporters
Sep 9 French Pres Chirac told press needed to be 2 UN resolutions 1 on inspectors 2nd if
            Iraq didn’t comply
Sep 9 Iran’s Supreme National Security Council met over impending US invasion of Iraq
            Decided on short and long term policy to protect Tehran’s interests 

Sep 11 UK intel report that Iraq was producing WMD 7 days a week in facilities
            throughout the country
Sep 11 Blair said parliament had to discuss Iraq and WMD
Sep 11 NSC got okay from CIA to use claim that Iraq tried to buy uranium from
            Niger in speech by Bush but wasn’t used

Sep 12 Bush UN speech Said Iraq growing threat Could build a nuclear bomb within a
            year if got materials
Sep 12 State Dept paper Decade of Deception and Defiance said Iraq building up its
            WMD and nuclear program
Sep 12 White House paper claimed Iraq trained terrorists in hijacking planes using
Sep 12 French Foreign Minister said France supported UN resolution on Iraq but UN
            should decide action if Iraq didn’t comply

Sep 13 Bush said US might only be certain Iraq had a nuclear device when it used one
Sep 13 US official told Knight Ridder Iraq not close to building bomb to refute Bush’s
            claim day before to UN
Sep 13 NY Times article said State and Energy Depts questioned whether aluminum
            tubes Iraq tried to buy were for nuke program

Sep 16 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office briefed VP Cheney’s chief of
staff Libby and Deputy National Security Adviser Hadley on findings that Iraq and Al Qaeda had long standing relationship and cooperation

Sep 18 Rumsfeld told House committee Iraq was close to acquiring materials to build a
            nuclear bomb

Sep 19 CIA received new intelligence that Iraq might have offered training to Al
            Qaeda and safe haven to bin Laden in 1990s Reports later proved false

Sep 20 Pentagon set up planning group to deal with rebuilding Iraq’s oil industry after

Sep 23 Blair told cabinet Iraq dossier would show Iraq expanding WMD capabilities
            and erosion of sanctions one cause
Sep 23 UK Education Secretary Morris asked Blair what had changed about Iraq to go
            to war other than Bush being elected
Sep 23 Institute for Science & International Security argued US argument that aluminum
            tubes Iraq tried to buy were for nuke weapons program

Sep 25 Bush said couldn't distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam in war on terror
            because they were equally evil
Sep 25 National Security Adviser Rice said there had been important Iraq-Al Qaeda
Sep 25 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld and CIA Deputy Director McLaughlin briefed
            NATO defense ministers on Iraq-Al Qaeda ties
Sep 25 US and UK worked on draft UN resolution demanding inspectors return to Iraq

Sep 30 NYTimes OpEd by Clinton era counterterrorism official Benjamin said Saddam
            thought bin Laden a threat and 2 didn’t cooperate

Oct 3 Report US using No Fly Zones for practice runs for attacks on Iraq

Oct 5 CIA Dir Tenet told White House to remove Iraq tried to buy uranium from Niger
            from Bush speech Said intel was weak
Oct 5 Knight Ridder article quoted several intelligence officers that Bush admin
            ignoring dissenting opinions on aluminum tubes

Oct 7 Bush speech said Iraq great threat because of WMD and its history of aggression
            Said if Iraq got enriched uranium could have a nuclear bomb in less than a year
Oct 7 Bush speech said Al Qaeda and Iraq were united in their hatred for the US and
had high level contracts for a decade Claimed Iraq trained Al Qaeda in bomb making and poisons and Saddam celebrated 9/11
Oct 7 CIA blocked Bush from talking about Iraq trying to buy uranium from Africa in
Oct 7 Italian contacted journalist about providing her with Iraq-Niger uranium deal
            papers They turned out to be fakes
Oct 7 CIA Director Tenet sent letter to Senate Intelligence Committee Said Iraq
wouldn’t conduct terrorist or WMD attacks upon US unless regime was threatened
Oct 7 CIA Director Tenet letter to Senate said there were high level contacts between
Iraq and Al Qaeda Al Qaeda sought training from Iraq Also claimed there were Al Qaeda operatives in Iraq
Oct 7 Intelligence officials complained to press that White House claims of Iraq-Al
            Qaeda ties were exaggerated

Oct 9 Bush told CENTCOM Commander Gen Franks he was not happy with Iraq war
Oct 9 CIA Dir Tenet told Senate Intel Comm Iraq would only use WMD if regime
            was threatened
Oct 9 Italian reporter gave US Embassy in Rome copies of documents on
            alleged Iraq-Niger uranium deal Were found to be fakes
Oct 9 Ex-CIA agents complained to press that Bush admin using slanted intel to make
            case against Iraq

Oct 18 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld told Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith
to create postwar planning office for Iraq Cancelled few days later by White House that worried postwar planning could derail invasion

Oct 24 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s Policy Counterterrorism Group
briefed Rumsfeld claiming long term cooperation between Iraq and Al Qaeda
Oct 24 Rumsfeld told press Policy Counterterrorism Group was not an intelligence unit
Oct 24 Intelligence officers complained to the press that Pentagon was politicizing
            Intelligence on Iraq probably referring to Feith’s office

Oct 30 Vice President Cheney told head UN Inspector Blix that inspections couldn't last
            forever and US was ready to discredit them anyway to disarm Iraq

Dec 5 Rumsfeld aid Herbits said he was taking over postwar Iraq planning because it
was a mess Herbits said Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith was screwing up planning

Dec 10 USAID said Iraq would be small intervention but security needed to be first
Dec 10 NSC committee presented humanitarian plan for postwar Iraq based upon secure
            environment and small US role

Dec 11 Pentagon started another post-war planning group just 3 months before invasion

Dec 14 Pentagon report on postwar Iraq warned that US could win the war and lose the
peace Warned there would be no Iraqi govt after the invasion so there could be chaos in the country Warned that US was only planning for the war and not the peace Said Iraq’s economy was a wreck and that US should maintain the military and not carry out an extensive deBaathification because could freacture Iraq

Dec 18 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld ordered start of civil administration to run
            postwar Iraq 3 months before invasion

Jan 2 UN inspector told Irish Times no active WMD or nuclear programs found in Iraq

Jan 4 US Natl Intel Council report said building democracy in Iraq would be long and

Jan 7 IAEA went to Al Qaim facility 3rd time US claimed was an active Iraqi nuclear
            plant IAEA found it destroyed

Jan 9 White House spokesman said US knew for a fact Iraq had WMD
Jan 9 IAEA head El Baradei said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were probably for
            rockets not nuclear program White House said Iraq was deceiving the IAEA

Jan 10 US official said Iraq was deceiving the IAEA about its nuclear program
Jan 10 Kanan Makiya told Pres Bush that U.S. forces would be greeted with sweets
            and flowers in Iraq
Jan 10 Hatim Mukhlis told Pres Bush if US troops didn’t win support of Iraqis Iraq
            would turn into Somalia in 2 months 
Jan 10 NY Times article IAEA challenging aluminum tubes story that they were for
nuke program and Energy and State Depts thought they might be for rockets

Jan 12 State Dept told White House docs claiming Iraq-Niger uranium deal were fakes

Jan 13 Bush told Powell he’d decided on war and needed his support Powell said he
            would back president
Jan 13 Blair TV speech said Iraq could give WMD to terrorists and US and UK could
            act against Iraq without 2nd UN resolution
Jan 13 Lord Goldsmith told Blair and Foreign Sec Straw that there needed to be a 2nd
            UN resolution against Iraq to go to war
Jan 13 State Dept intel analyst said docs alleging Iraq-Niger uranium deal were probably
Jan 13 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith called ex-Gen Jay Garner to run
            postwar Iraq and he accepted
Jan 13 IAEA head El Baradei said inspectors needed a few months to finish work in Iraq

Jan 15 Bush received 1st brief on postwar Iraq plans 2 months before war Focused on
            possible refugee crisis
Jan 15 Aid groups that had with USAID about postwar Iraq plans asked to meet with
            Pentagon leadership Nothing happened
Jan 15 CIA told White House that paper on Iraq should say Iraq tried to buy uranium
            from Africa not mention Niger

Jan 16 UN inspectors found 12 missile warheads that could carry WMD not included
            in Iraq’s 2002 weapons declaration
Jan 16 Blair told cabinet 2nd UN resolution was not necessary for military action against      Iraq even though he was told it was
Jan 16 Future Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA) head
Garner met with Rumsfeld & Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith Rumsfeld said no coordination of postwar planning Told Garner he needed to consult with different agencies and coordinate postwar plans
Jan 16 Garner said in WWII US spent years planning for postwar situation and he was
            only given a few weeks for Iraq
Jan 16 CIA received documents claiming Iraq-Niger uranium deal Sent to State Dept to be
            translated Turned out to be fakes
Jan 16 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Garner sent Rumsfeld memo saying Iraq-
Syria pipeline should be kept open after the war to see whether Damascus was willing to cooperate with US in Iraq

Jan 17 Blair agreed to 1 UK division and 3 combat brigades for Iraq War to be deployed
            in south
Jan 17 UN inspectors after 4 inspections Fallujah II chlorine plant inoperative US
            claimed it was producing WMD
Jan 17 CIA told Joint Chiefs of Staff that it had some reports that Iraq tried to buy
            uranium from Africa

Jan 18 UN inspectors said sites named by US as WMD facilities had been looked at and
            nothing found

Jan 20 President gave report to Congress on Iraq’s noncompliance with UN inspectors
Jan 20 National Sec Presidential Dir 24 gave Pentagon control of postwar Iraq Pentagon
would dismiss previous NSC planning and kick out State Department officials
Jan 20 Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA) created to
            run post-war Iraq 2 months before invasion

Jan 21 Bush said that Saddam was not interested in disarming and that time was running
            out on Iraq

Jan 22 CIA analyst told IAEA aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for centrifuges
            IAEA said they were for rockets IAEA proved right
Jan 22 Cheney claimed Iraq had mobile labs and WMD programs Inspections found no
            mobile labs

Jan 23 Defense Ministry ordered that if Baghdad were to fall all govt buildings were to
            be looted and burned
Jan 23 National Security Adviser Rice wrote NY Times OpEd saying Iraq was hiding its
WMD programs from UN inspectors and tried to buy uranium for its nuclear program
Jan 23 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said that Iraq’s WMD and ties to terrorism were
            one threat
Jan 23 Under Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz said Iraq had tons of WMD and time
running out for it Said Iraq didn’t make truthful arms declaration to UN Talked about Iraqi defectors provided intelligence on mobile WMD labs Claimed Iraqi govt was threatening Iraqi scientists so they wouldn’t talke with UN
Jan 23 White House released document saying Iraq hiding its WMD and tried to buy
            uranium for it nuke program

Jan 24 IAEA told Washington Post aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were wrong for
            nuke program

Jan 26 Secretary of State Powell speech asked why Iraq tried to buy uranium

Jan 27 Secretary of State Powell said Iraq was hiding its WMD
Jan 27 CIA report said Iraq tried to buy uranium from Niger in 1999
Jan 27 ORHA began contracting for supplies and personnel 2 months before invasion
Jan 27 Head UN inspector Blix told Security Council that Iraq cooperating with
inspections but had not accepted disarmament  Asked what undeclared WMD items did Iraq have Asked did it illegally produce anything after 1998? Claimed Iraq’s WMD declaration had provided no new information and not answered questions
Jan 27 IAEA head El Baradei told Security Council IAEA had found no evidence of an
active nuclear program in Iraq Said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were probably for rockets not nuclear program
Jan 27 Powell said Iraq was hiding its WMD
Jan 27 CIA report said Iraq tried to buy uranium from Niger in 1999
Jan 27 ORHA began contracting for supplies and personnel for post-war Iraq 2 months
            before invasion
Jan 27 William Safire NYTimes piece said Zarqawi went to Baghdad Then to Kurdistan
            to Ansar al-Islam proving Iraq-Al Qaeda link

Jan 28 Bush’s State of the Union said Iraq wasn’t disarming and was hiding its WMD
programs from UN inspectors and that Saddam was harboring Al Qaeda members
Jan 28 UK Foreign Secretary Straw told Foreign Office legal adviser Wood that he
            didn’t think 2nd UN resolution was necessary for action vs Iraq
Jan 28 ORHA head Garner met with NSC’s Zalimay who said goal of postwar Iraq
            should be getting Iraqis to govern as soon as possible

Jan 29 US Ambassador to the UN Negroponte said Iraq bought aluminum tubes for nuke
Jan 29 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld said Iraq had a nuke weapons program and tried
            to buy uranium from Africa
Jan 29 White House sent Powell paper on Iraq WMD to be used for his Feb 03 UN
Jan 29 Aid groups warned that if Pentagon ran postwar Iraq many international donors
            would be reluctant to give relief

Jan 30 US Ambassador to the UN Negroponte told Senate aluminum tubes Iraq bought
            were not right for rockets in response to IAEA findings
Jan 30 Same hearing Deputy Secretary of State Armitage said there were differences in
            US about the tubes
Jan 30 White House spokesman said Bush stood by claim that aluminum tubes Iraq tried
            to buy were for nuclear program
Jan 30 CIA and Congressional inquiries found no evidence White House pressured US
            intel on Iraq’s WMD
Jan 30 Powell’s chief of staff Wilkerson began going through intel on Iraq with CIA for
            Powell’s Feb 03 UN speech
Jan 30 Aid group warned that breakdown of law & order likely right after Iraq invasion
            unless US immediately established control

Jan 31 Bush told Blair fighting between Iraqi factions would be unlikely after invasion
Jan 31 Blair’s advisers told him had to prioritize pushing Bush on postwar planning for
Iraq but Blair failed to do so

Feb 1 Chief UN inspector Blix refused US claims that Iraq was sending WMD and
            scientists outside country to hide them
Feb 1 US Army War College study suggested 135 tasks US had to take care of
to ensure stability of postwar Iraq Said US would have to occupy Iraq for a long time and building democracy a huge challenge

Feb 3 Secretary of State Powell OpEd in Wall St Journal said Iraq hiding its WMD

Feb 4 US gave documents on alleged Iraq-Niger uranium deal to IAEA

Feb 5 Powell UK ForSec Straw met before UN speech Both skeptical about Iraq intel
            Powell thought most was circumstantial
Feb 5 Sec of State Powell gave UN speech laying out US case against Iraq’s WMD &
            Iraq-Al Qaeda ties using Zarqawi
Feb 5 3rd meeting of US UK Australia on postwar Iraq planning US rejected any role for

Feb 7 US officials pushed back against Powell’s UN speech Told Wash Post Zarqawi
            connected to Al Qaeda but not part of group

Feb 8 Bush said Iraq trying to buy equipment for WMD Saddam authorized his
            commanders to use chemical weapons
Feb 8 Iraq turned over new documents about its WMD programs to UN inspectors
            that was called substantial
Feb 8 UN inspectors went to site CURVEBALL claimed was secret WMD facility and
            found nothing

Feb 9 Observer article disputes Iraqi defector Mohammed Shahab who claimed Iraq
            connected to Al Qaeda via Ansar al-Islam

Feb 10 New Yorker article reported Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s office
            found that Iraq connected to Al Qaeda and supporting Zarqawi

Feb 11 Bush admin presented postwar plans to Senate Had no plans for how to
            transition to democracy or how oil industry would be run
Feb 11 Bin Laden released tape calling on Iraqis to resist coming US invasion and called
            Baath infidels
Feb 11 Secretary of State Powell claimed bin Laden complained about effect of
            sanctions on Iraqi people showed Baghdad aligned with Al Qaeda & terrorism
Feb 11 CIA Dir Tenet told Senate Iraq had WMD and was hiding them from UN
Feb 11 CIA analyst said that docs alleging Iraq-Niger uranium deal were questionable

Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet testified to Senate Armed Services Committee Said Iraq had
larger WMD program then before Gulf War Warned Iraq would get a nuclear weapon sooner or later and would have missiles to deliver it
Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet told Senate US had briefed UN on all suspected WMD sites
            In reality didn’t provide information on 21 of 105 sites
Feb 12 CIA Director Tenet told Senate there were Iraq-Al Qaeda contacts but no
            command and control

Feb 13 UN announced it had humanitarian plan for Iraq working with 6 regional
            countries and had $30.6 mil and would ask for another $88.8 mil
Feb 13 CENTCOM Cmdr Gen Franks told Bush he had Iraqi mayors for each city to run
            things after invasion He didn’t

Feb 14 US intel report Al Qaeda captive al-Libi recanted story Iraq trained Al Qaeda in
poisons and explosives Libi’s earlier claims were used in US intelligence reports and Powell’s February 2003 UN speech
Feb 14 Rumsfeld gave speech that U.S. was opposed to nation building in Iraq

Feb 16 National Security Adviser Rice claimed Iraq was deceiving UN weapons

Feb 19 ORHA head Garner briefed Natl Sec Adv Rice to use Iraqi army and police to
            help rebuilding Iraq after war

Feb 20 UN sources told press US intel on Iraq WMD was not turning up anything

Feb 21 ORHA staff met in DC to have run through of their Iraq postwar plans

Feb 22 ORHA drill found US would not have enough troops for Iraq postwar security
Was worried not enough funding for postwar Iraq that could leave behind unstable country ORHA found US had no plans for what kind of govt they wanted in Iraq and how to achieve it ORHA Dep Head thought US had faulty assumptions overly optimistic lacked reality on what postwar Iraq would be like

Feb 24 CIA denied Newsweek story that Hussein Kamal claimed Iraq destroyed its
            WMD in 90s He did say that

Feb 25 Blair told CENTCOM cmdr Gen Franks UN had to play a major role in postwar
Feb 25 Franks told UK cmdr Adm Boyce US not thinking of WWII type Japanese or
            German rebuilding effort in Iraq

Feb 26 Bush gave speech saying that Iraq was direct threat to US due to WMD and
            links to terrorists
Feb 26 Bush said other nations would help rebuild Iraq and US would stay in Iraq as
            long as necessary but “not a day more”

Feb 27 Wolfowtiz told House Comm admin had no estimates of costs of reconstructing
Iraq and wouldn’t know until it got there Said that calls for more troops to handle postwar Iraq were “outlandish”
Feb 27 ORHA head Garner learned he only had $27 mil to run postwar Iraq

Feb 28 Iraq agreed to destroy Samud II ballistic missiles that violated UN restrictions
Feb 28 US attacked Iraq agreement to destroy Samud II missiles claiming it was just
            propaganda not real disarmament
Feb 28 Rumsfeld said Iraq never cooperated with UN inspectors
Feb 28 UN said found no evidence of active WMD programs in Iraq
Feb 28 UN inspectors went to site CURVEBALL claimed was secret WMD facility
            for second time for samples Found nothing
Feb 28 UN inspectors said found small stock of mustard gas and some old WMD
warheads and Iraq built 2 banned missiles Said Iraq had not provided any new information to answer questions from 1990s inspections
Feb 28 ORHA head Garner made 1st brief of postwar Iraq plans to Bush 1 month before
Feb 28 UK Defense Ministry report said Coalition had to prevent security vacuum after
            Invasion of Iraq and stop Al Qaeda from expanding into country
Feb 28 UK Def Min note to Blair office said UK failed to influence US postwar Iraq
            planning & UK would have to deal with US decisions made for it
Feb 28 Defense Policy Board warned by peacekeeping expert Perito could be
breakdown in law order right after invasion if Iraqi police didn’t go back to work Said that US troops could not take over police duties because not trained for that job

Mar 3 Russia threatened to use veto power in UN to stop any resolution authorizing
            war vs Iraq
Mar 3 US and British planes hit five targets in Wasit and Basra as part of no fly zone Was
            Attempt to weaken Iraq’s air defense system before invasion
Mar 3 IAEA told US that docs alleging Iraq-Niger uranium deal were forgeries
Mar 3 ORHA head Garner went to UN to try to get support for postwar Iraq UN said no
Garner’s move was against administration policy that opposed any role for UN in Iraq which was why it said no

Mar 4 Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith briefed Bush and NSC on Pentagon’s
postwar plans Goals were to maintain integrity of Iraq improves living standards create a democracy destroy WMD fight war on terror get international support for rebuilding gain support of Iraqis get Iraqis to rule as quickly as possible to accomplish all tasks quickly Had no strategy on how to achieve goals

Mar 5 ORHA head Garner got ok from Rice to use frozen Iraqi assets to pay for postwar
Plans He told Rice he didn’t think there would be enough troops to maintain security after invasion When asked if the White House had put together any plans for a post-Saddam govt he got no answer

Mar 10 ORHA head Garner briefed Bush on plans for postwar Iraq including using
army for reconstruction and interim govt Bush approved plan
Mar 10 Bush approved NSC proposal for light deBaathification after invasion

Mar 11 ORHA head Garner told press US would keep Iraqi army and would quickly
turn over control of country to Iraqis When asked Garner dismissed talk of US turning over power to Chalabi and INC
Mar 11 After press conference Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz and Under
Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith chastised Garner for his comments about Chalabi
Mar 11 Garner was later told by Pentagon he could no longer give press conferences

Mar 12 Bush endorsed Pentagon plan for quick transition to Iraqi authority made up of
            exiles and Kurds after war

Mar 13 USAID official told aid groups Iraq war would be quick Needs would be met
            Iraqis would regain control US would be out in a year

Mar 14 Rumsfeld told ORHA head Garner he was going to pick all the advisers that
            were going to run Iraqi ministries

Mar 15 ORHA head Garner told Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld plan was only to
dismiss top two officials from each Iraqi ministry and not carry out any deBaathification policy Rumsfeld okayed plan
Mar 15 Rumsfeld complained Garner picked non-Pentagon people to run some Iraqi
            ministries Wanted them all from Defense

Mar 16 Bush and Blair gave UN 24 hour ultimatum to enforce its own resolutions
            on Iraq disarming or they would invade
Mar 16 Blair complained that US screwed up a 2nd UN resolution on Iraq
Mar 16 VP Cheney told NBC that Americans would be greeted as liberators in Iraq
Mar 16 VP Cheney told NBA that Army Chief of Staff Gen Shinseki was wrong that US
            Would not more torops to occupy Iraq than invade
Mar 16 VP Cheney told NBC that if world didn’t deal with Iraq it would go back to
producing WMD Was already reconstituting its nuclear weapons program Claimed UN inspectors were wrong about Iraq’s weapons program in general citing Iraq buying aluminum tubes, which US claimed were for centrifuges

Mar 17 ORHA staff began leaving US for Kuwait
Mar 17 On flight to Kuwait ORHA head Garner met with his oil team Garner said he was
concerned Rumsfeld picked ex-Shell CEO Philip Carroll to join group Said was bad image wise to have an ex-US oil executive involved Oil teams aid if Iraq’s oil sector was destroyed by war would need someone with standing of Carroll to deal with it


Mar 19 CIA got intel where Saddam was in Baghdad War started with air strike
            on that location
Mar 19 German French and Russian Foreign Ministries condemn impending invasion
            saying it had no UN approval
Mar 19 Army Chief Gen Shinseki told Congress he couldn’t say how much rebuilding
            Iraq would cost
Mar 19 UN inspector said WMD decontamination trucks US pointed out were water or
            fire trucks

Mar 20 Shock and Awe bombing campaign started US invasion of Iraq with air strikes
            on Baghdad
Mar 20 US forces crossed into Iraq and attacked Um Qasr port in Basra
Mar 20 British commandos attacked Fao Peninsula
Mar 20 British received reports Iraqi forces disintegrating in south and might have to
            intervene in war earlier than planned
Mar 20 Iraq fired several SCUD missiles at Kuwait One destroyed by Patriot Missile
Mar 20 Saddam speech said war “shameful crime” Said US would give up out of fear
            of Iraqi soldiers
Mar 20 Iraq halted oil flows due to start of war
Mar 20 China France and Russia criticized the Iraq invasion
Mar 20 Bush signed executive order freezing all Iraq funds in US Money would later
            be used to run and rebuild Iraq
Mar 20 Blair thought Iraq wanted to draw Coalition into cities for street fighting and
            afraid of WMD attacks
Mar 20 Bush and Blair discussed sudden collapse of Iraqi forces during start of
Mar 20 ORHA staff went to CENTCOM in Qatar and found military had parallel
            post-war admin set up isolated from ORHA
Mar 20 UN Sec Gen Annan called on Security Council to change Oil for Food program
            so he instead of Iraqi govt could run it

Mar 21 Rice briefed Bush and NSC and all agreed on war goals democracy and put Iraqi
            face on occupation

Mar 22 Rumsfeld demanded that all Americans to run Iraqi ministries be from Pentagon
            ORHA head Garner said no time for replacements

Mar 26 ORHA sent list of 16 sites that needed to be protected in Baghdad to US
            military HQ in Kuwait but was ignored
Mar 26 Rumsfeld told Garner he had some replacements for Americans going to run
            Iraq ministries

Mar 27 ORHA had meeting of all 4 postwar groups to come up with unified plan for
Iraq Didn’t happen The 4 groups had all been created separately within Bush administration with no coordination between them
Mar 27 Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz told House of Representatives
            committee Iraq oil would pay for reconstruction

Mar 31 1st car bomb in Iraq hit US checkpoint north of Najaf
Mar 31 US forces engaged Fedayeen and Republican Guard south of Baghdad
Mar 31 US forces launched raid on Shatra Dhi Qar after receiving information Ali Hassan
            al-Majid Chemical Ali was there
Mar 31 British military believed it could start popular uprising in Basra to take city
            rather than having to attack it
Mar 31 Sir David Manning told British would have huge shortage of troops for postwar
            operations in Iraq
Mar 31 UK Foreign Office official wrote Foreign Secretary Straw saying Iraqis mistrusted
            US and US occupation would be humiliation & untenable
Mar 31 Israeli Infrastructure Min Paritzky said he wanted to reopen Kirkuk-Haifa pipeline
by end of 03 Was based upon promises INC’s Chalabi made before war that he would get Iraq to export oil to Israel after Saddam

Apr 5 3rd Inf Div launched Thunder Run into Baghdad
Apr 5 US air strike in Basra attempted to kill Chemical Ali Missed Killed 17 civilians
            Most in Basra believed Ali died
Apr 5 US National Intelligence Commission memo said documents claiming Iraq-Niger
            uranium purchase were fakes and 2002 report on deal was not credible
Apr 5 Secretary of State Powell said he was sure Iraq’s WMD would be found
Apr 5 DIA task force said Baathists made plans for an insurgency with help of jihadists
            Would later prove false 

Apr 9 Baghdad fell ending U.S. invasion Looting begins in city
Apr 9 Iraqis in Firdos Square pulled down Saddam statue with help of US Marines
Apr 9 Kurdish Peshmerga seized Kirkuk
Apr 9 Gen Franks told Bush war going according to plan Bush wanted to collect info on
            life under Saddam to compare with life after to show improvements US brought
Apr 9 CENTCOM said war reached tipping point Iraqis realized Saddam was done
Apr 9 VP Cheney said Iraqi govt collapsing showing criticism of war was wrong Said
with a little investment Iraq could produce 2-3 mil/bar/day of oil by end of year
Apr 9 US intel report Baathists Fedayeen Iraqi forces operating independently of orders
            Would continue to fight until eliminated

Apr 15 ORHA head Garner met 100 Iraqi leaders in Nasiriya Called for democratic &
            federal Iraq
Apr 15 20,000 protested in Nasiriya against US
Apr 15 US killed 7 Iraqis trying to break up demonstration in Mosul
Apr 15 Bush reviewed US withdrawal plan that had most troops out by Sep 03
Apr 15 Bush talked about foreign peacekeepers taking over for US troops in Iraq White
House thought countries would give up opposition to Iraq invasion and offer troops

Apr 15 US Central Command made official announcement that America was the
            authority in Iraq
Apr 15 Genk Franks issued declaration to Iraqi people saying US would only be there
temporarily Ordered withdrawal order for 60-120 days for US troops to drop from 175,000 to 30,000 by August
Apr 15 Gen Franks announced that Baath Party was no more in Iraq
Apr 15 Gen Franks told his staff that an interim Iraqi govt would be created in 30-60
Apr 15 Congress appropriated $2.475 bil for rebuilding Iraq as part of Iraq Relief
            and Reconstruction Fund
Apr 15 Report Kurds were forcing Arabs out of Kirkuk city
Apr 15 INC’s Chalabi arrived in Baghdad and set up office in Hunting Club
Apr 15 US forces captured Palestinian terrorist Abu Abbas Claimed proved Saddam
            backed terrorism

Apr 17 Chief UN inspector Blix cited Iraqi scientist who said Iraq had no WMD
Apr 17 CENTCOM head Gen Abizaid said no organized military left in Iraq Plan was
for Iraqi military to impose order after invasion Abizaid suggested US create 3 division of interim Iraqi army made up of Iraqi soldiers and opposition groups

Apr 20 US forces arrested Sadrist cleric Fartusi leading to days of protests
Apr 20 ORHA head Garner held meeting Said top priority was getting to Baghdad and
            establishing its presence Had to get Iraqi ministries up and running again
Apr 20 ORHA staff finally allowed to enter Iraq by US military
Apr 20 Report US wanted long term military relationship with Iraq and use of up to 4
Apr 20 Report Kurds expelled 2000 Arabs from Daquq, Kirkuk
Apr 20 Apr 10-20 up to 40 people killed in Arab-Kurd violence in Kirkuk City

(Musings On Iraq Interview with State Dept’s Mines on being CPA Governor of Anbar)
(Musings On Iraq interview with Fmr CPA advisor Horne)
(Musings On Iraq interview with Fmr CPA official Swanson)

Apr 21 Coalition Provisional Government created to take over running postwar Iraq
            replacing Organization for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance
Apr 21 ORHA staff and head Garner entered Baghdad Gen Franks had kept them out
            He didn’t want civilians to get in way of military
Apr 21 Rumsfeld took advice of Gen Franks and cancelled sending 50,000
            additional troops to Iraq from 1st Cavalry Div
Apr 21 5,000 Sadrists protested arrest of its cleric Fartusi by US
Apr 21 NY Times article claimed Iraq had destroyed WMD right before war and moved
rest to Syria Story proved false
Apr 21 Foreign Secretary Straw told Blair he was skeptical evidence of Iraq’s WMD
            wound be found Thought it might be destroyed
Apr 21 Iraqi scientist told US Iraq had destroyed WMD equipment right before invasion
            Had sent some to Syria since 90s Worked with Al Qaeda Story false
Apr 21 2 US congressmen went to Syria and got Assad’s promise not to harbor any
            Baathists and expel those that tried to flee there

Apr 23 Iraq oil started flowing for fist time since US invasion Iraq shut down oil flow
            day war started Mar 20
Apr 23 USAID official told Nightline rebuilding Iraq could cost US $1.7 bil and
            Iraqi oil and donors would pay for rest
Apr 23 ORHA head Garner came up with list of 9 objectives to accomplish for postwar
            Iraq pay salaries return police & ministries etc
Apr 23 White House said confident Iraq’s WMD would be found
Apr 23 Report Iraqi scientists told US Iraq destroyed all its WMD equipment before
            invasion US now looking for programs rather than WMD stocks
Apr 23 Up to 3 mil participated in Arbaeen ceremony that had been banned under
Apr 23 Protest in Kut, Wasit blocked US convoy for 4 hours
Apr 23 Report thousands of Arabs were being evicted from Kirkuk by Kurds and
            forming militias to protect themselves

Apr 24 Bush said Iraq might have destroyed its WMD before invasion but US would
            find them
Apr 24 NY Times article Iraqi scientists said Saddam expanded WMD programs and
            secret facilities but destroyed stocks Wasn’t true
Apr 24 US seized warehouse in Baghdad thought to contain WMD agents Proved false 
Apr 24 Trailer found near Mosul was suspected of being mobile WMD labs Turned out
            not to be
Apr 24 Dep PM Tariq Aziz surrendered to US Said Iraq had no WMD
Apr 24 1st US troops arrived in Fallujah 2 weeks after end of invasion
Apr 24 INC’s Zubeidi declared himself mayor of Baghdad
Apr 24 2 drive by shootings on US base in Kut, Wasit
Apr 24 Was anti-American march in Kut
Apr 24 ORHA head Garner met with 60 Iraqis to talk about security and how Kut
should pick city council Blamed Iran for anti-US protests in city Said INC’s Chalabi was not US’s choice to run Iraq and Iraqis could pick their own leaders
Apr 24 Gen McKiernan ground commander in Iraq told Garner security #1
            priority for postwar Iraq
Apr 24 Rumsfeld called Powell to propose Paul Bremer as new presidential envoy to
Apr 24 Rumsfeld called Garner and told him he would be replaced by Bremer Garner
said he would quit Rumsfeld asked him to stay
Apr 24 Rumsfeld said that Iraqis could form any govt they want as long as it wasn’t
            a theocracy like Iran’s
Apr 24 UN Res 1476 extended Oil For Food Program past US invasion
Apr 24 UK cabinet agreed to expand control from Basra and Maysan to Dhi Qar
            and Muthanna despite warnings might not have capabilities to deal with them
Apr 24 UN Secretary General Annan said US Coalition had to follow international law
            as occupying power in Iraq US rejected occupier title

Apr 27 Report evidence found linking Ansar al-Islam with Al Qaeda
Apr 27 Captured Mukhabarat documents showed it had meetings with Al Qaeda in 1990s
Apr 27 Grenade thrown at 82nd Airborne troops wounding 2 in Ramadi
Apr 27 Baghdad conference opened to discuss forming an Iraqi provisional govt with
            300 Iraqis attending Endorsed by US
Apr 27 ORHA and Oil Ministry officials met and picked top positions in ministry

May 1 Pres Bush gave Mission Accomplished speech declaring victory against Iraq

May 2 Oil Ministry re-opened after invasion Thamir Ghabban announced as new Oil
May 2 ORHA report many ministry buildings in Baghdad had been taken over by
            different groups
May 2 UK Defense Minister Hoon told Defense Secretary Rumsfeld ORHA had to
            deliver in Iraq
May 2 Sadr said Christians in Iraq had to follow Islamic Law not sell alcohol women
            had to be covered
May 2 Ayatollah Jannati Secretary General of Iran’s Council of Guardians called on
            Iraqis to carry out martyrdom ops to drive US from Iraq

May 6 Bush speech said building democracy in Iraq would be like what US did in post
            WWII Germany and Japan
May 6 Bush announced Paul Bremer as head of new Coalition Provisional Authority
            to run postwar Iraq

May 9 US and England draft resolution to UN to make them occupying powers in Iraq
May 9 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said US would keep as many troops as necessary in
            Iraq and would take more than year to build Iraqi govt
May 9 1st joint US-Iraqi patrols started in Baghdad
May 9 Sadrist cleric called for revenge attacks upon Baathists
May 9 US ground forces commander Gen McKiernan met with Iraqi officers about
            getting Iraqi soldiers back to their units and to stop looting & impose order
May 9 Bush signed memo officially making Bremer presidential envoy to Iraq
May 9 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith gave Bremer draft of
deBaathification and disbanding Iraqi military orders Feith would later deny he drafted orders
May 9 CPA sent draft order to disband Iraqi military and build a new one to Defense
            Secretary Rumsfeld
May 9 Deputy Defense Secertary Wolfowitz in Vanity Fair Bush admin all agreed on
            WMD as way to justify Iraq war

May 23 Bush said US found WMD because 2 alleged mobile WMD labs were found
            Inspection found were not labs
May 23 Retired CIA and State Dept officials sent memo to Bush saying they questioned
            intel cited by White House for Iraq war
May 23 BBC report Blair’s office had sexed up UK dossier on Iraq’s WMD
May 23 Elections led to Abdul Rahman Mustafa a Kurd being elected mayor of Kirkuk
May 23 Cheney chief of staff Libby asked an undersecretary of state about a former
            ambassador that said Iraq-Niger uranium deal was false

May 30 Gen Conway 1st Marine Expeditionary Force surprised hadn’t found any
            Iraq WMD in searches Said intel about Iraq’s WMD was all wrong
May 30 Coalition forces looking for Iraq WMD increased to 1300 personnel
May 30 Rumsfeld announced new Iraq Survey Group would be formed to take over
            search for Iraq’s WMD
May 30 Rumsfeld said war was not based upon lies because both US and England said
            Iraq had WMD
May 30 Final report of UN inspectors found no evidence of WMD programs
May 30 UN inspectors said soil samples helped back Iraq story that they destroyed
May 30 Blair said he was sure evidence of Iraq’s WMD would be found
May 30 Bush said US found WMD because 2 alleged mobile WMD labs were found
            Inspection found not labs
May 30 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence Cambone said only 70 of roughly
            600 suspected WMD sites in Iraq had been inspected
May 30 CIA Dir Tenet said that its Iraq intelligence was not politicized by Bush admin
May 30 US report on Iraqi police Said they were corrupt and needed reform Called
            for 6,000 advisers which US didn’t have

Jun 8 Cheney’s chief of staff Libby told NY Times reporter Judith Miller that secret
National Intelligence Estimate had stronger evidence of Iraq’s WMD then White House made public

Jun 11 Undersecretary of state told Cheney chief of staff Libby that Fmr Amb Wilson’s
wife worked for CIA Libby later leak her identity to press in retaliation for Wilson refuting Iraq-Niger deal promoted by White House
Jun 11 Cheney chief of staff Libby also talked with a CIA official who also confirmed
            Fmr Amb Wilson’s wife worked at CIA

Jun 12 1st bombing of an Iraqi oil pipeline near Kirkuk after invasion
Jun 12 White House said were some fake documents about Iraq-Niger uranium deal but
            much more evidence to support story
Jun 12 DIA memo to Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz said that docs on Iraq-Niger
            uranium deal were fakes
Jun 12 Fmr Amb Wilson gave background info to Washingt Post article claiming CIA
didn’t tell Bush doubts about Iraq-Niger uranium deal Wilson claimed he saw fake Iraq-Niger documents but he didn’t Wilson believed his trip to Niger discredited uranium deal story within CIA but didn’t Wilson was inflating his role and thought his trip was more important than it was to CIA
Jun 12 VP Cheney told his chief of staff Libby Wilson’s wife name and said she worked
            for CIA

Jun 13 US ground forces commander Gen McKirenan moved HQ from Iraq to Florida
            Denied US forces intelligence and staff
Jun 13 Gen Eaton arrived in Baghdad to head US training program for new Iraqi army

Jun 18 Gen Odierno 4th Infantry Div commander said US wasn’t facing an insurgency
            in Iraq because wasn’t organized opposition
Jun 18 Deputy Secretary of Defense Wolfowitz told Congress US facing an insurgency
            in Iraq
Jun 18 Bremer talked with Bush about troop levels in Iraq Bremer didn’t object to
drawdown plan but said they should go too low Bush said plan was to rotate troops into Iraq not to withdraw them and agreed that troop levels had to be maintained
Jun 18 2,000 fired Iraqi soldiers protested outside of Green Zone demanding pensions
            threw rocks US soldiers shot and killed 2
Jun 18 Ex-ORHA head Garner met Rumsfeld in Washington complained about CPA
policies Garner told Rumsfeld deBaathification disbanding military and Iraqi leadership group all wrong but could be fixed Rumsfeld told Garner the mistakes couldn’t be fixed and CPA could only move forward in Iraq
Jun 18 Rumsfeld held press conference for ex-ORHA head Garner who said everything
            going well in Iraq Bremer doing good job
Jun 18 Ex-ORHA head Garner met with Bush said that Iraq going well and Bremer
            doing good job
Jun 18 David Kay new head of Iraq Survey Group looking for Iraq WMD left for Qatar
to run search Kay switched Group from running search teams at suspected WMD sites to intelligence operation going through Iraqi documents to find evidence of weapons programs

Jun 23 Oil Ministry made first foreign oil sale to Turkish company since invasion
Jun 23 Bush at NSC meeting asked why US wasn’t pushing elections in Iraq and maybe
            they should come before writing constitution
Jun 23 American official Said US found more evidence since Iraq invasion to prove Iraq-
            Al Qaeda ties
Jun 23 US defense official complained to press Iraq-Al Qaeda ties were based on politics
            before war not based on intelligence
Jun 23 Cheney’s chief of staff Libby told NY Times reporter Judith Miller fmr Amb
Wilson’s wife worked at CIA Claimed she set up his trip to Niger Was first of series of leaks to press to expose Wilson’s wife in retaliation for him opposing Iraq-Niger uranium story promoted by White House Libby also complained that CIA was selectively leaking information to press to lesson its role in claims about Iraq’s WMD

Jun 24 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said Iraq had chemical weapons but not nuclear
Jun 24 UN head inspector Blix said inspectors were not impressed with Powell’s Feb 03
            speech to UN on Iraq’s WMD
Jun 24 Weapons search in Maysan’s Majar al-Kabir led to shootout and death of 6 British
soldiers UK intel report believed Iran backed Mujahedeen for Islamic Revolution in Iraq responsible for deaths of soldiers

Jul 6 US said it would release Turkish Special Forces it arrested in Sulaymaniya
Jul 6 Fmr Amb Wilson NY Times OpEd said Bush exaggerated about Iraq-Niger
uranium story in State of Union Wilson over estimated the impact of his visit CIA actually had more questions about uranium deal after his trip

Jul 8 Blair told Parliament he believed intelligence that Iraq had WMD
Jul 8 Blair said evidence of Iraq-Niger uranium deal was not based upon fake documents
but separate intelligence Maintained story long after it was discredited
Jul 8 White House spokesman said intelligence on Iraq-Niger uranium deal turned
            out to be inaccurate
Jul 8 Cheney chief of staff Libby met with NY Times reporter Libby 2nd time and told
her fmr Amb Wilson’s wife might work at CIA Was retaliation for Wilson opposing Iraq-Niger uranium story Also said that secret National Intelligence Estimated had proof Iraq tried to buy uranium to build a nuclear bomb to refute Wilson’s claim

Jul 12 British officially took control of Basra Maysan Dhi Qar and Muthanna with no
            strategy on how to run them
Jul 12 Cheney chief of staff Libby spoke 3rd time with NY Times reporter Miller telling
            her fmr Amb Wilson’s wife worked for CIA
Jul 12 Cheney chief of staff Libby talked with Time reporter Cooper who said fmr Amb
Wilson’s wife might’ve sent him on Niger trip Libby said he heard same thing Was not true

Jul 14 Article Iraqi scientists said bombings inspections sanctions unilateral
            destruction ended Iraq’s WMD programs before invasion
Jul 14 Columnist Novak exposed Ex Amb Wilson’s wife as a CIA agent after he
criticized Bush admin over false Niger-Iraq uranium deal Cited 2 White House officials as sources Got information from Cheney’s chief of staff Libby who was trying to discredit Wilson
Jul 14 UK Foreign Secretary Straw said CIA believed UK intel on Iraq-Africa uranium

Jul 17 CENTCOM commander Gen Abizaid said US facing classic guerrilla war in Iraq
Jul 17 Saddam recording played on al-Arabiya TV attacking occupation
Jul 17 Report Pentagon set up its own intelligence office on Iraq before war
Jul 17 Time reported govt officials told him fmr Amb Wilson’s wife was CIA official
Talked with Cheney Chief of Staff Libby about matter beforehand Libby was leaking information about Wilson’s wife in attempt to discredit him for opposing Iraq-Niger uranium story White House promoted
Jul 17 Gen Moseley told lessons learned panel that from 2002-03 US-UK aircraft
conducted 21,736 sorties and dropped more than 600 bombs on 391 targets Were part of No Fly zones but were meant to weaken Iraqi defenses before 03 invasion

Jul 29 Saddam recording says his sons Uday and Qusay died as martyrs for Iraq and US
            would be defeated
Jul 29 US intel report Hezbollah attempting to reach out to Sadr and his Mahdi Army
Jul 29 Report US holding Iraqi detainees incommunicado and without access to lawyers

Aug 1 Senate held hearing on postwar Iraq Sen Biden warned that unless US
            gained support it could spend $70-$80 bil rebuilding Iraq
Aug 1 New US training program to rebuild Iraq’s army began
Aug 1 After trip to Iraq Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz said most Iraqis glad US
liberated them from Saddam US commanders rejected more troops to help secure Iraq Iraq could pay for its own reconstruction using oil and frozen assets Invading Iraq was crucial to fight international terrorism Invasion of Iraq and creating democracy could be start of transforming entire Middle East

Aug 5 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld announced US forces had been finding buried
Iraqi fighter jets in desert Explained why Iraqi air force didn't fight during invasion
(Musings On Iraq article on why Iraq buried its jets before the 2003 invasion)
Aug 5 Rumsfeld said “Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence” about Iraq’s
            WMD not being found yet
Aug 5 Rumsfeld said death of Uday and Qusay Hussein showed Iraq that Baathists not
            returning to power

Aug 6 US Iraq commander Gen Sanchez said he would arrests and raids looking for
            Baathists Said few returns and angering Iraqis

Aug 7 National Security Adviser Rice said Saddam was a threat to the US and world
Aug 7 White House said because Bush used Iraq-Africa uranium deal in State of Union
            rest of govt started repeating it
Aug 7 Zarqawi bombed Jordanian embassy in Baghdad killing 17 wounding 40

Aug 8 IAEA Found no Iraqi nuclear weapons program after 1991

Aug 9 3 US army battalions added to 1st Battle of Najaf
Aug 9 CPA head Paul Bremer said Ansar al-Islam escaped to Iran during invasion and
            were now returning to Iraq to carry out terrorist attacks
Aug 9 Protests in Basra over lack of electricity Threw rocks at British troops
Aug 9 Mass robberies of oil tankers in Basra Police fled their stations Left Czech &
            British troops to try to stop looting Fired on thieves 2 killed 4 wounded
Aug 9 AP story not much of Powell’s Feb 03 speech to UN on Iraq’s WMD was
            proving true

Aug 10 Report British govt said it had independent intel to support Iraq-Africa uranium
            deal after US said story weak Story proved false

Aug 13 US forces pulled down a Shiite banner from a building in Sadr City leading
            to protests
Aug 13 Deputy Secretary of State Armitage said Iraq had WMD
Aug 13 US gave up on attempt to get UN peace keeping force for Iraq

Aug 14 UN Resolution 1500 created UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
Aug 14 US intelligence officer wrote memo saying that “gloves are coming off” in
            Interrogating Iraqi prisoners

Aug 15 White House objected to CPA’s request for $20.3 bil after administration
            said it would not ask Congress for any more money for Iraq
Aug 15 Oil pipeline to Turkey bombed in Baiji, Salahaddin shutting down exports for
            2nd time in a week

Aug 16 Insurgent attack on Abu Ghraib prison 6 prisoners killed 59 wounded

Aug 17 CPA told White House if didn’t get additional $20.3 bil it would be disaster for
            Bush’s plans for Iraq
Aug 17 Water pipeline in Rusafa Baghdad hit with RGP knocking out water for 2 days
            for 300,000 people
Aug 17 US forces killed Reuters’ reporter outside Abu Ghraib prison Said camera
            looked like an RPG

Aug 19 Zarqawi bombed UN headquarters in Baghdad killed 23 including UN Rep de
            Mello and injured over 100

Aug 20 Bush at NSC meeting said US had to re-evaluate enemy in Iraq after Zarqawi
            bombed UN in Baghdad
Aug 20 UN said bombing of its Baghdad offices wouldn’t stop reconstruction of Iraq
            UN would withdraw most of its staff afterward

Aug 21 Secretary of State Powell asked UN Security Council to pass resolution
            encouraging foreign countries to provide troops for Iraq
Aug 21 Ali Hassan al-Majid “Chemical Ali” captured by US forces

Aug 22 Bush said Iraq war had transformed to one against Baathists and Al Qaeda
Aug 22 Australian intelligence officer testified to parliament no pre-war evidence of
Iraq-Al Qaeda ties and Iraq’s WMD were contained Claimed US was flooded with disinformation by anti-Saddam Iraqis before the war

Aug 23 CPA created Department of Border Enforcement but gave it little money to
            control Iraq’s borders
Aug 23 Turkmen protested in Kirkuk City over Turkmen being killed Turned violent 3
            killed 15-20 wounded

Aug 24 Ayatollah Hakim wounded in bombing at his Najaf office Some blamed Sadr for
            attack in growing inter-Shiite rivalry
Aug 24 Bremer admitted US not doing a good job securing Iraq’s borders

Aug 25 Funeral in Najaf turned into anti-American demonstration

Aug 26 Report US left thousands of munitions dumps all over Iraq which were looted by
            insurgents and militias
Aug 26 Bremer Iraq could not pay for its own reconstruction and U.S. would have to
            put up several billion dollars to do it
Aug 26 Bremer said CPA could not meet Iraq’s electricity needs until summer of 2004
Aug 26 US launched Op Ivy Needle to hunt down criminals and Baathists in Salahaddin
Aug 26 Deputy Secretary of State Armitage said US might consider a multinational
            force under UN to help with Iraqi security after rejecting UN role
Aug 26 Humanitarian aid groups announced pulling out workers from Iraq after terrorist

Aug 27 White House considered asking Congress for additional $3 bil for reconstruction
            in Iraq on top of previous $2.5 bil
Aug 27 Oxfam started withdrawing from Iraq after terrorist bombings against aid groups
            by Zarqawi 4th aid group to do so
Aug 27 ORHA oil team met with 3 Oil Ministry director generals Said US not in Iraq to
take its oil Named most top ministry officials Agreed needed to up production and increase refined products

Aug 29 SCIRI head Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim killed in Najaf’s Imam Ali shrine car
bombing by Zarqawi 125 killed 500 wounded Car driven by Yassin Jarrad father of Zarqawi’s second wife

Aug 30 Iraqi Governing Council announced 17 candidates for first-post Saddam cabinet

Aug 31 Commander of Guantanamo Bay prison Gen Miller flew to Iraq to advise on
interrogation techniques
Aug 31 Pentagon Defense Policy Board’s Perle said US should have organized Iraqi
            opposition to take over govt after invasion

Sep 1 Saddam tape played on 2 TV channels Said he was not responsible for
            Zarqawi car bomb in Najaf that killed Ayatollah Hakim

Sep 2 Zarqawi car bomb hit Baghdad police HQ killing 1 wounding 20
Sep 2 Ayatollah Hakim buried in Najaf after killed in Zarqawi car bombing in same city
Sep 2 Abdul Aziz al-Hakim blamed lax US security for death of his brother Ayatollah
Sep 2 Former NY City Police Commissioner Kerik sent to be Iraq’s Interior Minister
            under CPA
Sep 2 Bush agreed to talk with UN about multi-national force helping with security in
            Iraq Effort failed

Sep 3 1st post-Saddam Iraq cabinet sworn in with 17 new ministers
Sep 3 US forces gave southern and central Iraq security to Multi-National Force under
            Polish command
Sep 3 CPA Order 28 created Iraqi Civil Defense Corps as separate from police and
            army but would be folded into ISF later
Sep 3 EU Japan US World Bank agreed to create trust fund for reconstruction funds for
            Iraq independent of CPA

Sep 4 Former CENCTOM commander Gen Zinni said US had no strategy in Iraq and
            danger of failing
Sep 4 Rumsfeld said US speeding up creation of new Iraqi security forces in face of
            growing attacks
Sep 4 Rumsfeld talked with Iraq commanders about troop withdrawal Pentagon plan was
to have 25,000-30,000 troops in Iraq by September 2003 but had 130,000 instead because of violence

Sep 14 Cheney claimed that 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraqi intelligence in Prague in

Sep 16 Rumsfeld said no evidence Iraq involved with 9/11
Sep 16 National Security Adviser Rice said one reason US invaded Iraq was because he
            was from Middle East where 9/11 attacks came from

Sep 17 Bush said no evidence Iraq involved in 9/11 but Iraq had ties to Al Qaeda

Sep 20 Ansar al-Sunnah formed
Sep 20 Governing Council member Aqila Hashemi shot outside her home in Baghdad
            Would die 3 days later
Sep 20 Funeral for SCIRI head Ayatollah Baqir al-Hakim turned into anti-US occupation
            demonstration in Najaf

Sep 22 Zarqawi bombed Canal Hotel Baghdad 2 dead 19 wounded
Sep 22 Bombing of UN compound led to unanimous decision to evacuate UN staff from
Sep 22 CPA head Bremer testified to Congress asking for approval of $87 bil in aid for
Sep 22 Report Iraqi Governing Council members were going to tell Congress US
            reconstruction money being wasted

Sep 25 Bush said 9/11 changed how he viewed Iraq as a threat to US
Sep 25 Secretary of State Powell announced 6 month deadline for Iraqis to draft new
Sep 25 House Intelligence Committee wrote letter to CIA Director Tenet criticizing pre-
            war intel on Iraq’s WMD and Iraq-Al Qaeda ties after review
Sep 25 Aqila al-Hashemi of Iraqi Governing Council died of wounds from an ambush
            in Baghdad
Sep 25 Baghdad hotel used as base for NBC News bombed 1 guard killed

Sep 27 Insurgents fired 3 rockets at Rashid Hotel in Baghdad

Sep 30 UN Secretary General Anan said that UN would only renew its role in Iraq if
            sovereignty passed to an interim govt
Sep 30 Rumsfeld aide ate with Pentagon Defense Policy Board member Gingrich and
Deputy Defense Secretary Wolfowitz to lobby against Bremer Gingrich would later say Bremer was biggest foreign policy disaster in recent times
Sep 30 Bush told Justice Dep investigating possible unauthorized disclosure of
undercover CIA official fmr Amb Wilson’s wife VP Cheney’s office had leaked her name to press to discredit Wilson

Oct 4 US Iraq commander Gen Sanchez said insurgency had evolved and gotten deadlier
Oct 4 Last day CPA paid ex-Iraqi soldiers turned into violent demonstrations in
Baghdad and other cities Were fired upon by US and British forces killing 3 Iraqis

Oct 9 Bush speech said Iraq doing better than most Americans thought and world better
            off without Saddam
Oct 9 Bush gave National Security Adviser Rice oversight of reconstruction program
            Congress then barred Rice from that duty
Oct 9 US forces raided Sadr office in Baghdad Got into gunfight with Mahdi Army
Oct 9 Zarqawi hit Sadr City police station with suicide car bomb killing 10
Oct 9 Spanish diplomat in Iraq assassinated

Oct 12 Zarqawi hits Baghdad Hotel with suicide car bomb 8 dead 32 wounded

Oct 14 White House told Congress 70,000 new ISF and 13,000 in training
Oct 14 Sadrists tried to seize Karbala shrine leading to fighting with Sistani followers
Oct 14 Zarqawi suicide car bombing of Turkish Embassy in Baghdad 2 dead 13

Oct 26 Baghdad’s Rashid Hotel hit by rocket while Deputy Secretary of Defense
            Wolfwitz staying there 1 US soldier killed 18 wounded
Oct 26 US military said were not many foreign fighters in Baghdad

Oct 27 CPA head Bremer returned to DC to discuss his long term plan for Iraq which
            White House had turned against
Oct 27 Rumsfeld told Bremer of plan to return Iraq sovereignty by Apr 04 Bremer said
            needed new Iraqi govt and constitution 1st
Oct 27 Bush at NSC meeting said US had to stay the course in Iraq Gen Abizaid said
US had to bring back ex-Iraqi soldiers to rebuild army Bremer said too risky National Security Adviser Rice said Iraq’s insurgency was desperate and nt going to succeed
Oct 27 Zarqawi bombed Red Cross HQ and 4 police stations in Baghdad Sixth attack
            foiled 35 dead and 244 injured at start of Ramadan
Oct 27 Saddam called on insurgents to attack Iraqi security forces arther than U.S. led
Oct 27 U.S. military blamed foreign fighters for spate of Baghdad bombings Day before
denied foreign fighters important in capital Said insurgents were paying 10 times as much for people to carry out attacks against US forces
Oct 27 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith provided evidence of Iraq-Al Qaeda
ties his office had collected to Senate Intelligence Committee Feith claimed Iraq knew that Zarqawi entered Iraq in 2002

Nov 2 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said both Clinton and Bush administrations believed
            Iraq had WMD
Nov 2 US Chinook helicopter shot down near Fallujah Killed 13 soldiers Deadliest
            post-invasion attack on US up to that point
Nov 2 US Cmdr in Iraq Gen Sanchez said violence in Iraq was strategically insignificant

Nov 14 Japan decided to hold off deploying troops to Iraq due to rising violence
Nov 14 South Korea ordered its 464 troops in southern Iraq to suspend operations due
            to rising violence
Nov 14 Denmark rejected call to send 100 more troops to Iraq due to rising violence
Nov 14 US army intel report said insurgency successfully preventing CPA from providing
safe and secure Iraq Said US failing in Iraq because relying upon conventional military tactics and didn’t understand Iraqi culture Said insurgents targeting tribal structure while US ignoring it

Nov 15 CPA and Iraqi Governing Council agreed to return sovereignty to Iraq early by
            July 1 2004
Nov 15 Pentagon claimed Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Feith’s intelligence unit
            on Iraq-Al Qaeda ties was authorized by intelligence community but it wasn’t

Nov 21 UN turned over Oil for Food program to CPA
Nov 21 UK intel report Badr Brigade maintained close ties to Iran that armed and
            funded it

Dec 5 Pentagon banned France, Germany, Russia and other countries that opposed war
            from bidding on reconstruction projects in Iraq
Dec 5 US Air Force intel report Iran greatest threat to long term US influence in Iraq

Jan 20 Bush’s State of the Union said US was committed to spreading democracy in Iraq
            Claimed that if US hadn’t invaded Iraq would still have WMD programs

Jan 21 VP Cheney said there was overwhelming evidence Iraq and Al Qaeda connected

Jan 22 Cheney said overwhelming evidence Saddam linked to Al Qaeda Claimed Iraq
            was behind 1993 World Trade Center Bombing

Jan 23 Iraq Survey Group head Kay resigned saying didn’t think Iraq had any WMD
stocks or large programs since 1980s Thought Iraq had destroyed its WMD after Gulf War due to inspections and unilateral actions
Jan 23 White House said it believed Iraq had WMD and they would be found

Jan 24 Iraq Survey Group took Iraqi defector Haideri to sites he claimed were WMD
and found nothing Haideri had been source for US intelligence reports and various newspaper stories Was provided by INC

Jan 25 Ex-Iraq Survey Group Head Kay US intelligence was wrong about state of Iraq’s
WMD Programs Said that intelligence agencies had to answer for how badly they failed Said Iraq tried to restart nuclear program in 2000-01 but didn't get far Iraq had an active biological weapons programs for Iraqi intelligence assassination program US bombing stopped Iraq’s chemical weapons programs in 1990s

Jan 27 Ex-Iraq Survey Group head Kay Iraq told UN in 1995 it had destroyed WMD and
            nuclear program but no one believed them

Jan 28 Ex-Iraq Survey Group’s Kay told Congress everyone wrong about Iraq having
stocks of WMD but did have programs Called for investigation into intelligence failure on Iraq
Jan 28 White House said that Iraq Survey Group needed more time to make conclusions
            about whether Iraq had WMD or not

Jan 29 National Security Adviser Rice said what US predicted about Iraq WMD before
war not what found afterward Claimed Saddam deceived the world about its WMD
Jan 29 State Dept said failure to find out about Iraq’s WMD was not US failure but
            international one
Jan 29 Ex-Iraq Survey Group head Kay told Bush Saddam wanted Iraqis to believe
country had WMD when it didn't Thought Saddam had destroyed his WMD stocks because they were so easy to find by inspectors Bush asked Kay why Saddam didn’t admit he had no WMD Kay said Saddam wanted Shiites and Kurds to believe he had them to stop any revolts

Jan 30 Congressional committee found CIA relied too much on circumstantial outdated
            and satellite and intercept intel on Iraq WMD

Feb 2 Secretary of State Powell told Wash Post if he knew Iraq had no WMD his
            decision on Iraq invasion would have been different
Feb 2 Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld claimed Iraq Study Group head Kay’s Senate
            testimony Iraq had no WMD stocks proved White House case

Feb 4 UN inspectors looked at two alleged mobile WMD labs and found nothing
Feb 4 UK intelligence officer said British intelligence heads ignored warnings that Iraqi
            WMD could not be confirmed before invasion
Feb 4 Future IS leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi arrested by Americans and sent to Camp

Feb 5 CIA Dir Tent said in the end CIA would be proven not entirely right or wrong on
            pre-war Iraq intel

Feb 6 Bush announced Silberman-Robb commission to look into U.S. pre-war intel on
            Iraq’s WMD after none found
Feb 6 Report DIA said CURVEBALL intel on Iraq mobile WMD labs was questionable
            in 02 Never passed to rest of intel community

Feb 7 Bush and Cheney said Iraq war justified because Saddam could have made WMD
            Gave up argument he had them

Feb 8 After Iraq Survey Group said it found no stockpiles of WMD Bush said they
            could still be found and Saddam was still dangerous

Feb 9 Report White House 03 paper on Iraq WMD dropped qualifications and doubts
            from 02 Natl Intel Est on Iraq

Feb 10 Report almost all of Secretary of State Powell’s 03 UN speech on Iraq WMD
            proved wrong

Feb 13 Report CIA review showed it relied upon too many unreliable exile sources for
            intel on Iraq’s WMD

Feb 16 CIA said it still believed Iraqi defector CURVEBALL was credible source for
            intel that Iraq had mobile WMD labs

Feb 21 US did not brief UN inspectors on 21 of 105 WMD sites in Iraq US claimed it
            gave info on all sites

Mar 19 Justice Dept drafted opinion that Iraqis and foreigners in Iraq could be taken out
            of the country by CIA Legal experts said violated Geneva Conventions
Mar 19 UN responded to reports that UN officials involved in fraud with Oil for Food
Mar 19 Team arrived in Baghdad to try to come up with interagency plan for rebuilding
            Iraq 1st time happened since invasion
Mar 19 BBC poll of Iraqis 56% said better than year ago 23% About the same 18%
            worse 48% said right for US to invade Iraq, 39% wrong

Mar 23 Former Clinton Defense Secretary Cohen testified to 9/11 Commission that head
of Al Qaeda run Sudan chemical plant met with Iraq chemical weapons scientist in 90s

Apr 1 US intelligence officer told press Bush administration could have easily promoted
regime change in Iraq as part of the war on terror but the White House wanted something that would scare the public so used WMD

Apr 3 US arrested Sadr’s deputy Mustafa Yacoubi for murder of Sheikh Abdul Khoei
Apr 3 Sadr said that he wanted to unite with Hezbollah and Hamas
Apr 3 Secretary of State Powell said US intelligence gave him questionable intelligence
            about Iraq mobile WMD labs
Apr 3 Marines ordered to go into Fallujah and arrest culprits behind killing Blackwater
            Contractors Became Op Vigilant Resolve

Apr 24 US reported that 40% of Iraqi police deserted during Sadrist uprising in
            Najaf and Kut
Apr 24 Insurgents launched boat attack upon Basra oil terminal killing 2 US sailors

May 5 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld told reporter Geneva Conventions didn’t exactly apply
            to prisoners in Iraq and were more like basic rules

May 23 Sadr’s brother in law Riyadh Nouri arrested

May 28 Iraqi Governing Council agreed upon Iyad Allawi as head of interim govt


Jun 1 Iyad Allawi became interim PM Ghazi Yawere President in transitional Iraqi govt

Jun 3 US began extending tours of US units serving in Iraq to maintain troop levels

Jun 8 UN Resolution 1546 endorsed Iraqi interim govt and set date for return of Iraqi
Jun 8 CPA’s Bremer banned Sadirsts from participating in 2005 elections and holding
            Political office for 3 years Would have no binding after CPA disbanded

Jun 10 US gave up hope that NATO forces would be sent to help in Iraq

Jun 14 VP Cheney said Saddam had long standing ties with Al Qaeda
Jun 14 Reports US soldiers and interrogators warned of abuses at Abu Ghraib prison in
            Nov and Dec 03

Jun 15 Bush said Zarqawi was best evidence that Saddam had connections to Al Qaeda
Jun 15 Secretary of State Powell said White House stuck with claims of Iraq-Al Qaeda

Jun 16 9/11 Commission said it found no operational relationship between Iraq and Al
Qaeda 1994 bin Laden asked for Iraq’s help with operations but never heard back 1996 Iraq and Al Qaeda talked about working together in Sudan but nothing came of it
Jun 16 9/11 Commission didn’t believe story that 9/11 hijacker Atta met with Iraqi
            intelligence officer in Prague in 2001
Jun 16 CIA advisor told 9/11 Commission that 1999 indictment that charged Iraq and Al
Qaeda agreed to cooperate in Sudan was later proven false Said that Al Qaeda was suspicious of Saddam’s secular govt In 1990s Ira and Al Qaeda tried to work out non-interference pact and talked about cooperation Was also 1999 CIA report that said if Saddam wanted to attack the US he would use Al Qaeda
Jun 16 Secretary of State Powell said administration stuck by claim of Iraq-Al Qaeda
Jun 16 White House said 9/11 Commission didn’t contradict administration’s claims
Because it never said Iraq behind 9/11 Said Zarqawi being in Iraq before 03 invasion proved Saddam gave safe haven to Al Qaeda operatives Zarqawi was not part of Al Qaeda before war
Jun 16 General Accounting Office report Pentagon didn’t have good planning or
            oversight of reconstruction projects in Iraq leading to cost overruns

Jun 17 Bush refuted 9/11 Commission saying that Iraq and Qaeda had ties and that was
            why Iraq was a threat
Jun 17 Cheney said 9/11 Commission didn’t look at the overwhelming evidence of
Iraq-Al Qaeda connections Cheney claimed he had intelligence on Iraq-Al Qaeda ties that Commission didn’t Cheney was talking about captured Iraqi documents that had Iraqis with similar names to Al Qaeda members

Jun 18 9/11 Commission spokesman said it found no evidence of cooperation between
            Iraq and Al Qaeda

Jun 20 Head of 9/11 Commission said Al Qaeda was closer to Iran and Pakistan than
Jun 20 9/11 Commission member claimed captured Iraqi documents showed 1 Fedayeen
Saddam was an Al Qaeda member Also criticized press for claiming Commission report contradicted Bush administration claims on Iraq-Al Qaeda connections The report did refute the White House’s argument

Jun 21 9/11 Commission member claimed captured Iraqi documents showed 3 Fedayeen
Saddam were member of Al Qaeda Said one was an Al Qaeda facilitator in Malaysia in 2000 Story proved untrue Iraqis just had same names as Al Qaeda members

Jun 22 UN audit on reconstruction in Iraq found spending and contracts full of errors
            and open to fraud
Jun 22 UN audit found State Organization for Marketing Oil had no records on tenders
            contracts who won bids etc
Jun 22 Report White House claims that Saddam Fedayeen were in Al Qaeda probably
            resulted over confusion over their names

Jun 23 Report cooperation found between Baathists and jihadist insurgents in Iraq and
international terror networks like Al Qaeda Also two waves of foreign fighters to Iraq one before and one after 2003 invasion
Jun 23 Deputy Defese Secertary Wofowitz said what was going on in Iraq was not an
            insurgency Said it was former regime elements who didn't want to give up

Jun 25 Iraqi National Congress turned over captured Iraqi intelligence files to Americans
showing in mid-90s Iraqi intelligence and bin Laden met Iraqis agreed to air bin Laden’s anti-Saudi tapes but request for joint operations against Riyadh went unanswered by Iraqis

Jun 28 CPA disbanded, Iraqi sovereignty returned to interim govt led by Premier Allawi

Jul 1 CIA official said agency was constantly told to re-do assessments saying no
            Iraq-Al Qaeda connection by White House after 9/11

Jul 3 US military review of 2003 invasion found that logistics were lacking and
            military intelligence was largely useless

Jul 5 Report Zarqawi’s bombing moved him from the margins to the center of the

Jul 6 Report in 2000 CIA started program to contact relatives of Iraqi WMD scientists
living in the west to collect intelligence Relatives said no WMD programs Reports were not included in reports nor passed on to White House
Jul 6 Blair told Parliament that he didn’t know what happened to Iraq’s WMD Said they
            could have been hidden or destroyed

Jul 7 Senate Intelligence Committee found CIA was justified to claim Iraq might
have cooperated with Al Qaeda and offered bin Laden safehaven based upon pre-war intelligence reports

Jul 8 US and Iraqi officials said decision to stop 1st Battle of Fallujah was wrong
            and city was now controlled by insurgents
Jul 8 US and Iraqi intelligence reports said Zarqawi was using Fallujah as a base

Jul 9 Iraqi defector Mohammed al-Zubaidi claimed INC embellished stories of defectors
            about Iraq’s WMD INC denied story

Aug 1 Al Qaeda in Iraq bombed 6 churches in Baghdad and Mosul 12 killed 71

Aug 2 Marines just given control of Najaf came under attack 1st time by Mahdi Army
            in city
Aug 2 Al Qaeda in Iraq War Minister Abu Masri executed Turkish civilian Murat Yuce

Aug 3 2nd battle of Najaf between US and Mahdi Army begins

Aug 4 Mahdi Army shot down US helicopter in Sadr City Police chief there led
            celebration for its downing

Aug 5 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey issued first military campaign plan for Iraq
            since 2003 invasion
Aug 5 Sadr called for his followers to rise up against the US occupation
Aug 5 Mahdi Army attacked main police station in Najaf city and US forces in Baghdad
Aug 5 Anbar governor resigned after his son was kidnapped by insurgents

Aug 6 After 2 days of fighting in Najaf US claimed it killed 300 Mahdi Army members
Aug 6 Report US intelligence officers were involved in Abu Ghraib prison abuse

Aug 7 PM Allawi issues amnesty for insurgents with no blood on their hands

Aug 8 Arrest warrant for murder issued for one of Saddam’s lawyers
Aug 8 Arrest warrant for Ahmed Chalabi for counterfeiting dinars and nephew
            Salim Chalabi for murder of Fin Min official

Aug 9 PM Allawi, Iraq’s Defense Minister, US generals had meeting Decided 2nd Najaf
            battle had to end quick over concerns shrine might be damaged

Aug 12 US forces surrounded Mahdi Army in Imam Ali shrine and Najaf cemetery 2nd
            Battle of Najaf
Aug 12 Fighting between Iraqi and US forces vs Mahdi Army killed 68 civilians in Kut
Aug 12 Washington Post review of its pre-war Iraq coverage said it ran many articles
questioning Bush administration case for invasion but didn’t get on front page as pro-war articles did

Aug 13 Allawi govt announced 2nd ceasefire with Mahdi Army to hold talks with Sadr
            to end 2nd Battle for Najaf
Aug 13 Militia kidnapped a British journalist and demanded US withdraw from Najaf
            during 2nd battle for city Sadr gained his release

Aug 15 Peace talks between Allawi govt and Sadr broke down over ending 2nd Battle of

Aug 17 Allawi govt offered amnesty and role in govt to Sadr in return for ceasefire in 2nd
            Battle of Najaf
Aug 17 NSC meeting discussed US attacking Imam Ali Shrine in Najaf and possibly
            killing Sadr

Aug 18 Iraq Survey Group head Kay testified to Congress Iraq Survey Group was
responsible for finding Iraq’s WMD after invasion Kay blamed National Security Adviser Rice and National Security Council for not checking WMD intel before war

Aug 19 PM Allawi wrote Bush saying Iraq was more dangerous and unstable than a
            year ago
Aug 19 Allawi govt called for Sadr to disband Mahdi Army and leave Najaf shrine
            during 2nd Battle of Najaf
Aug 19 Sistani’s office said it was open to Sadr’s offer to turn over keys to Najaf shrine
Aug 19 Iraq Survey Group head Kay was rebuked by NSC staffer for criticizing NSC to
Congress on WMD Kay responded that Rice was more interested in being Bush’s friend than being National Security Adviser

Aug 20 PM Allawi called for Sadr to give up Imam Ali shrine in Najaf or face US-Iraq
            assault 2nd Battle of Najaf

Aug 24 Panel found Rumsfeld’s orders on interrogations contributed to abuse of
prisoners in Iraq Panel said U.S. underestimated need for prisons in postwar Iraq then didn’t attempted to solve the problem leading to overcrowding Contradicted White House claim that Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal was act of a few bad prison guards Said abuse was not part of an intelligence gathering operation

Aug 25 US army investigation blamed morally corrupt soldiers and contractors and poor
leadership for Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal Found intelligence officers played leading role in scandal

Aug 27 Sistani returned from London to Najaf Arranged ceasefire with Sadr to end 2nd
            Battle of Najaf
Aug 27 Sadr said “puppet police” couldn't protect Imam Ali shrine in Najaf and Mahdi
            Army still in control of it

Aug 28 Iraqi insurgents kidnapped 2 French reporters Gave Paris 48 hrs to end ban on
            schoolgirls wearing headscarves

Aug 31 CIA report Ayatollah Sistani and Sadr’s standing increased by 2nd Battle of
            Najaf PM Allawi’s hurt

Oct 2 Bush said Zarqawi travelled to Iraq before 03 invasion Killed USAID official
Foley in Jordan Said that proved Iraq was a threat because it had WMD and was connected to terrorist networks like Zarqawi’s

Oct 4 Car Bombs in Baghdad’s Green Zone and Mosul killed 21 Wounded 90
Oct 4 CIA review found no connection between Saddam and Zarqawi as White House

Oct 5 Bremer said US never had enough troops in Iraq while he was running the CPA
            Said military thought troop levels fine

Oct 8 Iraq Survey Group report found Iraq issued 1300 oil vouchers under Oil For Food
Program that netted $11 bil in illegal funds from 1990-03 30% of the vouchers went to Russian oil companies Lukoil Gazprom Zarbuezhneft Sibneft Rosneft Tatneft

Oct 12 4 Sadr leaders including Qais Khazali and Hadi al-Darraji were refusing to
            follow ceasefire ending 2nd Battle of Najaf

Oct 15 US put Zarqawi on its terrorist list
Oct 15 Cheney said Iraq could have given WMD to terrorists

Oct 17 Zarqawi pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda Tawhid wal Jihad
            became Al Qaeda in Iraq
Oct 17 Heavy fighting in east and south Fallujah between US forces and insurgents

Oct 19 Head of aid group Care was kidnapped in Baghdad Later killed by insurgents
Oct 19 Iraq conspiracy theorist Mylroie wrote OpEd in NY Sun that Iraq was training
            foreigners to carry out terrorist attacks and working with Islamic groups

Oct 20 Report Jan 03 Natl Intel Council warned building democracy in Iraq would be
            long difficult and turbulent Warned that overthrow of Saddam could lead to
            ethnosectarian rivalries and power grabs in Iraq
Oct 20 Transparency International ranked Iraq one of most corrupt countries in world

Oct 23 Al Qaeda in Iraq dressed as police took 49 Iraqi soldiers off bus and executed
            them in Diyala

Oct 25 Report top contracting official at US Army Corps of Engineers questioned
            Halliburton’s no-bid Iraq contracts
Oct 25 Report 380 tons of high grade explosives looted from Al Qaqaa nuclear site

Oct 27 - Report number of IEDs being planted in Iraq went from 500 per months in May
            and June 04 to 1,000 by Oct 04

Oct 29 - Report US forces reached Al Qaqaa nuclear site during 03 invasion then left
            and site looted of high grade explosives

Oct 31 US Gen Sattler unless US and Iraqi forces couldn’t stop insurgent intimidation
            campaign against Iraqi civilians they couldn’t win
Oct 31 Report US intel estimated 8,000-12,000 insurgents in Iraq and financing far more
            than previously believed
Oct 31 Report US army overrode objections of contracting officers who complained
about cost overruns and non-competitive bids given to Halliburton in Iraq Army leadership said US would be in trouble if it stopped Halliburton contracts

Nov 14 Insurgents kidnapped wounded police from Mosul hospital and dismembered
them Led to ½ of city’s police to quit All but one police station in city fell to militants
Nov 14 Iraqi police commandos sent into Mosul to recapture police stations
Nov 14 Report UN official Sevan accused of getting kickbacks from Iraq under Oil for
            Food Program told his staff not to investigate corruption

Nov 19 Association of Muslim Scholars announced Sunni boycott of Jan 05 elections
            claiming results would be fake and non-representative
Nov 19 US Gen Smith dep cmdr CENTCOM said insurgents were carrying out effective
            intimidation campaign before Jan 05 elections

Nov 21 Iraq Election Commission announced vote for transitional assembly to draft
constitution would happen 1/30/05 Provincial councils would be elected on same day

Nov 24 Powell told Bush not enough US troops in Iraq to secure country
Nov 24 Report US portrayed Zarqawi and foreigners leading Battle of Fallujah but
            leaders were local Iraqis

Nov 25 Defense Science Board report Iraq invasion given jihadists around the world a
            cause and supported their narrative

Nov 27 Report 1/3 of property Hallliburton contracted to manage in Iraq lost

Dec 1 KDP and PUK announced Kurdistan Coalition for Jan 2005 elections
Dec 1 US announced it would increase troops from 138,000 to 150,000 for Jan 2005
Dec 1 Report Army warned Dec 03 that military-CIA Task Force 121searching for
            WMD abused Iraq prisoners

Dec 7 Number of US troops killed in combat in Iraq reached 1000 after soldier shot in
Dec 7 Report Nov 04 CIA said security deteriorating Iraqi govt had to assert authority
            and rebuild economy

Dec 8 In Kuwait after being questioned about lack of up to date equipment for US troops
in Iraq Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said “You go to war with the army you have, not the army you might want or wish to have at a later time”

Dec 9 22 parties including Dawa SCIRI Sadrists INC announced formation of United
            Iraqi Alliance for Jan 2005 elections
Dec 9 Iraqi Islamic Party submitted 275 candidates for Jan 2005 elections Would be
            only major Sunni party to participate due to call for a boycott
Dec 9 Bush told families his govt was getting the best equipment for US troops in Iraq
after Defense Secretary Rumsfeld downplayed complaints by American soldiers heading for combat

Dec 16 US Iraq commander Gen Casey US needed to train Iraqi forces and create
            effective Iraqi intelligence services

Dec 21 Insurgents attacked US camp in Ninewa killing 24 including 19 US soldiers
            Wounded 60 Deadliest attack on US so far
Dec 21 Insurgents released 2 French reporters they kidnapped 4 months ago
Dec 21 Center for Strategic and Intl Studies report Iraqi forces wouldn’t be ready to
            operate independently until late 2006 at best

Dec 27 Al Jazeera aired bin Laden tape calling Zarqawi the prince of Al Qaeda in Iraq
Dec 27 Iraqi Islamic Party withdrew from January 2005 election saying violence made
            vote impossible

Dec 28 Bin Laden online statement praised Zarqawi giving him allegiance

Jan 4 Report US considered embedding US advisors within Iraqi units to speed their

Jan 10 Bush said that U.S. would stick with January 30 election date for Iraq
Jan 10 Ukraine announced it would withdraw its 1650 troops from Iraq after 8 soldiers
            killed in bombing
Jan 10 Zarqawi’s forces assassinated Baghdad’s deputy police chief and his son

Jan 13 US National Intelligence Council Iraq became new terrorist training ground in
            world replacing Afghanistan
Jan 13 Former Secretary of State Baker said US occupation of Iraq undermined US
            support for war and made US look imperialist in Middle East
Jan 13 Ayatollah Sistani representative assassinated in Baghdad

Jan 21 Knight Ridder analysis Violence in Iraq increased after every US benchmark
            such as capture of Saddam handing over sovereignty etc

Jan 22 Report $300 mil for arms deal for Iraqi army went missing after put on plane for
Lebanon INC’s Chalabi accused Defense Min Shaalan of stealing the $300 mil Shaalan threatened to arrest Chalabi for the charge

Jan 25 Bush admin said it would ask Congress for another $80 bil for Iraq and
Afghanistan wars Before invasion White House said Iraq would cost $50 bil and most of that would be paid for by Iraqi oil
Jan 25 Human Rights Watch report arbitrary arrests torture abuse threats corruption in
            Iraqi justice system

Jan 26 US Cmdr in Iraq Gen Casey said US and Iraqi forces killing more insurgents and
taking fight to Sunni areas Casey said Iraqis couldn’t secure Iraq yet but could protect election stations

Jan 29 RAND Corp Iraq became center for jihadist cause and cause of terrorism in rest
            of world
Jan 29 Human Rights Watch US Abu Ghraib prison scandal became recruitment tool for

Jan 30 Elections held for parliament to draft new Iraqi constitution Sunnis boycotted
            vote Iraqis also voted for provincial councils

Jan 31 Assyrians in Ninewa’s Bashiqa and Bartella were told they could have an extra
day of voting after ballots ran out on Jan 30 Ballots were delivered to towns but they were not allowed to vote Led to demonstration which was broken up by Kurdish security

Feb 1 Report US analysts believed Jan 05 elections could erode support for insurgency

Feb 2 Assyrians in Ninewa Plains accused Kurds of stopping them from voting in Jan 30
Feb 2 Bush said US in Iraq to create a democracy that could defend itself and was not
            a threat to its neighbors

Feb 4 Early election results had United Iraqi Alliance 44% Kurds 18% Iraqiya 12% of

Feb 7 Insurgents complained to Newsweek that Zarqawi was trying to hijack insurgency
            and opposed his attacks upon Iraqi civilians

Feb 13 Early election results showed that Shiite United Iraqi Alliance got 140 of 275
            seats in parliament missing majority it wanted
Feb 13 Provisional election results from January vote released United Iraqi Alliance
            48%, Kurdish Alliance 26%, Iraqiya 14%, Others 12%, voter turnout 58%

Feb 22 Dawa’s Ibrahim Jaafari became United Iraqi Alliance candidate for PM
            following January elections

Feb 28 Annual State Department human rights report accused Iraqi security forces of
            rape torture and illegal arrests

Mar 3 Kurds said parties had agreed on PUK’s Jalal Talabani being Iraq’s president and
            Dawa’s Ibrahim al-Jaafari PM in new govt

Mar 4 US troops accidently shot and killed Italian intelligence officer outside Baghdad
            Airport Would lead to Italy withdrawing its troops few weeks later

Mar 10 Kurds and United Iraqi Alliance agreed on new govt based upon deal to resolve
            future of Kirkuk and PUK’s Talabani becoming Iraq’s president

Mar 13 Deputy Industry Ministry Araji said there was systematic looting of factories
            and weapons sites after 03 invasion

Mar 14 Netherlands withdrew its 160 troops from Iraq

Mar 15 Mahdi Army attacked female students at Basra Univ leading to demonstration
            against Sadrists in city
Mar 15 Report leaked that Halliburton overcharged US for fuel imports to Iraq by more
            than $108 mil
Mar 15 Italy announced it would withdraw its approximate 3,000 troops from Iraq
Mar 15 Ukraine withdrew 130 of its soldiers from Iraq

Mar 20 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld appeared on two Sunday talk shows and blamed
Turkey for not allowing 4th Infantry Division to deploy there for invasion for violence in Iraq Rumsfeld claimed if 4th Infantry Division had invaded northern Iraq there would have been fewer Baathists to join the insurgency
Mar 20 Rumsfeld also said that CENTCOM commander Gen Franks didn’t want more
            troops in Iraq after the invasion

Mar 31 Presidential Silbermann-Robb commission issued its report on US pre-war
intelligence on Iraq Said Iraq was one of biggest intelligence failures in American History US relied upon worthless data and wrong analysis Lacked significant new information about Iraq’s programs so fell back upon intelligence from Gulf War and 90s UN inspectors and extrapolated from them Said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for rockets not centrifuges Example of misinterpretation US intelligence suffered from on Iraq US intelligence relied upon Iraqi defectors that were lying and ignored problems with their stories Used satellite photos that showed suspicious activity but nothing substantive Claimed Iraq made WMD advances that were technically impossible Ignored reports that Iraq no longer had any WMD US also ignored UN inspectors that discredited much of Washington’s argument about Iraq’s weapons programs
May 31 RAND report for Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld found that post-war planning
            for Iraq was inadequate and never considered security of the Iraqi public

Apr 1 Report White House and CIA leadership created environment where only threat of
            Iraq WMD reports were acceptable

Apr 6 Talabani named president of Iraq, Mahdi and Yawar vice presidents in 1st post-03
            Iraqi govt


Apr 7 PUK’s Jalal Talabani sworn in as Iraq president and named Dawa’s Ibrahim Jaafari
            as new PM Ended interim govt under PM Allawi

Apr 8 Parliament confirmed Talabani as president of Iraq

Apr 19 Report US intel discussed what torture techniques they could use on Iraqi
            prisoners in Aug 03 including electrocution

Apr 23 UN Secretary General Annan blamed US and UK for Iraq smuggling under Oil
For Food program in 1990s rather than UN saying two powers didn’t stop Baghdad

Apr 25 Iraq Survey Group responsible for investigating Iraq’s WMD found that Gulf
War and Un sanctions destroyed Iraq’s WMD programs and Saddam didn't try to rebuild them Found no evidence that Iraq’s WMD were sent to Syria
Apr 25 White House spokesman said Iraq Survey Group showed that Saddam wanted
            WMD in the future

Apr 28 PM Jaafari’s cabinet approved by parliament Included 32 ministers 5 ministers and
1 deputy PM were either vacant or temporary pending deal with Sunnis Included Defense Oil Electricity and Human Rights Ministers not being named
Apr 28 US pressured PM Jaafari to name partial cabinet because filing ministers was
            taking too log
Apr 28 SCIRI head Abdul Aziz al-Hakim gave speech threatening to purge the security
            forces of former regime members
Apr 28 MP Mishan al-Jabouri accused Shiites of dividing Iraq and marginalizing Sunnis

May 3 PM Jaafari’s cabinet sworn i

May 7 Jaafari filled 5 empty ministry spots and 1 Dep PM but Human Rights Minister
            turned down job saying appointed only because he was a Sunni

May 10 Parliament created 55 member constitution drafting committee but with no
            Sunni members

May 29 Report May 2002 US & UK increased air strikes on Iraq using No Fly Zones in
            attempt to provoke Saddam to justify invasion

Jun 3 US held secret talks with insurgents in Balad to try to break them away from
            foreign fighters and Al Qaeda in Iraq

Jun 4 New KRG parliament sworn in

Jun 5 State Dept memo Peshmerga arresting hundreds of Arabs and Turkmen in Kirkuk
and taking them to KRG to establish control of city

Jun 8 State Dept spokesman said US no longer determined policy on militias It was now
            an Iraqi issue

Jun 13 US held 2nd secret talk with insurgents in Balad to try to break them away from
            foreign fighters and Al Qaeda in Iraq

Jun 14 Massoud Barzani sworn in as KRG president

Jun 16 Decision made to include Sunnis on constitutional committee under heavy
            US pressure
Jun 16 Report Tehran cracking down on Zarqawi’s network in Iran
Jun 16 US diplomat in Mosul documented abuses of Interior Ministry’s Wolf Brigade
            including torture beatings not releasing prisoners
Jun 16 Report US declared Tal Afar cleared of insurgents in Oct 04 but had to return in
            May 05

Jun 20 UK UN diplomat Ross said he saw 4 ½ yrs of intel on Iraq WMD and it didn’t
            support Blair’s argument for war

Jun 21 PM Jaafari announced $1 bil deal with Iran to build schools hospitals and libraries
Jun 21 US forces saw insurgents fighting other insurgents along Iraq-Syrian border
Jun 21 Sen Hagel told Bush he should listen to outside voices on Iraq policy

Jun 23 15 Sunnis and 1 Sabean added to constitutional drafting committee and 10 more
            Sunnis as advisers

Jun 26 Rumsfeld said US conducting secret talks to try to split Iraqi from foreign

Jul 7 Iraq and Iran’s Defense Ministries signed military cooperation agreement
Jul 7 Report Human Rights Ministry said Iraqi forces carrying out random arrests not
using warrants torturing and abusing prisoners Ministry official said Iraqi forces carrying out extra judicial killings and govt doing nothing about it
Jul 7 Report $8.8 bil went missing in Iraqi ministries during CPA period 03-05

Jul 9 Al Qaeda’s 2nd in command Zawahiri Iraq strategy letter to Zarqawi Wanted to
expel US from Iraq Declare an emirate that would develop into the caliphate Extend jihad to neighboring countries Attack Israel Zawahiri also wanted Zarqawi to include more Iraqis in Al Qaeda in Ira to not alienate the population Zawahiri also told Zarqawi that continued attacks upon Muslim civilians could cost heart and minds and support

Jul 13 Retiring Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Feith said US made mistakes in Iraq
war and denied others Said US didn’t train enough Kurds and Iraqi exiles to help with security before 03 invasion Said US officials were reluctant to end the CPA early in 2003 Said US military not the Pentagon determined size of invasion force US army officers refuted that saying Pentagon curtailed troop deployments before and after invasion

Jul 17 Iraqi court filed charges against Saddam for executing people in Dujail in 1982
Jul 17 Musayib Babil suicide truck bomb killed nearly 100 wounded 150
Jul 17 Shiite MP Khuzai said time to bring back militias because Interior and Defense
            Ministries had failed to stop terrorism
Jul 17 Iraq-Iran deal signed for $1 bil line of credit to buy Iranian products
Jul 17 Report Bush signed and then rescinded order to provide covert aid to candidates
            in Iraq’s 2005 Jan elections due to Congressional opposition
Jul 17 Congressional Budget Office reported military and reconstruction spending on
            Iraq cost U.S. $218.2 bil 03-05

Jul 18 Ayatollah Sistani said violence in Iraq reaching level of a genocidal war
Jul 18 Meeting on Iraq reconstruction in Jordan said that US rebuilding program failed to
            provide basic services like water electricity sanitation
Jul 18 Weekly Standard article claimed Iraq considered bin Laden an intelligence asset
in 92 and worked together in terrorist plots Included conspiracy theory that Iraq behind 1993 bombing of World Trade Center

Jul 19 US complained to Iran about supplying EFPs to militias
Jul 19 2 Sunni members of constitutional committee Issa and Obeidi were assassinated
            Sunni delegation suspended work afterward
Jul 19 Weekly Standard claimed Iraq-Al Qaeda had high level meetings dating back to
            90s Most stories later proved false
Jul 19 Iraq-Iran signed deal for Iraq to export 150,000 bar/day of oil to Iranian refinery
in Abadan and send refined products back to Iraq

Jul 21 Pentagon said half of 93,800 Iraqi police had finished basic training and were not
            ready for duty yet
Jul 21 Insurgents kidnapped 2 Algerian diplomats in Baghdad

Jul 24 Allawi’s Iraqiya threaten to boycott constitutional commission because it wasn’t
            taken seriously the concerns of Sunni delegation

Jul 25 New US Amb Khalilzad said security was his top priority
Jul 25 Sunni members of constitutional committee end boycott after member

Jul 26 US Army interrogators testified that dogs sleep deprivation and nudity all used on
            prisoners held at Abu Ghraib

Aug 1 Battle of Haditha began
Aug 1 Oil Minister Uloom announced gas cooking gas and kerosene rationing to ease
Aug 1 Constitution commission said it was deadlocked because didn’t have authority
            to make major decisions
Aug 1 Ex-CIA officer claimed spring 01 received intelligence that Iraq had ended its
            uranium enrichment program years ago

Aug 3 Integrity Commission investigating a number of corrupt deals made by Defense
Ministry under Allawi govt One deal was for $236 mil with Poland’s Bumar for helicopters and guns When Iraqi officials inspected the equipment in Europe they found that the helicopters were 28 years old and refused to accept them Another was with Cattan for ammunition Iraq was charged ¢16 per bullet which were worth only ¢4-6
Aug 3 Report Defense Min lacked capacity to pay supply recruit and replace personnel
            and carry out promotions or deliver spare parts

Aug 4 Report large shipment of EFPs captured in northern Iraq coming from Iran

Aug 5 US said that EFPs were being shipped from Iran into Iraq to attack American

Aug 7 Protest in Samawa over lack of jobs, water and electricity turned into a riot
            outside governor’s office Broken up by police

Aug 8 Saddam fired his entire legal team at his trial
Aug 8 Constitutional committee ended its work Negotiations over final draft began
within leadership council of committee Shiite and Kurdish members of constitution committee made more changes to constitution with Sunnis often excluded
(Musings On Iraq interview with constitutional scholar Zaid al-Ali on the drafting of Iraq’s constitution)

Aug 9 Baghdad city council chief Makkia of SCIRI led group of Badr militiamen to oust
            Baghdad mayor Tamimi and installed himself in office
Aug 9 Defense Secretary Rumsfeld said that weapons were being smuggled from Iran into
            Iraq Most senior US official to accuse Tehran of arming groups in Iraq
Aug 9 Suicide car bomb hit US convoy in Baghdad killing 7 and wounding more than 90

Aug 11 SCIRI’s Hakim announced idea for southern federal region in Iraq
Aug 11 SCIRI held march in Najaf calling for a federal region in southern Iraq Had
            posters of Ayatollah Khomeini
Aug 11 Salah al-Mutalq said SCIRI’s call for a southern region would turn Iraq over to
Aug 11 Dawa rejected SCIRI’s call for a southern federal region in Iraq
Aug 11 Allawi govt announced ceasefire with Mahdi Army to hold talks with Sadr
            to end 2nd Battle for Najaf
Aug 11 Bush said US had to stay the course in Iraq Said free democratic Iraq in center of
            Middle East would be blow to terrorism

Aug 13 4 tribes fought Al Qaeda in Iraq in Ramadi in pitched battle inside city Started
when Al Qaeda in Iraq demanded city’s Shiites leave Tribes posted flyers saying they would not allow Zarqawi to turn city into another Fallujah and said that Zarqawi had lost his way
Aug 13 Al Qaeda in Iraq posted flyers in Ramadi saying it would kill clerics who urged
            People to vote in up coming elections

Aug 14 US Amb Khalizad accused of Iran of attempting to subvert Iraq after US forces
            seized EFPs in south Iraq

Aug 15 One week extension was given to Iraq’s constitutional committee to finish work

Aug 18 Police report listed 18 Sunnis arrested in Baghdad 6 weeks later their bodies were
            found along Iranian border shot in head and showing signs of torture
Aug 18 Anbar governor and other Sunni leaders fired upon in Ramadi during meeting over
            constitutional referendum

Aug 19 Al Qaeda in Iraq unsuccessfully fired rockets at two U.S. ships docked in an
Israeli port from Jordan Al Qaeda and Abdallah Azzam Brigades took responsibility
Aug 19 3 Islamic Party members kidnapped by gunmen in Mosul putting up flyers to
            vote in constitutional referendum

Aug 20 Report Islamic Party in talks with insurgents to try to ensure large turnout in
            constitutional referendum
Aug 20 Report Shiite parties taken over police in Basra and carrying out assassinations of
            ex-Baathists Sunni leaders and rival Shiites
Aug 20 Report Peshmerga running 5 prisons and carrying out mass arrests of Sunnis
Turkmen and minorities in Mosul

Aug 21 Interior Minister Jabr said that stories of Iran supplying weapons to Iraqi militias
            were exaggerated
Aug 21 Islamic Party leader Tariq Hashemi said constitution would not stop violence in
            Iraq because most politicians not recognized by public
Aug 21 Isam al-Rawi of Muslim Scholars Association advocated US withdrawal
            reforming security forces amnesty for Baathists talks with insurgency

Aug 22 Incomplete draft constitution presented to parliament Given another extension
            to finish draft
Aug 22 Report Abu Mustafa Sheibani running arms for Iranian Revolutionary Guard to
            Shiite militias in Iraq including EFPs
Aug 22 Board of Supreme Audit report leaked to press about corruption in defense
spending Found nearly half of $1.27 bil spent on defense in 1st 8 months of Allawi govt went missing Allawi’s office and Defense Ministry gave no bid contracts to middlemen who were paid up front in cash and never delivered items

Aug 23 Sunni members of constitutional committee said they rejected draft Said
committee didn’t create consensus on draft Members of Allawi’s Iraqi National Accord also voiced concerns about draft
Aug 23 US embassy report said Gen Casey’s plan for handing off security to Iraq had no
chance of succeeding and argued for counterinsurgency strategy to defeat insurgency instead

Aug 24 Report EFP attacks upon US forces showed Iranian and Hezbollah arming militias
            in Iraq

Aug 25 Police took away 36 Sunnis from Hurriya, Baghdad tortured, killed them and
dumped their bodies Iraqi judge blamed Volcano Brigade commander for murders but nothing done to him
Aug 25 Constitutional committee given 3rd extension to finish work

Aug 28 Draft Iraq constitution presented to parliament but more changes made to it

Aug 30 US Ambassador to Iraq Khalizad said final draft of constitution with edits had not
            been submitted It never was

Aug 31 Rumor of suicide bomber led to stampede of Shiite pilgrims on Tigris
            Bridge in Baghdad leading to over 1,000 dead and wounded
Aug 31 Report draft constitution did not deal with some of major issues in Iraq
Aug 31 Albu Mahal Sheikh Mahallawi said his tribe had declared war on Al Qaeda in
            Iraq in western Anbar

Sep 1 Operation Restoring Rights started to clear Tal Afar

Sep 7 Report Al Qaeda in Iraq controlled Qaim Made alliance with local tribe to run

Sep 8 Former Secretary of State Powell said some US analysts pre-03 knew intelligence
on Iraq was bad but didn’t say anything Said he never saw any evidence linking Iraq to 9/11 Said US made mistake of not imposing its will upon Iraq right after invasion

Sep 11 Report 70% of Iraqi detainees picked up by US released for lack of evidence of
being a threat 1000s of innocent Iraqis being held in US detention facilities for months before getting released US mass arrests causing widespread resentment against Americans

Sep 19 Iraqi police arrested 2 British soldiers disguised as Arabs in Basra When police
refused to release two soldiers British sent armored vehicles to break them out Mahdi Army went to station leading to 6 hour gun battle 4-9 killed and 44 injured

Sep 21 Anti-occupation by Iraqi police in Basra City
Sep 21 Basra council voted for non-cooperation with British forces in province until
compensation paid for casualties in Sep 19 gun battle between British and Mahdi Army at Basra City police station

Sep 22 Bush said upcoming elections for parliament and constitution would mean more
            violence in Iraq Said that if US withdrew Iraq could become a terrorist safe haven
Sep 22 Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal said Iraq could be breaking up
Sep 22 Report Shiite cleansing of Baghdad by insurgents increasing especially in Dora,
            Amiriyah, Ghaziliya, Sadiya

Sep 29 NY Times reporter Miller told grand jury VP Cheney’s chief of staff Libby told her
            fmr Amb Wilson’s wife was a CIA agent
Sep 29 Gen Abizaid and Gen Casey told Congress number of Iraq army battalions that
            could operate independently dropped from 3 to 1
Sep 29 Balad bombing killed 95

Oct 1 Marines launched Op Iron Fist aimed at Qaim border region of Anbar

Oct 2 Parliament ruled no vote on constitution would be based upon actual voters not
registered ones to diminish Sunni ballots against document Sunni politicians complained about change saying it would make it harder to reject draft constitution
Oct 2 Pres Talabani asked PM Jaafari to step down Complained Shiites were
dominating govt Accused United Iraqi Alliance of not giving Kurds govt positions, neglecting ministries run by Kurds and not dealing with Kirkuk
Oct 2 CENTCOM commander Gen Abizaid told Congress he was optimistic about Iraq
Oct 2 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey told Congress 1/3 of 119 Iraqi army battalions
            could operate with some US aid

Oct 5 Parliament changed decision from actual voters back to registered ones for no
            vote on constitution
Oct 5 Suicide bomber hit mosque in Hilla, Babil killing 27 wounding 87
Oct 5 British official accused Iranian Revolutionary Guard and Hezbollah of providing
EFPs to attack British troops in Basra Said attacks carried out by breakaway units from Sadr’s Mahdi Army

Oct 12 Report 1st Brigade 6th Division was carrying out sectarian raids and attacks on
            Sunnis in WBaghdad

Oct 15 Referendum on new Iraqi constitution held

Oct 25 Results of Constitutional referendum announced 79% voted for constitution Anbar
            and Salahaddin overwhelmingly voted no 55% of Ninewa voted no
Oct 25 Death toll for Americans in Iraq reached 2,000
Oct 25 Iraq Body Count est 26,690-30,051 Iraqi civilians police died since 03 invasion

Oct 26 Report CIA review of Zarqawi’s visit to Baghdad in May 02 based upon interviews
with Saddam era Iraqi officials said that Zarqawi probably didn’t have protection of Iraqi govt Bush administration originally claimed Zarqawi given safe haven by Saddam and said that was proof of Iraq-Al Qaeda cooperation

Oct 27 Baghdad insurgent leader told Guardian he supported voting on Constitution and
            opposed Al Qaeda in Iraq

Oct 28 Cheney chief of staff Libby indicted on obstruction perjury false statements for
retaliating vs Fmr Amb Wilson by leaking to press that his wife was a CIA agent in retaliation for Wilson opposing Iraq-Niger uranium deal White House promoted

Oct 30 Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction report said US had no policy for
            staffing reconstruction of Iraq Said lack of planning plagued rebuilding
Oct 30 Italian press speculated that intelligence agency SISMI forged documents claiming
            Iraq-Niger uranium deal and shared them with US and UK intelligence
Oct 30 Report PUK building dozens of houses in Kirkuk City and moving Kurds in Said
            to reverse Saddam’s Arbization program

Oct 31 US report Iranian Revolutionary Guard, Iraqi militias and police carrying out
assassinations in Basra Sayid al-Shuhada, Iraq Hezbollah, Thar Allah, Fadhilah, Badr Brigade and others all took assassination orders from Iranians

Nov 3 Human Rights Watch report on systematic abuse of prisoners by 82nd Airborne Div
            in Anbar
Nov 3 Report Italian intelligence agency SISMI told US in January 03 that Iraq-Niger
            uranium deal documents were fakes

Nov 5 US Marines launched Operation Steel Curtain in Karabila, Anbar along Syrian
border Town was cleared month before in October but insurgents moved back in right afterward

Nov 6 Report Feb 2002 DIA said Al Qaeda captive Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi was
misleading in statements about Iraq-Al Qaeda cooperation Libi would continue to be source for administration statements about Iraq-Al Qaeda ties
Nov 6 Report Informer Rocco Martino provided fake documents claiming Iraq tried to buy
uranium from Niger to Italian intelligence agency SISMI that then passed along story to US and UK British still claimed they had independent sources of Iraq uranium deal after documents and story were discredited

Nov 9 Al Qaeda in Iraq bombed 3 western hotels in Amman, Jordan hitting wedding
            parties Led to widespread condemnation of Zarqawi by Jordanians

Nov 10 Al Qaeda in Iraq took responsibility for hotel bombings in Jordan Later realized
attacks cost it public support and tried to justify them by claiming they were targeting Israelis and Americans and would never attack Jordanian public
Nov 10 National Security Adviser Hadley denied that White House manipulated Iraq intel
            before 2003 invasion

Nov 13 US forces found 173 prisoners in secret prison in Baghdad run by Badr unit of
Interior Ministry Prisoners were tortured
Nov 13 18 Sunni men found handcuffed blindfolded and shot in Baghdad

Nov 14 Pentagon’s inspector general said it was investigating Deputy Secretary of
Defense for Policy Feith’s office that looked into Iraq-Al Qaeda ties to see whether it conducted any illegal intelligence activities

Nov 15 PM Jaafari admitted that prisoners found by US forces at secret prison in Baghdad
were tortured
Nov 15 Interior Ministry Gen Kamal claimed abuse done by inexperienced police and
            would lead to reform within ministry
Nov 15 Secret prison as actually one of many run by Badr Interior Ministry forces
            throughout Baghdad
Nov 15 28 Sunni men found shot in head in Jasan Diyala near Iranian border

Nov 16 Sunni MP Falluji accused Iraqi forces of carrying out sectarian extra judicial
Nov 16 Cheney said people that claimed US lied about causes of Iraq war undermined the
Nov 16 White House rebutted NYTimes editorial that questioned pre-war WMD argument
            for Iraq war

Nov 17 Head of central criminal court in Baghdad Samarrie told NYTimes said special
            Inter Min forces didn't need arrest warrants or file court papers
Nov 17 Congressman Murtha introduced resolution to withdraw US troops from Iraq
            saying war going badly

Nov 18 House Republicans attacked Democrats for trying to cut and run in Iraq by
            backing withdrawal US policy was withdrawal
Nov 18 Al Qaeda in Iraq bombed Shiite mosque in Khanaqin, Diyala 74 dead
Nov 18 Study 90-96% of insurgency were Iraqis only 4-10% foreign fighters

Nov 20 Report on how US relied upon Iraqi defector CURVEBALL for intel on Iraq’s
            WMD when they were warned he was unreliable

Nov 22 Wall St Journal OpEd repeated story that 9/11 hijacker Atta might have met Iraqi
            intel agent in Prague in 2001

Nov 28 Dep Human Rights Min Usayran & Gen Samarriae told Knight Ridder Iraqi
            forces torturing and abusing prisoners

Nov 29 Rumsfeld told press “insurgent” should no longer be used when reporting on
Iraq because they didn’t believe in anything He then explained that they stood for overthrowing the Iraqi system and creating a caliphate Rumsfeld said US forces didn't have to report abuse and torture by Iraqi forces Joint Chiefs head General Pace then used insurgent when describing security in Iraq and said US forces absolutely had responsibility to report any abuses by Iraqi forces
Nov 29 Report Badr infiltrated Interior Ministry Mahdi Army regular police Both carrying
out murders torture and abuse Interior Ministry Inspector General quoted as saying police carrying out extrajudicial killings Interior Ministry intelligence chief Kamal said there was abuse going on but was not official policy of the Ministry

Nov 30 Pentagon contracted Lincoln Group to place pro-US stories in Arab media

Dec 27 Al Qaeda in Iraq fired 2 rockets from south Lebanon into Israel

Dec 29 Zarqawi took responsibility for rocket attack on Israel Said he was fulfilling
            promise to bin Laden

Jan 15 Al Qaeda in Iraq announced Mujahedeen Shura Council coalition of insurgent
Forces Shura Council was in part created due to Al Qaeda’s suggestion Zarqawi include more Iraqis in his jihad

Jan 26 Al Qaeda sent letter to Ansar al-Sunnah suggested it merge with Al Qaeda in Iraq

Jan 29 Al Qaeda in Iraq sent 2nd letter to Ansar al-Sunnah saying it sent representative to
            Iraq to work out issues with Al Qaeda in Iraq
Jan 29 Sharia Committee for the Army of the Followers of the Sunnah and the
Collective joined Mujahedeen Shura Council Its emir was Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Feb 22 Zarqawi bombed Askari shrine in Samarra Was done by a Tunisian and 4 Saudis
in Al Qaeda in Iraq Tunisian bomber was later captured in June 2006 and explained the attack
Feb 22 Al Qaeda in Iraq blamed Bahgdad and Shiite militias for Samarra bombing to
            Incite attacks on Sunnis
Feb 22 Other insurgent groups blamed Baghdad for Samarra bombing and claimed govt
            was allowing attacks on Sunni mosques
Feb 22 US immediately received intelligence Zarqawi was behind the bombing
Feb 22 25 Sunni mosques in Samarra attacked in retaliation for bombing
Feb 22 US report Sadr gave orders to kill Wahabis in east Baghdad in retaliation for
            Samarra bombing Meant Sunnis
Feb 22 Sadr offices spread rumor that US military vehicles were seen around Samarra
            shrine before bombing to lay blame on US
Feb 22 Iran blamed US for Samarra bombing

Mar 15 Iraq Study Group began creating alternative Iraq strategy for Bush admin

Apr 5 Iraqi parties chose Dawa’s Nouri al-Maliki to be new PM over keeping PM

Apr 20 PM Jaafari stepped down from office Was under pressure from Sadr Kurds and
            US Jaafari originally said he would not give up position but then agreed to

Apr 21 United Iraqi Alliance nominated Dawa’s Nouri al-Maliki as new PM


Apr 22 Pres Talabani asked Maliki to form a new govt
(Musings On Iraq interview with Reuters’ Parker on Maliki’s biography)
(Musings On Iraq interview with Inside Iraqi Politics’ Sowell on whether Maliki became a dictator)

Apr 24 Zarqawi released video portraying himself as military commander in Iraq

Jun 7 Zarqawi killed by U.S. F-16 jet north of Baquba

Jun 12 Report Al Qaeda in Iraq replaced Zarqawi with Egyptian Abu Masri He was
            actually group’s War Minister Abu Hamzah al-Muhajir named new emir

Aug 3 CENTCOM commander Gen Abizaid told Senate Iraq could fall into civil war if
            violence continued

Aug 4 Secretary of State Rice said US making progress Iraq strategy not failing US had
            to stay the course Privately Rice thought strategy failing

Aug 5 Secretary of State Rice told Bush Iraqis pulling their country apart

Aug 7 US-Iraqi Op Together Forward II started to secure Sunni areas of Baghdad
            threatened by militias
Aug 7 Bush said US had a strategy for Iraq Privately Bush thought wasn’t working
            and wanted new one

Aug 17 Bush held national security meeting to rethink Iraq strategy Bush told staff Iraq
            Policy was going bad and he wanted a new one
Aug 17 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey told Bush Iraqis might not be up to task of
            securing Baghdad

Aug 21 2nd trial started for Saddam accused of genocide during Anfal campaign
Aug 21 Al Qaeda in Iraq killed Sheikh Ataymi of Albu Jassim in Anbar who aligned
            with U.S.

Aug 24 Maliki banned TV channels from showing bloodshed caused by the war

Aug 30 Bush said if US left Iraq before job done would become terrorist state and
            undermine US leadership

Aug 31 US commander in Iraq Gen Casey said Baghdad security progressing US forces
clearing areas but Iraqis not holding them Said Iraqi forces could take over security in 12-18 months
Aug 31 PM Maliki told Iraq Survey Group security problems caused by Baathists and
Al Qaeda Claimed the problem with the Iraqi police were there were too many former regime members in force

Sep 7 New Al Qaeda in Iraq leader Abu Hamzah al-Muhajir issued 1st statement Called
for each member to kill an American and every Sunni Iraqi to kill a Shiite in next 15 days to see who was with the group and who was not

Oct 13 Al Qaeda in Iraq turned into Islamic State of Iraq Announced Abu Omar al-
            Baghdadi as emir of Islamic State
(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval War College’s Prof Whiteside on who was Abu
Omar al-Baghdadi)

Oct 15 Mujahedeen Shura Council again announced the Islamic State of Iraq Said it was
in Baghdad Anbar Diyaa Kirkuk Salahaddin Ninewa and Babil Said its goal was to govern

Jan 4 Baathist leader Izzat al-Dhuri declared war on Sadr and Hakim

Feb 8 ISI told new Baiji refinery director general that only Sunnis were to be hired at
            the facility

Apr 5 Islamic Army of Iraqi condemned ISI for imposing Islamic Law and attacking
            other insurgent groups
Apr 5 Al Qaeda told Ansar al-Sunnah that its complaints about ISI were unbelievable
            and it was still under Al Qaeda’s leadership

Apr 9 Barzani said Kurds main reason Iraq stayed unified
Apr 9 1920 Revolution Brigades said ISI was killing civilians and other insurgents
Apr 9 40 religious scholars formed Council of Ulema of Iraq in Jordan to be religious
            body for insurgents
Apr 9 Abu Wael declared his Sharia Council was breaking away from Ansar al-Sunnah

Apr 17 Islamic Army of Iraqi complained ISI was trying to take over Diyala by threats
            and killings
Apr 17 ISI head Abu Omar Baghdadi issued message calling for unity amongst
            insurgents Also said that Islamic State would remain despite any criticism

Apr 20 ISI sent letter to Ansar al-Sunnah apologizing for past attacks and asking for
            unification Ansar said no
Apr 20 Ramadi sheikhs said they would turn Awakening into political party to run in
            09 provincial elections
Apr 20 Abu Sheibani captured by US, was deputy head of network that delivered EFPs
            from Iran to militias

May 13 Abu Musah arms supplier to Iranian backed Special Groups arrested
May 13 Jihad and Reform Front got into gun battle with ISI in Baghdad

May 31 Islamic Army of Iraq and ISI got into gun battle in Amiriya Baghdad ISI
            claimed it controlled neighborhood US forces called in

Jun 1 Islamic Army spokesman went on Al Jazeera accusing ISI of belligerence since it
            declared its state

Jun 2 ISI’s Abu Omar al-Baghdadi told local commanders in Baghdad to stop fighting
            Islamic Army of Iraq Dispute would be mediated

Jul 4 US forces captured ISI’s media emir Mashadani Fed them disinformation that Abu
Omar al-Baghdadi was fake and ISI was still under Al Qaeda Helped contribute to Americans to continue to call the group Al Qaeda in Iraq

Aug 1 Iraqi Accordance Front’s 6 ministers start boycott of Maliki’s cabinet

Aug 6 Iraqiya’s 4 ministers started boycott of cabinet Were now 15 ministers total
            not going to Maliki cabinet

Aug 11 ISCI governor of Qadisiya killed by an EFP in Baghdad laid by Mahdi Army
            Sadr vs Hakim rivalry

Aug 14 4 suicide bombers hit Kahtaniya, Sinjar district killing 796 Yazidis and
            wounding almost 1,500  

Aug 20 ISCI governor of Muthanna assassinated by Sadrists Sadr-Hakim rivalry

Aug 21 ISI killed Sheikh Alayawia of Abu Jassim tribe of Ramadi for supporting govt
Aug 21 ISI blew up new police station in Jazeera, Anbar

Aug 24 National Intelligence Estimate on Iraq said security improving unevenly No

Aug 27 Mahdi Army got into gunfight with ISF run by Badr Brigade in Karbala shrine
leading to more than 50 deaths 280 wounded

Aug 28 PM Maliki headed forces to arrest Sadrists in Karbala after fire fight with Badr

Aug 29 Sadr announces freeze of Mahdi Army after fighting with Badr in Karbala
Aug 29 Petraeus wrote about Anbar Awakening and Sahwa and how they improved
            security in Iraq

Nov 18 US signed Status of Forces Agreement with Iraq that set 12/31/11 withdrawal
            date for US forces

Jun 11 PM Maliki said Asaib Ahl Al-Haq head Khazali was a problem for the U.S. not
            his govt

Jun 30 US withdraws forces from Iraqi cities
Jun 30 Iraq auctioned eight oil and gas fields to international energy companies Only
Rumaila received a winning bid Auction was considered a failure at first hurting standing of Oil Minister Shahristani who parliament was trying to remove

Jul 2 State Dept listed Abu Muhandis as a global terrorist

Aug 7 ISI document said that it negotiated contract with Communications Ministry to
            give deal an Arab leader in Mosul In return ISI got % of the contract

Aug 19 ISI set off 3 car bombs in Baghdad hitting Finance and Foreign Ministries and
Rashid Hotel killing 101 and wounding 565 PM Maliki blamed Baathists and Syria for bombings even though it was ISI Iraq withdrew ambassador to Damascus in protest 1st of 3 mass casualty bombings ISI would carry out in Baghdad during the year

Aug 24 Sadrists ISCI and Jaafari announced creation of National Alliance

Oct 25 ISI set off 2 car bombs at Justice and Municipalities Ministries in Baghdad 155
            dead 721 wounded 2nd mass casualty bombing by ISI in Baghdad in 2009

Dec 8 ISI set off 5 car bombs hit Finance Justice Foreign Ministries in Baghdad killing
            127 wounded 448 3rd mass casualty bombing in Baghdad

Dec 12 Iraq held second auction for international oil companies to bid on its oil fields
Dec 12 Blair said he would still have removed Saddam without WMD and that
            Saddam was a threat to world no matter what
Dec 12 Maliki questioned by parliament over Baghdad bombings starting in August
            MPs complained about lack of coordination by ISF

Dec 18 Asaib Ahl Al-Haq issued fatwa on Syria War saying it wasn’t about defending
            Sayid Zeinab shrine but fighting infidels and defending Islam

Mar 21 Maliki asked Supreme Court to interpret what largest bloc meant for forming
            govt after elections when his State of Law came in 2nd

Mar 24 Chief Justice Medhat ruled that largest bloc could happen after election giving
            Maliki first chance to form government over Allawi

Apr 18 U.S. and Iraqi forces killed ISI leaders Abu Masri and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi
            near Tikrit
(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval War College’s Prof Whiteside on who Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was)

May 4 Abu Abdullah al-Shafi emir of Ansar al-Sunnah was captured in Baghdad

Aug 17 ISI suicide bomber hit army recruits in Baghdad killing 60

Aug 25 ISI coordinated attacks in Mosul Kirkuk Tikrit Dujail Baquba Muqtadiya
            Ramadi Fallujah Karbala Kut Basra Baghdad

Aug 31 US officially ended combat operations in Iraq

Aug 2 Car bomb at Holy Family Syriac Church in Kirkuk 2 other car bombs defused
            at other churches in city

Aug 13 Obama proposed reducing stay behind force to 7000 US soldiers in Iraq after

Aug 15 ISI attacked Sahwa in mosque in Yusifiya, Baghdad during Ramadan and
            bombed St Ephraim Syriac Orthodox church in Kirkuk

Aug 20 On ISI’s 5th anniversary it released video that include message that it was going
            to Syria

Aug 28 Suicide bombing on Um al-Qura mosque Baghdad during Ramadan killed 28

Oct 27 Salahaddin council voted to start process to become a federal region Maliki
            blocked move

Dec 17 Baghdad Operations Command announced arrest warrant for VP Hashemi on
            Terrorism charges

Dec 31 U.S. withdrew its combat forces from Iraq as part of Status of Forces Agreement

Aug 1 Russia’s Gazprom signed deal for 2 oil blocks in KRG
Aug 1 KRG said it would restart oil exports for Baghdad to try to get a new revenue
            deal with the central govt

Aug 7 KRG re-started oil exports for Baghdad to try to get a new revenue sharing
            deal with central govt

Aug 17 VP Biden called Maliki about Iran flying military supplies to Syria over Iraqi

Aug 20 US warned that oil companies signing deals with Kurds without Baghdad’s
            approval were taking risks

Oct 14 MP announced arrest warrant for head of Central Bank of Iraq Shabibi after he
            Refused to stop re-evaluation of dinar Maliki requested

Oct 16 Maliki suspended Central Bank of Iraq head Shabibi and replaced him with an
            ally Turki who also headed Board of Supreme Audit

Apr 8 ISI released statement that it sent operative Jalwani to Syria to create Jabhat al-
Nusra That group was no longer and would be part of new Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham

Feb 3 Al Qaeda’s Zawahiri renounced ties to ISIS after it killed Jabhat al-Nusra emir in
            Raqqah, Syria 

Jun 23 Jihad and Refomr Front agreed to work with ISIS during its summer offensive
            Claimed tribal revolutionaries would sweep over Anbar

Jun 28 Islamic State of Iraq and Syria became the Islamic State

Jun 29 ISIS spokesman Abu Mohammed al-Adnani issued Promised of Allah statement
Said ISIS would form the caliphate and Abu Omar al-Bahgdadi would be the caliph since he was from the Prophet’s Qurayshi tribe Said all Muslims had to give allegiance to the caliph

Jul 2 ISIS head Baghdadi said that the caliphate had been established after the
            humiliation of Muslims at the hands of secularists, nationalists and Baathists

Jul 4 ISIS head Baghdadi gave Friday sermon at Nouri Mosque in Mosul Said group
            would now be the Islamic State ruled by him Caliph Ibrahim
Jul 4 1st issue of IS’s English language Dabiq magazine came out saying caliphate was
            a de facto state Called on people to immigrate to the state

Jul 12 Naqshibandi head Izzat al-Dhuri welcomed and praised ISIS’s role in fighting
            against Maliki govt

Aug 3 IS seized Sinjar Zumar Wana in Ninewa Began massacre and enslavement of
(Musings On Iraq interview with American University of Iraq Sulaymaniya’s van den Toorn on fall of Sinjar to the Islamic State)

Aug 7 Pres Obama announced beginning of bombing campaign against IS in Iraq

Aug 8 US began air strikes against IS in Iraq

Aug 11 IS attacked Jalawla, Diyala with suicide truck bomb and 12 suicide bombers
            dressed in Peshmerga uniforms

Aug 14 PM Maliki agreed to step down after elections Was under pressure from US and
            Ayatollah Sistani

Aug 19 IS posted video of beheading of journalist James Foley

Aug 22 ISF and Asaib Ahl Al-Haq raided mosque in Diyala and killed worshippers


Sep 8 Haidar al-Abadi became PM

Oct 14 IS captured Hit, Anbar after Iraq army unit abandoned base

Aug 1 Protests in Basra and Karbala over lack of electricity & services

Aug 2 Protests in Seysaib in Irbil, Najaf, Basra, and Nasiriya over lack of services

Aug 4 Protests in Sulaymaniya province over lack of services that led to clash with
police Over 30 wounded

Aug 5 Protests in Sulaymaniya over lack of services broken up by police

Aug 6 Protests in Karbala, Najaf, Baghdad, Basra, Hillah, Nasiriya and Rumaitha in
Muthanna demanding reform

Aug 9 PM Abadi announced reform program of ending quotas, cut bodyguards, anti
            corruption commission, dismissing VPs & Dep PMs
Aug 9 Cabinet voted to reduce number of members on provincial councils to save
            money sold as reform
Aug 9 VPs Nujafi and Maliki said they supported Abadi’s reform program
Aug 9 VP Maliki TV interview said protests were becoming anti-religious and could get
            out of control
Aug 9 Chief of staff of Iranian military criticized protests in Iraq saying they were
            making Abadi’s govt look bad

Aug 11 Parliament approved PM Abadi’s reform program that included ending
            3 vice presidents
Aug 11 PM Abadi said he wanted to cut cabinet to just 15 ministers and reduce local
Aug 11 Protesters stormed Babil council building demanding better services

Aug 12 Pres Masum said parliament should keep one VP since position is in the

Aug 13 PM Abadi’s State of Law said he had to keep one vice president because
            position as in the constitution

Aug 14 Ayatollah Sistani’s office said PM Abadi needed to reform judiciary
Aug 14 Protests in Maysan Kirkuk Samawa Basra Karbala Najaf Nasiriya Hillah
Baghdad Diwaniya Kut Baquba Dujail demanding better services and fighting corruption
Aug 14 Journalists said that Baghdad Operations Command stormed their office and
            told them not to cover protests
Aug 14 VP Maliki gave interview saying reform protests were anti-religious

Aug 15 Chief Justice Medhat said that judiciary supported Abadi’s reforms but made no

Aug 16 PM Abadi closed 4 ministries and merged 8 others into 4 by decree even though
            legally had to go through parliament Part of cost cutting moves

Aug 17 Judicial Council rejected call for Chief Justice Medhat to resign

Aug 18 IS second in command Abu Muslim al-Turkmani killed was killed by a US
            drone strike in Mosul

Aug 20 Pres Barzani’s term expired but he refused to leave office

Aug 21 Protests in Baghdad Maysan Dhi Qar Wasit Diyala Basra Kirkuk Qadisiyah
Salahaddin Najaf Karbala Babil Diwainiya demanding reform
Aug 21 Police attacked reporters from 3 TV stations trying to cover day’s protests

Aug 22 Gunmen in military uniforms attacked sit in protesters in Basra Police did
Aug 22 Riot police broke up protests in Hillah beating them and used water hoses

Aug 23 Police opened fire on demonstrations in Babil wounding 4
Aug 23 Reporters in Diwaniya said they were threatened by gunmen not to cover

Aug 24 Sadr said his followers should join Friday protests in Baghdad on Aug 28
Aug 24 Sit in protests in Basra ended when govt promised to meet their demands Were
            not met

Aug 26 Pres Masum implied that some of Abadi’s reforms were unconstitutional

Aug 28 Protests in Salahaddin Basra, Najaf Karbala Babil Dhi Qar Wasit Diyala
            Maysan for reform

Aug 30 Asaib Ahl Al-Haq head Khazali said that Chief Justice Medhat should
            resign and Election Commission should be ended

Aug 31 Protest in front of Judicial Council building in Baghdad demanding Chief Justice
            Medhat be dismissed

Oct 14 Baiji refinery in Salahaddin finally freed from IS

Oct 15 Immediately after Baiji refinery liberated Hashd began looting facility and selling
            off equipment to Iraqi and Iranian businesses

Apr 30 Parliament refused to meet over Abadi’s technocratic govt Sadr called for
            popular revolution as his followers stormed Green Zone
(Musings On Iraq interview with Cambridge’s Clark on Sadr’s take over of Green Zone)

Mar 28 Kirkuk council voted to fly the Kurdish flag over government buildings in

Apr 4 Kirkuk council voted to take part in KRG independence referendum

Apr 10 Around 100 MPs signed petition to have parliament dismiss Kirkuk Governor
            Karim over raising Kurdish flag over government buildings in province

May 23 Der Spiegel ran article documenting abuses by Rapid Reaction unit during Mosul
campaign Unit denied story released video of its victims denying that they had been abused and then attacked author of article Joint Operations Command also claimed author was making up story and if any torture had taken part he was partly responsible since he witnessed it

May 27 Toronto Star printed story by Der Spiegel author providing more information on
            abuses by Rapid Reaction unit during Mosul battle
May 27 Iranian Revolutionary Guard general killed advising Hashd around Baaj western

May 31 ABC News story offered more information on Rapid Reaction unit abuses first
            Reported in Der Spiegel during Mosul campaign

Jul 10 PM Abadi declared Mosul liberated after 9 month long campaign Heavy fighting
            continued in city
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Ret. Col Witty on the Battle of Mosul)

Jul 19 Salahaddin Gov Ahmad al-Jabouri arrested over corruption charges

Jul 21 3rd time Anbar council attempted to remove Governor Rawi on corruption charges
Each time taken to court and overturned After most of Anbar freed from IS Anbar council split into two factions pro and anti-Governor Rawi Completely undermined governance and rebuilding
Jul 21 Former Salahaddin Governor Ahmed al-Jabouri received 2 years in prison for

Jul 22 Anbar council voted for 3rd time to dismiss Governor Rawi on corruption charges

Jul 24 Ammar Hakim announced he was leaving Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq and
            Forming new Hikmah Party

Jul 26 Court issued arrest warrant for head of Salahaddin council Ahmed Abdul Gabbar
            for corruption

Aug 7 Parliament delayed September 2017 provincial elections until 2018 Voted to use
1.7% divisor to decide how many votes necessary to gain seat on provincial council

Aug 10 ISCI’s Basra Gov Majid al-Nasrawi resigned over corruption charges
Aug 10 Parliament’s integrity committee banned travel for former Basra Gov Nasrawi

Aug 12 Former Basra Gov Nasrawi fled to Iran to escape corruption charges

Aug 17 PM Abadi’s office acknowledged that Emergency Response Division unit did
            commit abuses during Mosul campaign as originally reported in Der Spiegel
Aug 17 Iraqi court ruled that Kurdish flag be lowered from government buildings in

Aug 18 Kirkuk Governor Karim rejected court order to remove Kurdish flag from
            government buildings in province

Aug 19 Speaker Jabouri announced new party for 2018 elections Anadolu

Aug 20 Operation to free Tal Afar began

Aug 27 Tal Afar liberated

Aug 28 Court upheld dismissal of Anbar Gov Rawi on corruption after he escaped
            similar charges 2 other times by opponents within the Anbar council

Aug 29 Anbar council elected Halbusi new governor
Aug 29 Kirkuk council voted to be included in Kurdistan independence referendum to
            widespread condemnation from Arab and Turkmen politicians

Sep 1 During Friday prayers in Najaf Asaib Ahl Al-Haq head Khazali said merging
            Kirkuk with Kurdistan was dangerous and threatened to use force to stop it

Sep 14 Parliament voted to dismiss Kirkuk Governor Karim over his support for KRG
            Independence referendum
Sep 14 Kirkuk Governor Karim said he would not step down after parliament voted to
            remove him Said Iraqi law didn’t allow parliament to dismiss him

Sep 16 Akashat in central west Anbar along Syrian border freed in new campaign to free
            west Anbar
Sep 16 State of emergency declared in Kirkuk province head of KRG independence
Sep 16 MPs filed petition to dismiss Kirkuk council over KRG independence referendum

Sep 19 Rihana in the Ana district in northwest Anbar freed

Sep 20 Ana in west Anbar attacked
Sep 20 Integrity Commission announced two former Diyala governors were guilty of
manipulating contracts in absentia, while Salahaddin Governor Jabouri was released under Amnesty Law stealing public funds

Sep 21 Ana in west Anbar freed while Shirqat in northern Salahaddin and Hawija in
            south Kirkuk attacked

Sep 25 Kurds held independence referendum in three Kurdish provinces and disputed
            areas they occupied in 2014

Sep 26 PM Abadi said that if KRG released information on where its oil revenue went
placed oil resources under Baghdad control KRG could get its portion of budget and share of grants and loans that Iraq received Warned that referendum was going to have negative consequences
Sep 26 Turkey’s Foreign Minister said KDP’s representative to Ankara could not return
            to country after KRG independence referendum

Sep 27 Kurdish Election Commission announced 72% of registered voters took part in
            KRG independence referendum Around 2.9 mil voted yes, 224,000 voted no
Sep 27 Iraqi Civil Aviation Authority sent notices to airlines that international flights to
            Irbil and Sulaymaniya were suspended in retaliation for referendum
Sep 27 Parliament passed resolution saying that Abadi as commander in chief should
maintain unity of Iraq Called for Pres Barzani to be brought to court over referendum Said that central govt should control KRG border posts return Kirkuk fields and disputed territories to Baghdad’s control remove governor of Kirkuk asked countries to close consulates in KRG
Sep 27 KRG said it was willing to allow observers from Baghdad at its airports
Sep 27 Kataib Hezbollah compared Pres Barzani to IS’s Baghdadi and said he would be
            dealt with same way as Islamic State was
Sep 27 Kirkuk Governor Karim rejected parliament’s call to deploy troops to disputed

Sep 28 Iraq Pres Masum said that KRG referendum was constitutional but separation of
            Kurdistan was not
Sep 28 Pres Barzani said that cooperation between Irbil and Baghdad was important but
            Iraqi govt acting recklessly and pushing Kurds away
Sep 28 Turkey said it was suspending training program with Peshmerga over
            independence referendum

Sep 29 Pres Barzani’s office threatened unilateral independence if talks with Baghdad
            Weren’t opened immediately
Sep 29 Secretary of State Tillerson issued statement that US didn’t recognize the
            KRG referendum
Sep 29 International flights cancelled out of Irbil airport after travel ban imposed by
            Baghdad in retaliation for referendum
Sep 29 Iran threatened to ban fuel shipments to Kurdistan in retaliation for referendum

Sep 30 Iraqi military said it was going to take over Kurdish border posts by stationing
            troops on Turkish and Iranian side

Oct 1 Gorran blamed Pres. Barzani for crisis between Irbil and Baghdad saying he
            ignored warnings from international and regional powers about referendum
Oct 1 KRG announced Referendum Committee was becoming Kurdistan Region’s
            Supreme Political Council
Oct 1 UN offered to mediate between Baghdad and Irbil over referendum

Oct 2 PM Abadi said he would talk to KRG unless it cancelled referendum results
Oct 2 Abadi govt announced foreigners in Kurdistan could fly out of country via Baghdad
            even if didn’t have federal visa
Oct 2 Joint Iran-Iraq military drill started along KRG border in response to independence
Oct 2 PUK’s Hero Ibrahim Ahmed said that Kurds were paying the price for the wrong
decision to hold independence referendum Claimed KRG leadership wasn’t being realistic about independence Said that new Kurdish leadership council reminded her of Baathist Revolutionary Command Council
Oct 2 Gorran called for new Kurdish leadership council to be disbanded Said that
            referendum had created another political crisis for KRG

Oct 3 Former Iraq President Talabani died
Oct 3 Central Bank of Iraq said it would halt all foreign currency transfer to KRG and stop
            selling dollars to four Kurdish banks for holding independence referendum
Oct 3 Parliament said it would not work with 4 telecommunications companies with
contracts in Kurdistan and threatened to take away immunity for Kurdish MPs that voted in the referendum Kurdish MPs were either blocked or boycotted the parliamentary session
Oct 3 Report Irbil and Baghdad in secret talks to try to defuse tensions after referendum
Oct 3 Turkey offered to mediate between Irbil and Baghdad to end crisis over referendum
Oct 3 Pres Masum’s office announced that Kirkuk Governor Karim would stay in office
            until his court challenge over his dismissal was heard

Oct 4 Iran’s President Rouhani said his country would not support the division of Iraq
            And said Kurds made wrong decision to hold independence referendum
Oct 4 Turkey’s President Erdogan said that Kurdish referendum was illegal
Oct 4 Central Bank of Iraq said it would ease easing financial restrictions imposed on
            Kurdistan day before over independence referendum

Oct 5 Hawija and Riyad in Kirkuk freed from the Islamic State
Oct 5 Turkey’s President Erdogan threatened to close border and air space to Kurdistan in
            retaliation for KRG independence referendum

Oct 7 Clash between Hashd and Peshmerga in Kharabaroot, Kirkuk
Oct 7 KRG Election Commission said it rejected Change nominee for president because
            registered late But he sign up on time

Oct 8 Clash between Hashd and Peshmerga in Allewa, Kirkuk

Oct 10 Hawija operation officially ended

Oct 11 Warrants issued for 3 members of Kurdish referendum organizing committee for
            breaking court injunction against holding vote

Oct 12 Iraqi joint forces crossed Kurdish lines in southern Kirkuk and told Peshmerga to
vacate their positions Disputed reports over whether Iraqi forces and Peshmerga shot at each other in southern Kirkuk

Oct 13 PUK Peshmerga withdrew from areas of Bashir and Taza in south Kirkuk ceding
territory to Iraqi forces PM Abadi gave Kurds 48 hours to vacate territory military bases oil fields occupied in 2014 by Peshmerga
Oct 13 Fighting broke out between Hashd and Peshmerga in Tuz Kharmato again

Oct 15 Hashd burned PUK office in Tuz Kharmato after fighting stopped there

Oct 16 As Iraqi forces moved towards military base and oil fields in south Kirkuk
fighting broke out with Peshmerga Were also clashes in Tuz Kharmato PUK withdrew most of its forces leading the KDP to do the same and allowing the joint forces to take most of Kirkuk province including Bai Hassan, Avana and Baba Gargur oil and gas fields denying KRG of roughly half its revenues
Oct 16 PUK also withdrew its forces from Jawala Qara Tapa Mandali Daquq in northeast
            Diyala after meeting with governor & army chief of staff
Oct 16 In wake of Kirkuk KDP called PUK traitors and PUK called KDP thieves

Oct 17 Kurds withdrew from Khanaqin in northeast Diyala along with Bashiqa,
Makhmour, Gwar, Rabia and part of Sinjar district in western Ninewa that they occupied in 2014
Oct 17 Peshmerga clashed with Hashd at Mosul Dam before handing over facility to govt

Oct 18 KRG Election Commission said it stopped preparations for presidential and
            parliamentary elections because no candidates

Oct 20 Fighting broke out between Iraqi forces and Peshmerga in Altun Kupri Kirkuk as
            Kurds worried federal forces were going to march on Irbil

1 comment:

Alan Bernstein said...

Thank you. Give it all back to the Ottomans, and let them deal with the Arabs. I hadn't realized how much the Arabs were beholden to the British for their self-rule. Their gratitude lasted, what, one day?