Iraq Monarchy Era (1932-58)

This timeline covers the rule of the Iraqi monarchy after Iraqi independence in 1932 up to its overthrow in the 1958 coup.

1932
Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from Britain

Nov 3 Naj Shawkat became PM

Dec 2 King Faisal gave speech praising his rule in Syria and said if he was still king
            there Syria would be independent like Iraq

Dec 12 Shiite leaders told Yasin Hashemi they would back him for PM if they got
            majority of cabinet posts

Dec 15 League of Nations Mandate Comm rejected Assyrian petition for autonomy Said
            Iraqi govt would settle Assyrians within country or outside of it

1933
Mar 13 UK Amb to Iraq told King Feisal that trying to control opposition by including it in
govt only created dysfunctional govts and opposition were opposed to Iraq’s alliance with England and should be excluded

Mar 18 British official warned King Faisal was attempting to make himself dictator of
            Iraq

Mar 20 Rashid al-Gaylani became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Mar 22 UK Amb to Iraq said that parliament full of politicians who never meant what they
            said Institution was a sham

May 28 Interior Ministry had Assyrian leader Mar Shimun come to Baghdad to discuss
differences with govt over settling community in north Interior said it was willing to acknowledge Mar Shimun as spiritual leader but would not give him any political power Said British officer arriving to help settle community Mar Shimun said he would help with settlement Pledge loyalty to King Feisal
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

May 31 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun wrote letter to King Feisal Said Interior Minister told him
            how the govt disliked him
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jun 24 Interior Minister would not let Assyrian leader Mar Shimun leave Baghdad after being in
            capital for nearly a month
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jun 25 Iraqi army sent to Dohuk in show of force against armed followers of Assyrian leader Mar
            Shimun
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 20 Mosul province told many Assyrians had left for Syria from Dohuk area
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 21 800 Assyrians left Mosul province for Syria asking for asylum from French because didn't
want to be part of Iraq Assyrian leader Mar Shimun denied he was involved Iraqi army sent to border crossing and told Assyrians they could only return to Iraq if they disarmed
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 23 Iraq asked French to impose treaty between two to remove Assyrians from border and
            disarm them
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 26 Iraq-French meeting Iraq told new border meant Assyrians who tried to get into Syria
            were actually still in Iraq French didn't want them in Syria
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 27 French forbid anymore Assyrians entering Syria
Jul 27 Iraq asked French to impose treaty between two to remove Assyrians from
            border and disarm them for 2nd time
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 29 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun wrote letter to Interior Minister saying he was being detained
He would help settle Assyrians but if govt did nothing he would go to League of Nations and advocate for Assyrians to leave Iraq Letter sent to ambassadors in Iraq embarrassing govt
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Jul 30 Report French disarmed many Assyrians who had tried to get into Syria
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 2 Iraqis met with French again Told Assyrians couldn’t stay in Syria Assyrians had
been disarmed voluntarily Only 415 had gone to Syria Were another 350 on border on Iraqi side Iraqis asked whether Assyrians would be given back weapons when returned but French said nothing
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 4 French deported Assyrians who had fled to Syria Iraqi troops sent to meet Assyrians and
disarm them Assyrians attacked army camp upon return to Iraq believing army was going to kill them 33 soldiers killed 40 wounded Over 500 Assyrians crossed back into Syria and were arrested by French Assyrians caught on Iraqi side were executed by army
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 6 Assyrians captured by Kurds trying to return form Syria turned over to army and
executed Gen Sidqi said retaliation for Assyrian attack on army camp Rumors spread that Assyrians blown up bridges and poisoned water
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 8 Iraqi army began executing Assyrian males captured in Bekher Mountains and looting
their villages Mayor of Zakho began disarming Assyrians in town Kurds joined in looting in Zakho Head of Zakho went to Sumail and told Assyrians to disarm even though not in his district
 (Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 9 Shammar and Jabour tribes attacked 60 Assyrian villages south of Dohuk
            Captured males given to Iraqi army who executed them
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 10 Kurds and Arabs looted Assyrian towns south of Dohuk Stole harvest from Sumail 
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 11 Interior Min Suleiman arrived in Mosul on news of Assyrian massacres Had
planes drop flyers telling Assyrians nothing would happen to them if they gave up to authorities
Aug 11 Assyrians in Zakho and Sumail were attacked by Iraqi army led by Gen Sidqi Fired
on village then divided women and children from men and executed the latter Found some men hiding amongst women and killed everyone Local Kurds looted Sumail after massacre Police later called back army to kill stragglers that had returned to Sumail 315 killed Iraqi govt considered Assyrians foreigners and tools of British imperialism for their service in the British Levies
Aug 11 Arab Kurd Yazidi tribes looted Assyrian villages in Alqosh
 (Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 12 Soldiers buried 315 Assyrians killed in Sumail raped women survivors they found
 (Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 14 Interior Min Suleiman went to Dohuk and Amadiya to try to stop killing of
            Assyrians
Aug 14 3 days of looting of Assyrian villages in Alqosh by Kurd Arab and Yazidi tribes ended
Aug 14 Arabs attacked 2 Chaldean Christian villages near Assyrian ones in Alqosh
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 15 King Feisal ordered Interior Min Suleiman to investigate massacre of Assyrians
            in Sumail
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 17 Surviving Assyrian women and children from Sumail sent to Dohuk and then
            Mosul
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 18 Iraqi army held victory parade and given award by Prince Ghazi for massacring
            Assyrians in north Total 60 villages looted and destroyed Around 600 killed
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Aug 27 Iraqi govt sent letter to British newspaper claiming only a few Assyrian villages had
been emptied of people Baghdad had returned all stolen goods No truth to reports villages had been burned Was propaganda effort to cover up massacre of 600 Assyrians and 60 villages having been looted and destroyed
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

Sep 8 King Faisal I died of heart attack in Europe

Nov 9 Jamil al-Midfai became PM, would hold office 5 times

1934
Mar 31 Iraqi Communist Party founded
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Aug 27 Ali Aiyubi became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times

Nov 29 Border dispute between Iraq and Persia escalated

1935
Jan 15 Persia presented its case over border dispute to League of Nations Rejected
Iraq’s control of Shatt al-Arab and questioned standing of 1847 Treaty of Arzurum

Feb 23 PM Aiyubi gave resignation to King Ghazi King asked Yashin al-Hashemi to
form new govt but exclude Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and Hikmat Sulaiman because they were agitating mid-Euphrates tribes

Mar 4 Jamil al-Midfai became PM of Iraq 2nd time PM

Mar 13 PM Midfai sent army unit from Hilla to Diwaniya to crush tribal uprising Revolt
            instigated by politicians opposed to Midfai

Mar 15 PM Midfai resigned over tribal revolt in Diwaniya King Ghazi asked Yasin
            al-Hashemi to form new govt

Mar 17 Yasin al-Hashemi became PM of Iraq 2nd time

Mar 21 UK report Baghdad afraid to deploy army because didn’t trust it especially because
            much of the rank and file were Shiites

Apr 20 Duweilim tribe fired on train in Rumaitha Demanded govt end confiscation of land
            and exempt tribes from conscription Govt refused and Iraqi air force bombed tribe

May 2 Police attacked tribal revolt in Rumaitha Air force bombed area
May 2 Feisal II future king of Iraq born

May 5 Iraqi army and air force attacked tribal revolt in Rumaitha

May 6 Govt arrested cleric Asadallah follower of Ayatollah Ghita who had been
demanding concessions from govt Led to revolt by Abu Hassan, Bani Zurayij and Zawalim tribes against monarchy

May 7 Sheikh Ahmad Asadullah follower of leading cleric Shiite cleric Ghita called
for his followers in Rumaitha to revolt against govt 3 other tribes revolted in Diwaniya

May 9 Iraqi air force dropped flyers telling tribes to end revolt in Diwaniya or govt
would punish them Tribes refused Govt started bombing area Martial law declared Rumaitha Gen Sidqi put in command of putting down revolt

May 11 Iraq air force bombed rebel villages in Diwaniya held by Abu Hassan Bani
            Zurayij and Zawalim tribes

May 13 Muntafiq tribe joined revolt against monarchy

May 14 Iraqi army and air force began campaign to bomb tribal areas destroy towns
            and burn crops to put down tribal revolt in Rumaitha

May 15 Tribes seized Suq al-Shuyukh and cut railway between Basra and Nasiriya
            during revolt against govt

Jun 5 Govt launched final offensive on Duweilim tribe in Rumaitha and ended revolt Tribe
            suffered around 300 casualties

Jun 12 National Service Bill signed by King starting conscription for army King
hoped conscription would help with nation building by creating army drawn from all parts of Iraq

Jun 19 UK Ambassador to Iraq said King Ghazi was a playboy who was completely
            absorbed by his hobbies and neglected his country

Nov 28 UK Foreign Office rejected King Faisal mediate Palestine dispute believing he
            had aspirations over territory

1936
Feb 15 Def Ministry complained that UK War Office ignored arms purchases and
            deliveries and that was undermining Iraqi army

Sep 19 British officials met with Nuri al-said in Paris for two days Wanted to ask him to
help mediate Palestine dispute Turned out he just wanted to promote Iraq and his pan-Arab agenda

Oct 29 Planes dropped flyers over Baghdad demanding PM Yasin Hashemi’s resignation as troops
marched on capital in coup led by Sulaiman and Gen Sidqi PM Hashemi asked for King Ghazi’s support When didn't get it offered his resignation Parliament building bombed in coup Def Min Askari was assassinated by Gen Bakr Sidqi coup plotters Nuri al-Said Yasin Hashemi Rashid Ali al-Gaylani all fled Iraq fearing assassination after coup 1st coup in Iraq

Oct 30 Hikmat Sulaiman became premier of Iraq leading to 1st govt with pan-Arabists
out of power Sulaiman was hoping that new govt would lead to liberal reforms but General Sidqi wanted to maintain status quo General won and most of Sulaiman’s followers left govt
Oct 30 Sulaiman govt banished former PM Hashemi, Rashid al-Gaylani, Jamil Midfai
            and Nuri al-Said

1937
Jun 19 Pan-Arab military officers withdrew their support for head of army Gen Bakr Sidqi

Jul 4 Iraq-Iran Frontier Treaty signed attempting to resolve border dispute Accepted
demarcation process that was done by Ottomans and Persians pre-WWI Set up commission to finish border and created a body to work out navigation of Shatt al-Arab most of which was given to Iraq Political instability in Baghdad and outbreak of WW2 meant treaty never implemented Treaty angered pan-Arabists and led to 1938 coup by Golden Square officers

Jul 8 Sadabad Pact between Iraq Iran Turkey Afghanistan agreed to borders non-
            interference regional security

Jul 18 Treaty of Tehran Keeps 1913 Constantinople Protocol that gave Shatt al-Arab to Iraq Added
that border between Iran and Iraq ran along the thalweg in the Shatt al-Arab

Aug 11 Army Chief of Staff Gen Bakr Sidqi leader of 1933 Assyrian massacre and head of
1936 coup was assassinated in Mosul by his pan-Arab rivals in military PM Sulaiman ordered Mosul garrison commander Gen Umari to arrest officers responsible but he refused

Aug 13 Gen Umari got support of military commanders in Kirkuk and Baghdad and issued
demands to PM Sulaiman including banishing officers from 1936 coup return of exile removal of Gen Sidqi’s friends military court to investigate Sidqi assassination ban soldiers from politics

Aug 17 PM Hikmat Sulaiman govt resigned over threat of military revolt by Mosul
Garrison commander Gen Umari Officers overthrew govt believing it had too many Kurds and Turks and not anti-imperialist Pan-Arabistis
Aug 17 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 3rd time in deal with pan-Arab officers Gen Fawzi
became army chief of staff Promised to follow pan-Arabism support Arab nationalist officers End talks with Persia over Shatt al-Arab Midfai named Col Najib Defense Minister which angered pan-Arab officers Najib promoted Iraqi nationalist officers Midfai wanted to exonerate deposed Sulaiman govt Nuri al-Said wanted them punished Began plotting with army against Midfai

Oct 25 Nuri al-Said’s son told him to return from exile in Egypt after made contact with pan-Arab Golden
Square officers

1938
May 1 Iraqi constitution Article 89a criminalized communism
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Dec 24 Golden Square army colonels overthrew PM Jamil Midfai for trying to remove
pan-Arab officers Backed by Nuri al-Said who became Prime Minister and Taha al-Hashemi who became Minister of Defense Rashid al-Gaylani became Chamberlain of Royal Office Said moved to punish ex-PM Sulaiman

1939
Feb 19 King Ghazi summoned army chief of staff Fawzi and ordered invasion of
            Kuwait PM Said reversed order

Mar 1 PM Said claimed coup attempt to remove King Ghazi by fmr PM Sulaiman and
Gen Sidqi followers in army Many didn’t believe there was any coup Said just getting revenge on his political enemies Fmr PM Sulaiman given death sentence for coup plot Commuted to five years imprisonment upon intervention of British ambassador

Mar 30 King Ghazi gave pan-Arab speech saying he was interested in Arab brothers in Syria
            Palestine Kuwait

Apr 3 King Ghazi died in car accident King Faisal II took power but was only 3 His cousin Abd
al-Ilah chosen to rule in his place
Apr 3 Ger Amb to Iraq Gobba spread rumors that England behind Ghazi’s death Led to
            riot in Mosul that sacked British consulate and killed consular

Apr 4 Death of King Ghazi publicly announced PM Said resigned

Apr 5 Illah asked Nuri al-Said to become premier again
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

Apr 6 Abd al-Illah became Regent of Iraq to rule in place of infant King Ghazi

Sep 5 PM Said broke relations with Germany as WWII started Didn’t consult with
            Golden Square officers that wanted concessions from British first

1940
Feb 18 PM Said resigned over growing problems with pan-Arabist Golden Square officers
Said wanted Gaylani to become PM and he would become Foreign Minister to maintain pro-British policies Golden Square officers objected to idea because didn’t want Said and Gen Taha Hashemi included Went to Regent calling for their exclusion from new govt Regent disagreed and had Gen Umari Mosul garrison commander retire as a result

Feb 20 Gen Umari Mosul garrison commander attempted coup rather than be forced
            to resign by Regent Put down by Golden Square officers

Mar 28 Nuri al-Said convinced Golden Square officers to get Gaylani to form new
            govt Said would become Foreign Minister

Mar 30 Fmr PM Said put together new govt with Rashid al-Gaylani becoming PM Said
            Became Foreign Minister Had backing of British

May 25 Iraq Foreign Minister Said said England and France should grant Syria and
            Palestine independence to counter Axis propaganda

Jun 6 Churchill wrote War Sec Eden saying he wanted Indian brigades sent to Iraq to
            show British strength Told no troops available

Jun 10 Italy declared war on Allies England asked Iraq to break relations with Rome as
            a result

Jun 12 UK For Sec Lord Halifax told War Cabinet situation in Iraq gotten worse due to
German victories in France German and Italian propaganda had been using Arab anger over Palestine and Syria against UK Few now believed that UK could protect them Arabs wanted to be on winning side in war

Jun 26 PM Gaylani asked Italy to become involved in Syria to block Turkey occupying it
            Came after Syria joined Vichy France

Jun 28 Italy told Iraq it wanted an independent Syria Lebanon and Iraq as well

Jul 4 Regent of Iraq asked England to occupy Syria that had joined Vichy France so that
            pan-Arab union could be formed of Iraq Syria and other Arab countries

Jul 5 PM Gaylani made overture to Germany by sending Justice Minister Shawkat to meet
German Ambassador to Turkey von Papen Papen said that Middle East was Italy’s sphere of influence so Germany could only act as an intermediary Shawkat said Iraq wanted Germany to stop Italian imperialism from expanding in Middle East and support pan-Arabism instead Papen said Iraq should contribute to war vs England and Shawkat said that would happen Shawkat asked for Syrian govt to be restored and aid in Palestine

Jul 10 England decided to send Indian Div to Basra after PM Gaylani wanted to block
British troops moving through Iraq as part of Anglo-Iraq Treaty UK Middle East commander Gen Wavell afraid sending troops to Iraq would destabilize region so had unit sent to Egypt instead

Sep 9 Mufti of Jerusalem who was living in Baghdad sent proposal to Italy Said in return
for Italian support for Arab nationalism and aid in Palestine Iraq would give it and Germany access to its oil block England from sending troops through Iraqi territory and secret treaty with Baghdad Proposal was first sent to Germans Italians had given money to Mufti before with few results so had no confidence in him Germans were willing to give money and weapons to him if Italy agreed It did

Oct 18 German ambassador to Turkey told Iraq’s Finance Minister Shawkat Germany supported Arabs but gave no specific
promises or support
(Musings On Iraq book review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)
(Musings On Iraq book review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

Oct 10 UK official told UK Amb Iraqi politicians pan-Arab London unwilling to change Palestine
policy meant Iraq would be lukewarm towards UK until it started winning in WWII
(Musings On Iraq book review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

Nov 1 Report to UK cabinet said PM Gaylani had to be dealt with because of contacts with Germany
and refusal to sever ties with Italy
Nov 1 UK Chiefs of Staff recommended removing Gaylani via diplomatic moves
(Musings On Iraq book review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)
(Musings On Iraq book review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

Nov 7 British cabinet decided to send emissary to Iraq to demand Regent remove PM
            Gaylani from power for his overtures to Axis
(Musings On Iraq book review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

Dec 5 US Amb to Iraq sent not to PM Gaylani saying he was worried about direction of
            Iraq-English relations because of Gaylani’s overtures to the Axis

Dec 15 Foreign Minister Said wrote memo to PM Gaylani and Regent that Iraq had to
            back England and US during WW2

Dec 17 Regent called cabinet meeting telling them they lacked unity to run govt PM
Gaylani rejected Regent’s criticism and blamed problems on For Min Said Later in day Regent asked Gaylani to resign He refused Pro-Said MPs criticized Gaylani PM asked Regent to dismiss parliament

1941
Jan 28 Regent of Iraq appointed 2 new ministers to try to dismiss PM Gaylani leading to
            Gaylani to plot against Regent

Jan 30 Regent of Iraq fled Baghdad for Diwaniya fearing retaliation by PM Gaylani
Jan 30 British were hoping to use Regent fleeing to spread unrest in Iraq to remove PM
            Gaylani from power

Jan 31 PM Gaylani stepped down fearing civil war due to his reaching out to Axis that
            had split govt and angered British
Jan 31 UK Foreign Office decided to give money to Regent to help him return to power

Feb 3 Regent asked Gen Taha al-Hashemi to become PM Hoped he could control Golden
            Square officers

Feb 7 Germany told Italy it was thinking of arming Iraq and was going to give money to
            Mufti of Jerusalem who was living in Baghdad

Feb 28 Mufti of Jerusalem Pan-Arab Golden Square officers Rashid al-Gaylani had
secret meeting Decided to remove PM Hashemi if he insisted on ending relations with Italy Golden Square decided to replace PM Hashemi with Gaylani if he would not change policy on Italy Agreed on no concessions to England Refused to break relations with Italy Would expel pro-British politicians

Mar 7 Head of Political Dept at German Foreign Ministry Ernest Woermann argued that
Berlin should find ways to send arms to Iraq but that Baghdad should not declare war on UK because couldn’t win

Mar 17 After consulting with UK Foreign Minister Suwaidi convinced PM Hashemi and
Regent to move against Golden Square officers Golden Square called on army to overthrow Hashemi

Mar 21 Regent told UK Amb that he would dismiss PM Hashemi govt if it didn’t deal with
            Golden Square officers

Mar 30 Regent had PM Hashemi send one of the Golden Square officers to Diwaniya He
            refused order

Mar 31 Golden Square officers decided to remove PM Hashemi in coup

Apr 1 PM Hashemi deposed in Golden Square officers’ coup after Hashemi tried
to remove them Army surrounded royal palace but Regent escaped to Anbar with help of US ambassador Nuri al-Said and other pro-British politicians fled Iraq
Apr 1 US and England believed Iraq coup part of German plan in coordination with
            invasion of Balkans and Libya Wasn’t
Apr 1 Golden Square officers thought British were plotting against them
(Musings On Iraq article on 1941 coup)

Apr 2 Regent of Iraq arrived at British airbase at Habaniya Anbar after Golden Square
officers tried to arrest him after coup Regent tried and failed to organize resistance to coup in Basra Then fled to Jordan

Apr 3 Golden Square officers picked Gaylani to become PM for 3rd time Started arresting
            pro-British politicians
Apr 3 British War Office asked commander in Middle East what forces available
for Iraq after Golden Square military coup
Apr 3 Nazi Germany sent letter saying it supported the Golden Square coup and would
            lend military aid

Apr 4 British called new Gaylani govt illegal and distributed copies of message by Regent
            to resist
Apr 4 Ultra intel in UK intercepted message from Italian amb in Tehran that Rome and
            Berlin were going to send arms to Iraq via Syria
Apr 4 UK Chiefs of Staff asked Middle East commander Gen Wavell how many troops he
            could spare for Iraq

Apr 6 British commander in Iraq asked for military reinforcements from Egypt but
turned down
Apr 6 Iraq banned British military from moving from Habaniya base Confiscated
            radios from British Military Mission

Apr 7 UK Middle East commander Gen Wavell told War Office military intervention in
Iraq not possible and diplomacy should be used instead Wavell thought Regent of Iraq could be restored to power by strong statement and show of force by Royal Air Force

Apr 8 UK Joint Planning Staff said all measures should be taken to overthrown PM Gaylani
Apr 8 Churchill ordered Secretary of State for India to put together a military force to
            send to Iraq
Apr 8 German Foreign Office said it supported Arab action against British for their
Freedom

Apr 9 German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop was told Gaylani govt was pro-Axis and
Germany working on getting it arms from region Ribbentrop okayed arms shipments to Gaylani govt and sabotage in Iraq and region against English
Apr 9 Germany and Italy made joint statement of support for PM Gaylani promising
            military and financial aid Encouraged Gaylani to confront England

Apr 10 London ordered India to send forces to Shaiba air base and Basra
Apr 10 British expeditionary force put together in India to be sent to Iraq to deal with
            pro-German PM Gaylani govt
Apr 10 PM Gaylani convened parliament and asked it to pick new Regent Selected
            Sharif Sharaf veteran of Arab revolt and relative of Hashemite family
Apr 10 PM Gaylani gave speech at parliament that his govt would honor Anglo-Iraq Treaty
            of 1930 to stall British action against him
Apr 10 Hitler decided to give military aid to Iraq
Apr 10 Italian ambassador to Iraq said Golden Square coup sign Iraq believed Axis was
            winning WW2 and would soon be in Middle East

Apr 11 UK Ambassador to Iraq wrote that PM Gaylani’s speech that he would honor
Anglo-Iraq Treaty deprived England of its best excuse against his govt and that his will should be tested by telling him British troops would be landing soon in Basra and travelling through Iraq which was right under treaty

Apr 12 British convoy left India for Basra with infantry brigade Then told its arrival would
            be delayed until PM Gaylani told troops arriving to test his will

Apr 13 UK decided to go ahead with troop deployments to Iraq

Apr 16 Britain told Iraq that troops would be landing in Basra soon under Anglo-Iraq
            Treaty
Apr 16 PM Gaylani agreed to allow British troops landing in Basra but demanded that
they immediately set out for Palestine or Egypt
Apr 16 German letter arrived saying it would support Iraq revolt against British

Apr 17 PM Gaylani asked Germany for military aid in case of war with British
Apr 17 British naval convoy moved towards Shatt al-Arab waterway in Basra
Apr 17 British battalion from India started arriving at Shaibah air base

Apr 18 Britain landed 20th Infantry Brigade in Basra Dock workers went on strike
Apr 18 British battalion from India completed deployment to Shaibah air base
Apr 18 PM Gaylani asked Italian Amb if Axis would give Iraq military aid against
            British and Axis air power 1st time Iraq asked for military intervention from Axis
Apr 18 PM Gaylani asked UK Amb that no more British troops land in Iraq and they all
            had to leave Iraq

Apr 19 British 20th Infantry Brigade finished its landing in Basra and 7 planes flown into
            Habaniya airbase

Apr 20 Churchill told Foreign Secretary Eden that British troops landed in Iraq to
            establish a base in Basra to establish control of province
Apr 20 PM Gaylani told UK Amb that Iraqi forces in Basra would be reinforced to a full
            division Said UK had no right to land troops and keep them in Basra

Apr 21 PM Gaylani asked UK Amb that no more British troops land in Iraq and they all
            had to leave Iraq
Apr 21 Hitler told military aid to Iraq could only be delivered by air and that would require
stop in Syria which would need approval of Vichy France Hitler got intelligence of large British forces in Iraq and more arriving so was skeptical of providing aid to Gaylani govt

Apr 23 PM Gaylani asked for German military intervention in case of war with England
Apr 23 London decided to land an entire division from India in Basra

Apr 24 PM Gaylani and Mufti of Jerusalem met with Italian ambassador Told him they
            were angry Axis had done nothing to help Iraq vs British

Apr 25 Iraq-Italian treaty signed to provide financial and military aid to Iraq for war against
            UK Axis would get oil concessions and use ports and military bases

Apr 26 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid against British

Apr 28 PM Gaylani and Golden Square officers decided to go to war with British Asked
            Axis for military and financial aid for second time to be used against British
Apr 28 UK Amb to Iraq told PM Gaylani second contingent of British troops landing
at Basra Gaylani refused them entry Amb ordered start of evacuation of British civilians from Iraq
Apr 28 364 British troops airlifted to Habaniya air base

Apr 29 More British troops from 20th Infantry Brigade arrived in Basra Iraq protested
Apr 29 British Ambassador told British women and children to leave Baghdad because
            of expected war with Iraq
Apr 29 British flew planes from Shaibah base in Basr to Habaniya base in Anbar
Apr 29 PM Gaylani sent Iraqi forces to British air base at Habaniya Anbar 11th Inf Brigade
ordered to Baghdad to later be deployed to Anbar UK Emb in Baghdad informed UK forces in Habaniya Iraqi army heading their way
Apr 29 Iraqis flooded Habaniya area limiting movement of British troops there Occupied
Kirkuk oil fields Cut oil to Haifa and restarted flow to Lebanon for Vichy France that could be used by Axis

Apr 30 PM Gaylani refused permission for British troops to land in Basra
Apr 30 2 brigades of Iraqi soldiers surrounded British Habaniya base ordered British
            to cease operations there Iraq had 9000 troops British 2250
Apr 30 Iraqi forces surrounded British embassy in Baghdad
Apr 30 Iraqi troops seized Kirkuk oil field and cut off pipeline to Haifa
Apr 30 PM Gaylani hoped to pressure British to leave Iraq without a fight
Apr 30 UK memo to Chiefs of Staff discussed destroying Iraq’s oil wells to deny them to
            Germany

May 1 British decided on pre-emptive attack to move Iraqi army away from Habaniya
            base in Anbar
May 1 PM Gaylani went to Turkish Amb to Iraq saying British violating 1930 treaty and
expected English air strikes any time Gaylani asked Turkish ambassador to contract British and try to stop conflict Message was passed to British ambassador to Iraq
May 1 Iraqi police opened fire on British workers in Rutba, Anbar England responded
            by sending forces from Transjordan to town
May 1 British bombers sent from Egypt to Shaibah air base
May 1 1st Battalion of Iraq’s 11th Inf Brigade sent from Baghdad to Fallujah to confront
            British

ANGLO-IRAQ WAR/WORLD WAR II

May 2 English commander at Habaniya base Anbar consulted with London and got
permission to attack Iraqis surrounding camp British planes bombed Iraqis starting Anglo-Iraq War British lost 22 planes and 10 pilots
May 2 Iraq launched air strike upon Habaniya base in retaliation Shelled air field damaging
            40 planes British lost 13 dead and 20 wounded
May 2 Grand Mufti in Baghdad declared jihad against British after attack on Iraqi forces
            in Habaniya
May 2 Iraqi forces took British fort at Rutba, Anbar
May 2 British troops broke up angry mob of Iraqis at Zubeila, Basra
May 2 Iraqi govt asked Germany for diplomatic relations to be restored and military aid
            including planes
May 2 UK Chiefs of Staff ordered Mid-East Commander Gen Wavell to make plans to
            destroy Iraq’s pipelines
May 2 Iraq’s 1st Inf Brigade ordered from Baghdad to Ramadi to block British troops from
            Transjordan being sent to Habaniya Air Base 11th Inf Brigade sent to Habaniya
May 2 British took Iraq out of Sterling zone and had foreign banks close to impose
            economic sanctions on Gaylani govt

May 3 2nd day UK bombing Expanded to Iraqi air bases and supply lines Bombed air bases
            in Baghdad and Diyala
May 3 Iraqi air force bombed Iraqi army in Ramadi by accident in night raid
May 3 Churchill ordered British troops to march from Palestine to Iraq
May 3 UK commander for Mid-East Gen Wavell given command of Iraq Complained no
forces to spare and negotiations should be used instead Wavell later claimed he could send a small force from Palestine to Iraq but it would threaten security in the region and again called for talks with Baghdad
May 3 PM Gaylani told Italian ambassador Iraq needed German and Italian air support to
deal with British, financial aid and a German military mission to work with Iraq General Staff
May 3 German Foreign Min Ribbentrop supported sending special representative to
Baghdad along with military liaison officers to set up arrival of German aid Also suggested sending fighter and bomber squadrons to Iraq Hitler agreed
May 3 Communists called on public to support Gaylani govt when war started Saw him as anti-
imperialist
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

May 4 British bombed Iraqi air bases in Baghdad and Baquba Destroyed or damaged
            29 planes in Baghdad 14 in Baquba
May 4 British bombers arrived at Habaniya airbase from Egypt while Iraqis continued
            to shell base 150 UK troops also flown into base
May 4 British troops in Habaniya base attacked and failed to take Sin al-Dhibban used to
            cross Euphrates and supply Iraqi troops outside base
May 4 British dropped leaflets on Baghdad saying war was with Gaylani govt not
            Iraqi people
May 4 Regent broadcast radio message asking people not to follow Gaylani govt Baghdad
            radio called on govt to arm the people
May 4 PM Gaylani sent diplomat to Tehran and told embassy in Turkey to pressure
            Germans to send aid
May 4 UK Chiefs of Staff told Mid-East commander Gen Wavell he had to take action
            against the Gaylani govt
May 4 UK War Sec Eden told Iraqi charge d’affaires if war continued and German joined all
            of Iraq would become a battlefield

May 5 UK Mid-East commander Gen Wavell told to think up air strike plan against Kirkuk oil
            fields Idea was later dropped
May 5 Gen Wavell told Chiefs of Staff didn’t think a force from Palestine could relieve Habaniya
Base in Anbar that their departure would threaten security in Palestine and Egypt therefore talks should be taken up with Baghdad
May 5 Iraqi troops began withdrawing from Habaniya air base ending siege 300 captured
            by British

May 6 UK Foreign Min Eden told parliament if Iraq withdrew forces from Habaniya and
            fighting stopped London willing to talk Policy was to remove PM Gaylani
May 6 Iraq launched largest air attack on Habaniya air base Iraqis then began to withdraw
from outside base due to lack of water and rations 409 Iraqi soldiers captured Iraqis suffered 1,000 casualties Iraq launched 2nd air raid on Habaniya later that day Iraqis lost initiative in Anglo-Iraq War when gave up in Habaniya Had no plan or leadership to do more than lay siege to base
May 6 British and Assyrian forces took Sin al-Dhiban, Anbar captured 300 Iraqi soldiers
May 6 British planes destroyed Iraqi column heading for Habaniya inflicting over 1,000
            casualties and prisoners taken
May 6 PM Gaylani told Mufti of Jerusalem to contact Germans and ask them for
            immediate aid
May 6 German deal with Vichy France allowed military equipment to be moved from
            Syria to Iraq to fight British
May 6 German air unit sent to Syria bound for Mosul to confront British
May 6 More British troops landed in Basra
May 6 Churchill dismissed UK Mid-East cmdr Gen Wavell for his objections to military
            action in Iraq

May 7 British troops took Ashar, Basra

May 8 British Arab Legion left Palestine to take back Fort Rutba, Anbar from Iraqi
police Legion was attacked by German aircraft and one regiment refused to cross Transjordan border into Iraq
May 8 British Royal Air Force reported Iraqi air force combat ineffective Lost 25 planes
            Another 20-30 heavily damaged
May 8 6 more English planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt
May 8 Vichy France agreed to transfer weapons from Syria to Iraq to use its air fields and            okayed landing of German planes
May 8 Iraq Defense Minister Shawkat went to Turkey for talks Ankara offered end of
fighting permission for UK to use bases in Iraq In return UK would recognize Gayalani’s govt
May 8 Iraq Finance Minister Suwaidi went to Saudi Arabia to explain conflict with England and
            ask for mediation Ibn Saud said Iraq should talk with London and end war
May 8 UK Mideast Cmdr Gen Wavell said not enough troops to take Baghdad and fight
            Iraqi and Axis forces

May 9 Germany announced aid package for Iraq
May 9 German diplomat arrived in Syria to organize arms shipments to Iraq
May 9 Start of 100 German and 20 Italian airplanes landing in Syrian bases to fight British in
Iraq British intel found out about planes being flown from Greece to Syria and that Vichy France sending trains full of military aid to Iraq
May 9 British planes bombed Iraqi police holding Fort Rutba, Anbar while Iraqi
            reinforcements arrived
May 9 British cmdr in India Gen Auchinleck told Chiefs of Staff British had to deal
            with Iraq
May 9 PM Churchill told Mid-East commander Gen Wavell he had to take bold military
            action against Iraq and wouldn’t negotiation with PM Gaylani
May 9 Jordanian soldiers mutinied and refused to cross over into Iraq 240 men left unit

May 10 New German ambassador to Iraq arrived in Mosul with 2 He 111 bombers
May 10 Iraqis abandoned Fort Rutba allowing British to capture it
May 10 UK India commander Gen Auchinlek advocated occupying Baghdad Mosul
Kirkuk to preclude German intervention Mid-East commander Gen Wavell replied that Iraq not as important as other fronts and he had limited resources
May 10 UK Mideast cmdr Gen Wavell told Churchill attack on Baghdad could start
Arab revolt Wavell told Churchill some Jordanian forces already refused to go to Iraq Wavell finally gave order for forces in Jordan to head for Habaniya Anbar Wavell ordered that Baghdad was not to be occupied

May 11 British forces left Haifa, Palestine heading for Habaniya, Anbar
May 11 More British planes landed as reinforcements at Habaniya air base
May 11 German military aid began arriving from Syria by train Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 11 German diplomat Dr. Grobba arrived in Baghdad along with 3 German planes and
            20,000 Pounds for PM Gaylani

May 12 Soviet Union recognized PM Gaylani’s govt
May 12 British reinforcements from Palestine and Transjordan attacked by a German
            Bomber as they entered Iraq
May 12 German air force liaison officer killed while trying to land in Baghdad during dog
            fight between Iraqi and British fighter planes
May 12 PM Gaylani told German ambassador to Turkey that Ankara made offer to be
middleman with England Gaylani feared Ankara would intervene in Iraq German ambassador dismissed that idea

May 13 Iraq told German ambassador to Turkey that it agreed to Turkish offer to
            mediate with England
May 13 Golden Square officers rejected Turkey’s offer to mediate with England and
threatened to shoot PM Gaylani if he accepted He offered to resign Mufti of Jerusalem had to intervene
May 13 1st trainload of Nazi German war supplies arrived in Mosul to support PM
Gaylani’s govt Never used Vichy France sent military equipment to Iraq
May 13 British forces bombed Syrian-Mosul railway to try to block Axis aid to Iraq
May 13 Jordanians from Palestine arrived at Fort Rutba in Anbar  
May 13 German planes attacked British forces at Habaniya air base 1 British plane shot
            down by German plane over Mosul
May 13 Egyptian Chief of Staff Gen Masri arrested while attempting to fly to Iraq to join
            fight vs British

May 14 Churchill authorized British air force in Iraq to attack German planes in Syria
May 14 2 British fighters flew out of Iraq and attacked 2 German bombers in Syria
            damaging them
May 14 German war planes began landing in Mosul Were attacked by British planes
May 14 Iraq Finance Minister Suwaidi met German ambassador Told to take up Turkish
mediation offer to stall for time until Axis aid could be organized German ambassador promised German planes were arriving and military aid coming from Syria

May 15 German major arrived in Baghdad to lead Brandenburgers Commandorecon unit
in Iraq along with squadron of bombers and squadron of fighters Met with PM Gaylani Decided priority blocking Transjordan force form reaching Habaniya base Was too late to do that
May 15 Germany had total of 24 fighters and bombers in Iraq to help Gaylani govt fight
            German planes were painted in Iraqi colors to hide their origin
May 15 British bomber attacked Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar
May 15 German plane bombed British force from Palestine heading towards Habaniya
May 15 British received intel that German planes flying to Iraq from Syria
May 15 Kurds began discussing revolt against PM Gaylani to take advantage of crisis with
            British

May 16 While British planes bombed Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar English ground
            forces were attacked by German planes
May 16 German planes attacked Habaniya base British destroyed 10 German planes in Irbil
            and Mosul
May 16 German commander in Iraq agreed with Baghdad’s plan to retake Habaniya but
            didn’t have forces to do it
May 16 Mullah Mustafa Barzani escaped Baghdad and headed for Sulaymaniya

May 17 British forces set out from Habaniya base to try to take Fallujah
May 17 10 British planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt and launched
attack on German planes in Mosul British bombed Baghdad air base Shot down 2 German fighters
May 17 German liaison officer with Iraqi govt killed by an Iraqi soldier flying into
            Baghdad

May 18 British bombed Fallujah while troops begin surrounding town
May 18 Transjordan force arrived at Habaniya base in Anbar Were attacked by German planes

May 19 British took Fallujah from Iraqi forces after heavy bombing Was necessary to
            cross Euphrates onto Baghdad 300 Iraqis captured
(Musings On Iraq article on 1941 Battle of Fallujah)
May 19 Iraqi command found out about loss of Fallujah and decided to launch
            counterattack
May 19 Iraq Defense Minister Shawkat returned from Turkey Was accused of being a
traitor by Golden Square officers for talking about mediation with England Fled to Turkey
May 19 Mullah Mustafa Barzani arrived in Sulaymaniya after escaping Baghdad

May 20 German planes attacked British Habaniya air base in Anbar

May 21 Iraqis launched counterattack attempting to retake Fallujah from British Entered
            town
May 21 German planes bombed air base at Habaniya for a second day
May 21 Iraq launched raids into Basra city suburbs but failed

May 22 Iraq attempt to recapture Fallujah failed
(Musings On Iraq article on 1941 Battle of Fallujah)
May 22 Regent of Iraq along with Nuri al-Said arrived at British base at Habaniya, Anbar
            Said sent letter to Iraqi commander in Ramadi who agreed to switch sides

May 23 German planes attacked British forces in Fallujah Iraqi artillery shelled town
May 23 Hitler Order 30 Germany would support Arabs against British especially in Iraq
May 23 UK Mid-East commander Gen Wavell and Indian commander Gen Auchinlek met
in Basra Decided to send forces to Baghdad and more to be sent from India to Iraq

May 24 Mufti of Jerusalem told Italians Arab revolt hinged on Iraq and it needed more
            support

May 25 British attacked Iraqis 6 miles up from Basra city 10th Indian Div ordered to head
            north

May 26 2nd trainload of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul but
            never used
May 26 12 Italian planes landed in Kirkuk from Syria to operate under Germans
            Immediately attacked British forces in Anbar
May 26 Mussolini met with German military attache’ and expressed concern about Iraq
Asked whether Belin would give substantive or symbolic support to Iraq Mussolini told German military attache’ Iraq could turn tide in Mediterranean Attache’ said Berlin serious about Iraq

May 27 Operation Regulta began British forces marched north from Basra to Kut and
            onto Baghdad Captured Ur
May 27 British forces moved from Fallujah to cut Baghdad-Mosul road and railway         Forced Iraqis out of Taji north of Baghdad
May 27 PM Gaylani told Italians he was disappointed with Axis assistance
May 27 UK Foreign Min Eden said that Regent Ilah lacked a strong character but he was
            loyal to England

May 28 British forces captured Khan Nuqta fort on march from Fallujah to
            Baghdad
May 28 British troops moved from Basra to Baghdad take Ur
May 28 British forces attacked Abu Ghraib canal but turned back by Iraqis
May 28 British intel spread rumor to Iraqi military that 100 tanks heading to Baghdad
            Led PM Gaylani to flee
May 28 3rd shipment of German military supplies arrived in Mosul Never used
May 28 Iraq Chiefs of Staff decided to withdraw to Kirkuk to avoid British attack on
            Baghdad PM Gaylani joined them

May 29 Italian planes got into dogfight with British planes over Baghdad 1 Italian and 2
            British planes shot down
May 29 British defeated Iraqi forces at Abu Ghraib Turned back at Abu Ghraib canal in
            push on Baghdad for second time
May 29 British forces defeated by Iraqi army at Kadhimiya, Baghdad
May 29 PM Gaylani told military leadership had fled to Persia leading to his own
            escape there along with Mufti of Jerusalem
May 29 German ambassador to Iraq fled Baghdad for Kirkuk fearing British advance
May 29 Governor of Baghdad captured by British on trip to Samarra

May 30 Last brigade of British 10th Infantry Division from India landed in Basra
May 30 British troops reached Baghdad Iraqi army barracks in province bombed leading it
            to ask for peace
May 30 Baghdad mayor and army officers approached British embassy asking for armistice
May 30 German Ambassador to Iraq Grobba fled to Mosul Told German Foreign Minister
Ribbentrop Iraqis still in the fight Ribbentrop said that more planes would arrive by June 1 Grobba said because of lack of fuel German planes would have to operate from Syria

May 31 Mayor of Baghdad worked out peace treaty with British surrendering city
May 31 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            and told Jews to stay in homes
May 31 German ambassador to Iraq told Berlin UK-Iraq armistice signed False rumor British
            seized Mosul airport forced him to flee to Syria
May 31 German High Command told German planes heading to and based in Iraq to
            gather in Aleppo until further notice

Jun 1 Regent of Iraq returned to power after PM Gaylani overthrown by British
Jun 1 497 Iraqi soldiers killed and 695 wounded British lost 150 troops during Anglo-
            Iraq War
Jun 1 Regent welcomed at airport by group of Jews from Baghdad who were attacked
            on way home that violence continued into capital
Jun 1 Farhud anti-Jewish pogrom in Baghdad started Around 120 people killed and
            850 wounded
Jun 1 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader who appointed himself governor of southern Iraq
            planned pogrom against Jews but deported by British
Jun 1 British troops barred from entering Baghdad during Farhud UK Foreign Office
            thought it would look bad for Regent to return to power backed by English troops
Jun 1 German Gen Felmy head of military mission to Iraq arrived in Syria after Anglo-
            Iraq War was over

Jun 2 Jamil al-Midfai named PM in new govt after PM Gaylani overthrown by British
            Declared martial law
Jun 2 Anti-Jewish pogrom the Farhud in Baghdad continued until curfew imposed 187
            killed in 2 days
Jun 2 Regent of Iraq Ilah ordered end to Farhud
Jun 2 British intelligence officer asked why British troops were sent to Baghdad to stop
            the Farhud Thought London didn’t want to upset the Regent
Jun 2 UK 20th Indian Brigade ordered from Basra to Baghdad to help secure area

Jun 3 3rd train load of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul after war ended
Jun 3 British troops occupied Mosul after overthrowing Gaylani govt

Jun 5 British forces occupied Kirkuk

Jun 6 British forces sent to Haditha and pushed insurgents led by Qawujki into Syria

Jun 7 British forces crossed from Iraq into Syria attempting to capture German diplomat
            Dr. Grobba

Jun 8 British campaign started against Vichy French in Syria using troops in Iraq
            Germany used Syria to supply pro-Ger Gaylani govt in Iraq

Jun 9 Another British brigade landed in Basra

Jun 10 British air force destroyed train shipment of German military aid heading for
            Iraq from Syria Anglo-Iraq War already over

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

Jul 14 PM Midfai declared martial law in Sulaymaniya to stop revolt by Barzani

Aug 25 British forces in Basra and Diyala invaded Iran where Shah refused to expel Germans
            spreading Axis propaganda

Oct 9 Nuri al-Said became PM 3rd time Went after supporters of former PM Gaylani
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Moement in Irq 1939-1941 on Said govt)
(Musings On Iraq book review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958 on Said govt)

1942
Jan 6 Court sentenced former PM Gaylani and 3 Golden Square colonels to death in
            absentia

Oct 8 PM Nuri al-Said formed a new cabinet

1943
Jan 16 Iraq declared war on Axis

Jan 20 Fmr PM Gaylani in exile in Germany made radio broadcast claiming Iraq still
            in state of war with England

Jul 1 Mustafa Barzani led rebellion against govt Iraqi troops backed by British airplanes
            suppressed revolt by Oct 1945

Dec 25 PM Nuri al-Said formed his 3rd cabinet Made Mullah Mustafa Barzani
Minister of Kurdish Affairs in failed attempt to co-opt him and end his revolt

1944
Feb 16 Parliamentary Party formed mostly of large land holding sheikhs Supported
            whatever govt Regent backed

Jun 3 Hamdi al-Pachachi became PM

Sep 9 Iraq and Soviet Union established diplomatic relations

1945
Sep 4 Iraqi forces launched new assault upon Kurdish forces in Barzan

Dec 27 Regent of Iraq gave speech promising political reform improved social
            security fighting employment, redistribution of wealth

1946
Feb 23 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM for 2nd time Was supposed to carry out Regent’s
            reform program

Mar 29 Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Would cooperate over Tigris and Euphrates
            security education communication economies

May 30 PM Suwaidi resigned over controversy over Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Nuri
            al-Said negotiated treaty without consulting with govt

Apr 2 National Democratic Party and Istiqlal/Independence Party licensed Became major
            opposition parties during monarchy

Jun 1 Arshad al-Umari became PM of Iraq, would hold office 2 times

Jul 3 Oil workers in Kirkuk led by Communists held meetings about their work conditions Led to
strike
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jul 12 Police tried breaking Communist oil worker strike in Kirkuk Fired on workers killing 8
wounding 50 Killing of workers condemned by press PM Umari govt shut down papers as a result Incident helped lead to fall of PM Umari’s govt in November
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Aug 16 KDP founded by Mustafa Barzani and Hamzah Abdullah
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Nov 21 PM Umari forced to resign in aftermath of Kirkuk Massacre where oil strikers killed
Nov 21 Nuri al-Said became PM 4th time
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

1947
Mar 29 Sayid Salih Jabr became PM 1st Shiite PM of Iraq

Apr 26 Iraq left San Francisco Conference on creating UN to protest creation of Israel

Apr 28 Mustafa Barzani and 500 supporters returned to Iraq from Iran

May 27 Month after returning to Iraq Mustafa Barzani started another revolt against govt

Jun 15 Mustafa Barzani revolt against govt put down and he fled to Soviet Union

Jun 29 Baghdad hung four of Barzanis lieutenants and arrested his brother Shekh Ahmed

Nov 28 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamail told UN that creation of Israel would lead to
            unrest in Middle East

1948
Jan 3 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamali said that Iraq was sensitive about the 1930 Anglo-
            Iraq Treaty
Jan 3 Independence Party held meeting and decided to protest against govt and 1930
            Anglo-Iraq Treat

Jan 4 Students in Baghdad protested against 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty Broken up by
            police

Jan 6 College students went on strike in Baghdad after police broke up Jan 4 protest
            over 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Jan 8 College student strike in Baghdad ended when arrested students were released by
            police

Jan 15 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty signed British troops withdrew but Iraq tied to England
            until 1973 Led to more protests
Jan 15 One version of Anglo-Iraq Treaty included speeding arms sales to Iraq including
automatic weapons for Iraqi police that were really going to be turned over to Palestinians Also included Iraqi forces taking over all the areas the British withdrew from in Palestine to prevent creation of a Jewish state Was not included in final version of treaty

Jan 16 Communists led protests against new Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by police 4
            killed Led to large sectors of country to turn against treaty
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jan 19 Kurds from Iraq and Iran met in Baku, Soviet Union Mustafa Barzani led plans
            for Kurdish movement

Jan 20 March by railway workers and students against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by
            police killing some demonstrators Organized by Communists
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jan 21 Demonstrators against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon again Led Regent to
            repudiate treaty

Jan 23 More protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty this time leading to fights between
            Communists and Independence party
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jan 26 PM Said said that Anglo-Iraq Treaty was still on the table after Regent rejected it
            Led to new protests Said ordered suppression of demonstrations

Jan 27 Communists called for more protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty to try to topple
govt Mass demonstrations led to clashes with police who opened fire in Baghdad 77 killed Hundreds wounded
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jan 29 PM Jabr forced to resign over protests over Anglo-Iraq treaty organized by Communists
            Regent also against Jabr
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jan 29 Sayid Mohammed al-Sadr replaced him as PM

Mar 18 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 4 Port of Basra strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 6 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 14 2nd Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

1948 ARAB-ISRAELI WAR

Apr 20 Operation Hametz began with Jewish forces attacking Arab villages held by
            Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab-Israeli War

Apr 23 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 29 Battle of Katamon begins between Jewish forces attacking Iraqi volunteers and
            Arab Legion

Apr 30 Jewish forces took Jaffa, and 7 other towns held by Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab
            Israeli War

May 1 Iraqi volunteers defeated by Jewish forces in Battle of Katamon

May 2 Port of Basra protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 12 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 15 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty
May 15 Iraq Egypt Jordan Syria armies entered into Palestine to join in 1948 Arab-
            Israeli War Iraqi army attacked Kibbutz Gesher in northern Palestine
May 15 Baghdad declared martial law due to war but was really aimed at ending protests
            over Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 18 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 22 Iraqi army defeated in Battle of Gesher and retreated to West Bank

May 25 Iraqi forces took Geulim and reached Kfar Yona and Ein Vered

May 29 Battle of Jenin between Jewish and Iraqi forces started

Jun 1 Jewish forces attacked Iraqi positions in Jenin but were turned back

Jun 26 Muzahim al-Pachachi became PM

Aug 28 Jews forbidden to work in banking or foreign currency transactions after creation
            of Israel

Oct 8 Export-import licenses for Jewish businesses forbidden after creation of Israel

Oct 19 All Jewish govt workers fired after creation of Israel

Dec 2 Baghdad told oil companies they should not employ Jews after creation of Israel

1949
Jan 6 Student strikes starte at College of Medicine Pharmaceutical College Law College in Bagdhad
while protests started in Hillah Najaf Basra Kirkuk Sulaymaniya Communists played leding role
Jan 6 Nuri al-Said became PM for 5th time Told parliament his main job was dealing with
Communists
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Feb 10 Communist Party Chairman Fahad and 2 politburo members convicted and sentenced
to death for leading party
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Feb 14 Communist Chairman Farhad hanged by PM Said to try to squash opposition protests
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Feb 15 2 Communist polituburo members hanged by PM Said to put down protests
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Feb 19 PM Said said Jews had been mistreated in Iraq and warned that things could get
            worse for them due to Israel

Dec 10 Ali Aiyubi became PM for 2nd time

1950
Jan 7 British memo said Iraqi Military Mission in Damascus was preparing for coup in
            Damascus to join Iraq and Syria
(Musings On Iraq book review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

Feb 5 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM 3rd time 5 of his 11 ministers were Shiites

Mar 4 Denaturalization law allowed Jews to leave Iraq if gave up citizenship

Mar 7 Opposition MPs left parliament claiming they were being silenced in assembly
            Were hoping to cause protests and bring down PM Suwaidi’s govt but failed

Mar 8 105,000 Iraqi Jews registered to immigrate to Israel Almost 40,000 had already
            immigrated under new govt law allowing immigration

May 10 Grenade thrown at car company owned by Jews in Baghdad 4 injured 2nd of 7
such attacks on Jews 1950-51 Iraq prosecuted Jews claiming Zionist plot to get Jews to move to Israel Opponents argued that most Jews had already signed up to leave Iraq so no need to scare them into going

May 20 1st flight of Near East Air Transport Took Iraqi Jews to Israel Airline was owned
by Jewish Agency who worked to get Jews to move to Israel When Israel created Iraqi govt banned immigration Mar 1950 govt allowed temporary immigration for one year Stripped Jews of Iraqi citizenship and govt confiscated their property
May 20 Note from Lebanese Amb in Baghdad to Syrian Foreign Minister Bey said Iraq
            wanted to seize Syria
(Musings On Iraq book review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

Jun 3 Grenade attack in Jewish neighborhood of Baghdad 3rd of 7 such attacks on Jews
            1950-51

Jul 15 Cabinet resigned when PM Suwaidi complained his brother not appointed head of
Cassation Court Stayed in office because Regent out of country and couldn’t call for new govt

Aug 21 Nuri al-Said threatened to revoke license of transport company if didn’t fill
            quota of shipping 500 Jews out of Iraq per day

Sep 15 Nuri al-Said became PM 6th time
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

Sep 18 PM Said threatened to expel Jews from Iraq over Israel

1951
Jan 14 Grenade thrown at Baghdad synagogue 4 killed 10 wounded 4th of 7 such attacks
            on Jews 1950-51

Mar 14 Grenade hit American Cultural Center in Baghdad wounding some Jewish visitors
            5th of 8 such attacks on Jews 1950-51

Mar 19 Grenade hit US information office in Baghdad

Jun 5 Grenade hit Jewish car dealership in Baghdad 6th of 7 such attacks on Jews 1950-51

Jul 17 Iraq made last payment to Turkey of oil revenues in return for giving up claims to
            Mosul after WWI

Aug 13 PM Said signed deal with Iraq Petroleum Company to split pre-tax profits 50-50 with
            Iraqi govt

1952
Jul 15 Mustafa al-Umari became PM

Aug 23 Communist led strike at Basra port over pay Broken up by police Started year of
            Protests called Intifada
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Oct 26 Baghdad Pharmacy College strike over exams Turned into riot that spread to other cities 

Nov 17 Opposition parties agreed to coordinating committee to lead strikes Started Intifada

Nov 22 Baghdad protests against Regent Started 1952 Intifada Communists one of main organizers
Clashes with police led to 1 dead 52 wounded Led to PM Umari resigning
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Nov 23 Gen Mahmoud formed new military govt and declared martial law to put down protests
Police stations and US Info Library in Baghdad burned Clashes with army killed 12 wounded 25
Nov 23 Nuredin Mahmoud became premier in new military govt


Nov 24 Soldiers opened fire on protests against Regent of Iraq killing 18 and wounding 84

1953
Jan 29 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 5th time

May 2 King Faisall II became of age to directly rule Iraq replacing Regent al-Ilah

Sep 17 Mohammed al-Jamali became PM Cabinet included 7 Shiites most ever Presented
reform package which parliament rejected eventually bringing down his govt

1954
Jan 28 PM Jamali ended martial law imposed Nov 1953

Apr 19 PM Jamali resigned over disagreement with Nuri al-Said about Syrian elections
Jamali wanted to influence vote with propaganda Said thought that waste of money
(Musings On Iraq book review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

Apr 29 Arshad al-Umari became PM for 2nd time

Jun 9 Regent dissolved parliament and new elections held

Jun 10 Police fired on demonstrators in Baghdad organized by opposition parties

Jun 17 PM Umari resigned so he could go on annual vacation to Turkey to escape summer
            heat in Iraq

Jun 20 Police fired on demonstrators in Baghdad organized by opposition parties

Jun 27 Parliament dismissed as part of Nuri al-Said’s demands before he returned as premier  

Aug 3 Nuri al-Said became Iraq’s PM 7th time Went after opposition parties 

Sep 1 PM Said started crackdown on opposition Withdrew nationality from Communists
            Allowed prosecution of Communist supporters Limited rights of political parties
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Sep 12 New parliamentary elections held Over 100 parliamentarians ran unopposed Ensured
            Nuri al-Said of govt he wanted so he could sign Baghdad Pact

1955
Feb 24 Iraq signed security treaty with Turkey which UK eventually joined Would become anti-
Communist Baghdad Pact Iraq got control of Habaniya and Shaiba air bases from England UK would come to aid of Iraq in war and continue with military supplies under treaty Was attempt by UK to maintain its position in the region

Sep 23 Iran joined Iraq, England, Turkey security agreement Would become anti-Communist
Baghdad Pact

Nov 3 Pakistan joined Iraq, Turkey, England, Iran security agreement that became Baghdad Pact
            Egypt’s Nasser opposed deal Started cold war between Nasser and PM Said

1956
Jan 8 Interior Minister announced conspiracy against govt by Egypt Based upon evidence
Egypt involved in bombings of Turkish embassy in Baghdad and assassination attempt on PM Said

Nov 1 Iraq filed complaint with England over Suez Crisis and imposed martial law to try to stop
protests

Nov 5 Encouraged by Egypt and Syria along with Communists and opposition parties protests strikes
and riots broke out in Baghdad Mosul Najaf over Suez crisis
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Nov 11 Communists issued manifesto saying violence might be necessary for Iraq’s circumstances
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Dec 21 Communist uprising in Al-Hay put down and leaders executed
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

1957
Jan 5 Iraq backed Eisenhower Doctrine to oppose communism in Middle East

Jun 15 Nuri al-Said made cover of Time magazine

Jun 30 Ali Aiyubi became PM 3rd time

Oct 12 Meeting at Ayatollah Muhsin Hakim’s house founding Dawa Party
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

Dec 15 Abdul-Wahab Mirjan became premier Cabinet included 3 Kurdish ministers

1958
Feb 1 Egypt and Syria created United Arab Republic PM Said afraid pan-Arabists
would overthrow his govt so Iraq could join Republic Syria suggested union with Egypt out of fear that Iraq was trying to forge coup or overthrow govt and take over country
(Musings On Iraq book review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

Feb 11 Jordan began talks with Iraq for a federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic

Feb 14 Iraq and Jordan announced Arab Federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s
            United Arab Republic Kuwait asked to join but said no

Mar 3 Nuri al-Said became PM for 8th time
(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

May 19 Ahmad Baban became PM Was a Kurd

Jul 13 Col Arif gained control of 20th Brigade and began march towards Baghdad from
            Diyala to start 1958 coup

Jul 14 Free Officers led 1958 coup overthrowing King Faisal II and Iraq’s monarchy
Jul 14 Gen Qasim became head of state King Faisal II and family were killed

Jul 15 Deposed PM Nuri al-Said executed by Free Officers His body was later dug up,
hung and burned in Baghdad streets Regents body taken from royal palace Mutilated Dragged through Baghdad streets


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