Iraq Monarchy Era (1932-58)

This timeline covers the rule of the Iraqi monarchy after Iraqi independence in 1932 up to its overthrow in the 1958 coup.

 

Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Statesman, A portrait of Mohammed Fadhel Jamali

Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny

Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958

Musings On Iraq review Hawker Hunters At War, Iraq and Jordan, 1958-1967

Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941

Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq

Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941

Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad

Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War

Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941

Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam

Musings On Iraq review Oil and Democracy in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Ropes of Sand, America’s Failure in the Middle East

Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II

Musings On Iraq review Understanding Iraq, the Whole Sweep of Iraqi History, from Genghis Khan’s Mongols to the Ottoman Turks to the British Mandate to the American Occupation

Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between Occupations, Perspectives from 1920 to the Present

Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies

Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970

Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970

Musings On Iraq review The Making of Iraq 1900-1963, Capital, Power and Ideology

Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki

Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt

 

1932

Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from Britain

 

Nov 3 Naj Shawkat became Iraq’s PM 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Dec 2 King Faisal gave speech praised his rule in Syria and said if he was still king

            there Syria would be independent like Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Dec 12 Shiite leaders told Yasin Hashemi they would back him for PM if they got majority of

cabinet posts

 

Dec 15 League of Nations Mandate Comm rejected Assyrian petition for autonomy Said

            Iraqi govt would settle Assyrians within country or outside of it

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

1933

Mar 13 UK Amb to Iraq told King Faisal that trying to control opposition by including it in

govt only created dysfunctional govts and opposition were opposed to Iraq’s alliance with England and should be excluded

 

Mar 18 British official warned King Faisal was attempting to make himself dictator of Iraq

 

Mar 20 Rashid al-Gaylani became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 22 UK Amb to Iraq said that parliament full of politicians who never meant what they

            said Institution was a sham

 

May 28 Interior Ministry had Assyrian leader Mar Shimun come to Baghdad to discuss

differences with govt over settling community in north Interior said it was willing to acknowledge Mar Shimun as spiritual leader but would not give him any political power Said British officer arriving to help settle community Mar Shimun said he would help with settlement Pledged loyalty to King Faisal

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

May 31 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun wrote letter to King Faisal Said Interior Minister told him

            how the govt disliked him

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 10 Nuri al-Said ally Abd al-Razzaq al-Hassan published pamphlet claiming Shiites were more

Persian and therefore doubted they could support Arab nationalism Led to protests and then armed revolts in Najaf Karbala and other southern cities 3 provinces became ungovernable

 

Jun 24 Interior Minister would not let Assyrian leader Mar Shimun leave Baghdad after being in

            capital for nearly a month

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 25 Iraqi army sent to Dohuk in show of force against armed followers of Assyrian leader Mar

            Shimun

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 20 Mosul province told many Assyrians had left for Syria from Dohuk area

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 21 800 Assyrians left Mosul province for Syria asking for asylum from French because didn't

want to be part of Iraq Assyrian leader Mar Shimun denied he was involved Iraqi army sent to border crossing and told Assyrians they could only return to Iraq if they disarmed

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 23 Iraq asked France to impose treaty between two to remove Assyrians from Syrian border and

disarm them

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 26 Iraq-French meeting Iraq told new border meant Assyrians who tried to get into Syria

            were actually still in Iraq French didn't want them in Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 27 French forbid anymore Assyrians entering Syria

1933 Iraq asked French to impose treaty between two to remove Assyrians from Iraq-Syrian border

and disarm them for 2nd time

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 29 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun wrote letter to Interior Minister saying he was being detained

He would help settle Assyrians but if govt did nothing he would go to League of Nations and advocate for Assyrians to leave Iraq Letter sent to ambassadors in Iraq embarrassing govt

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 30 Report French disarmed many Assyrians who had tried to get into Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 2 Iraqis met with French again Told Assyrians couldn’t stay in Syria Assyrians had

been disarmed voluntarily Only 415 had gone to Syria Were another 350 on border on Iraqi side Iraqis asked whether Assyrians would be given back weapons when returned but French said nothing

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 4 French deported Assyrians who had fled to Syria Iraqi troops sent to meet Assyrians and

disarm them Assyrians attacked army camp upon return to Iraq believing army was going to kill them 33 soldiers killed 40 wounded Over 500 Assyrians crossed back into Syria and were arrested by French Assyrians caught on Iraqi side were executed by army

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 6 Assyrians captured by Kurds trying to return from Syria turned over to army and

executed Gen Sidqi said retaliation for Assyrian attack on army camp Rumors spread that Assyrians blown up bridges and poisoned water

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 8 Iraqi army began executing Assyrian males captured in Bekher Mountains and looting

their villages Mayor of Zakho began disarming Assyrians in town Kurds joined in looting in Zakho Head of Zakho went to Sumail and told Assyrians to disarm even though not in his district

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 9 Shammar and Jabour tribes attacked 60 Assyrian villages south of Dohuk

            Captured males given to Iraqi army who executed them

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 10 Kurds and Arabs looted Assyrian towns south of Dohuk Stole harvest from Sumail 

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 11 Interior Min Suleiman arrived in Mosul on news of Assyrian massacres Had

planes drop flyers telling Assyrians nothing would happen to them if they gave up to authorities

Aug 11 Assyrians in Zakho and Sumail were attacked by Iraqi army led by Gen Sidqi Fired

on village then divided women and children from men and executed the latter Found some men hiding amongst women and killed everyone Local Kurds looted Sumail after massacre Police later called back army to kill stragglers that had returned to Sumail 315 killed Iraqi govt considered Assyrians foreigners and tools of British imperialism for their service in the British Levies

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Aug 11 Arab Kurd Yazidi tribes looted Assyrian villages in Alqosh

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 12 Soldiers buried 315 Assyrians killed in Sumail raped women survivors they found

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 14 Interior Min Suleiman went to Dohuk and Amadiya to try to stop killing of

            Assyrians

Aug 14 3 days of looting of Assyrian villages in Alqosh by Kurd Arab and Yazidi tribes ended

Aug 14 Arabs attacked 2 Chaldean Christian villages near Assyrian ones in Alqosh

(Musings On Iraq review Christianity in Iraq)

 

Aug 15 King Faisal ordered Interior Min Suleiman to investigate massacre of Assyrians

            in Sumail

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 17 Surviving Assyrian women and children from Sumail sent to Dohuk and then

            Mosul

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 18 Iraqi army held victory parade and given award by Prince Ghazi for massacring

            Assyrians in north Total 60 villages looted and destroyed Around 600 killed

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 27 Iraqi govt sent letter to British newspaper claiming only a few Assyrian villages had

been emptied of people Baghdad had returned all stolen goods No truth to reports villages had been burned Was propaganda effort to cover up massacre of 600 Assyrians and 60 villages having been looted and destroyed

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Sep 8 King Faisal I died of heart attack in Europe

 

Nov 9 Jamil al-Midfai became PM, would hold office 5 times 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1934

Feb 21 PM Midfai announced new cabinet 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

 

Mar 31 Iraqi Communist Party founded

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Aug 27 Ali Ayubi became PM of Iraq, would hold office 3 times 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Nov 29 Border dispute between Iraq and Persia escalated

 

1935

Jan 15 Persia presented its case over border dispute to League of Nations Rejected

Iraq’s control of Shatt al-Arab and questioned standing of 1847 Treaty of Arzurum

 

Feb 23 PM Ayubi gave resignation to King Ghazi King asked Yashin al-Hashemi to form new govt

but exclude Rashid Ali al-Gaylani and Hikmat Sulaiman because they were agitating mid-Euphrates tribes Hashemi became disillusioned with Ghazi and proposed someone else from Hashemite family to take his place Hashemi dissolved political parties Spied on rivals Pushed authoritarianism 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 4 Jamil al-Midfai became PM of Iraq 2nd time PM 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 13 PM Midfai sent army unit from Hilla to Diwaniya to crush tribal uprising Head of army

Hashemi said army took weak to deal with uprising Revolt instigated by politicians opposed to Midfai

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 15 PM Midfai resigned over tribal revolt in Diwaniya King Ghazi asked Yasin

al-Hashemi to form new govt Hashemi plotted to bring down Midfai 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 17 Yasin al-Hashemi became PM of Iraq 2nd time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets Called in sheikhs

from Diwaniya and negotiated end of revolt

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 21 UK report Baghdad afraid to deploy army because didn’t trust it especially because

            much of the rank and file were Shiites

 

Apr 20 Duweilim tribe fired on train in Rumaitha Demanded govt end confiscation of land

            and exempt tribes from conscription Govt refused and Iraqi air force bombed tribe

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

May 2 Police attacked tribal revolt in Rumaitha Air force bombed area

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

May 2 Faisal II future king of Iraq born

 

May 5 Iraqi army and air force attacked tribal revolt in Rumaitha

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

May 6 Govt arrested cleric Asadallah follower of Ayatollah Ghita who had been

demanding concessions from govt Led to revolt by Abu Hassan, Bani Zurayij and Zawalim tribes against monarchy

 

May 7 Sheikh Ahmad Asadullah follower of leading cleric Shiite cleric Ghita called

for his followers in Rumaitha to revolt against govt 3 other tribes revolted in Diwaniya

 

May 9 Iraqi air force dropped flyers telling tribes to end revolt in Diwaniya or govt

would punish them Tribes refused Govt started bombing area Martial law declared Rumaitha Gen Sidqi put in command of putting down revolt

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

May 11 Iraq air force bombed rebel villages in Diwaniya held by Abu Hassan Bani

            Zurayij and Zawalim tribes

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

May 13 Muntafiq tribe joined revolt against monarchy

 

May 14 Iraqi army and air force began campaign to bomb tribal areas destroy towns

            and burn crops to put down tribal revolt in Rumaitha

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

May 15 Tribes seized Suq al-Shuyukh and cut railway between Basra and Nasiriya

            during revolt against govt

 

Jun 5 Govt launched final offensive on Duweilim tribe in Rumaitha and ended revolt Tribe

            suffered around 300 casualties

 

Jun 12 National Service Bill signed by King starting conscription for army King

hoped conscription would help with nation building by creating army drawn from all parts of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Jun 19 UK Ambassador to Iraq said King Ghazi was a playboy who was completely

            absorbed by his hobbies and neglected his country

 

Nov 28 UK Foreign Office rejected King Faisal mediate Palestine dispute believing he

            had aspirations over territory

 

1936

Feb 15 Def Ministry complained that UK War Office ignored arms purchases and

            deliveries and that was undermining Iraqi army

 

Apr 19 Palestinian general strike began Nuri al-Said offered to mediate between Palestinians Jews

and UK Believed he could make a grand deal to solve Palestinian issue Believed Palestine could then be convinced to join Arab federation with Iraq under Hashemite monarchy 

 

Sep 19 British officials met with Nuri al-Said in Paris for two days Wanted to ask him to

help mediate Palestine dispute Turned out he just wanted to promote Iraq and his pan-Arab agenda

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

 

Oct 29 Planes dropped flyers over Baghdad demanding PM Yasin Hashemi’s resignation as troops

marched on capital in coup led by Sulaiman and Gen Sidqi PM Hashemi asked for King Ghazi’s support Sulaiman had been shut out of Hashemi’s govt and Sidqi thought he wouldn’t be promoted When didn't get it offered his resignation Parliament building bombed in coup Def Min Askari was assassinated by Gen Bakr Sidqi coup plotters Nuri al-Said Yasin Hashemi Rashid Ali al-Gaylani all fled Iraq fearing assassination after coup 1st coup in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Oct 30 Hikmat Sulaiman became PM of Iraq leading to 1st govt with pan-Arabists

out of power Sulaiman was hoping that new govt would lead to liberal reforms but General Sidqi wanted to maintain status quo General won and most of Sulaiman’s followers left govt 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Oct 30 Sulaiman govt banished former PM Hashemi, Rashid al-Gaylani, Jamil Midfai

            and Nuri al-Said

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

 

Nov 29 PM Sulaiman named new cabinet 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

 

1937

Jun 19 Pan-Arab military officers withdrew their support for head of army Gen Bakr Sidqi

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Jul 4 Iraq-Iran Frontier Treaty signed attempting to resolve border dispute Accepted demarcation

process that was done by Ottomans and Persians pre-WWI Set up commission to finish border and created a body to work out navigation of Shatt al-Arab most of which was given to Iraq Political instability in Baghdad and outbreak of WW2 meant treaty never implemented Treaty angered pan-Arabists and led to 1938 coup by Golden Square officers

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Jul 8 Sadabad Pact between Iraq Iran Turkey Afghanistan agreed to borders non-

            interference regional security

 

Jul 18 Treaty of Tehran Keeps 1913 Constantinople Protocol that gave Shatt al-Arab to Iraq Added

that border between Iran and Iraq ran along the thalweg in the Shatt al-Arab

 

Aug 11 Army Chief of Staff Gen Bakr Sidqi leader of 1933 Assyrian massacre and head of

1936 coup was assassinated in Mosul by his pan-Arab rivals in military PM Sulaiman ordered Mosul garrison commander Gen Umari to arrest officers responsible but he refused

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Aug 13 Gen Umari got support of military commanders in Kirkuk and Baghdad and issued

demands to PM Sulaiman included banishing officers from 1936 coup return of exiles removal of Gen Sidqi’s friends military court to investigate Sidqi assassination banned soldiers from politics

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Aug 17 PM Hikmat Sulaiman govt resigned over threat of military revolt by Mosul

Garrison commander Gen Umari Officers overthrew govt believing it had too many Kurds and Turks and not anti-imperialist Pan-Arabistis

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Aug 17 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 3rd time in deal with pan-Arab officers Gen Fawzi

became army chief of staff Promised to follow pan-Arabism support Arab nationalist officers End talks with Persia over Shatt al-Arab Midfai named Col Najib Defense Minister which angered pan-Arab officers Najib promoted Iraqi nationalist officers Midfai wanted to exonerate deposed Sulaiman govt Nuri al-Said wanted them punished Began plotting with army against Midfai 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

 

Oct 25 Nuri al-Said’s son told him to return from exile in Egypt after made contact with pan-Arab

Golden Square officers

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

1938

Jan 25 Nuri al-Said became PM for 2nd time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

 

May 1 Iraqi constitution Article 89a criminalized communism

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Sep 7 Iraq wrote UK saying Iran was threatening Shatt al-Arab waterway Iraq wanted outlet to sea

via Kuwait UK said Iran not threat because ally and Kuwait wouldn’t allow canal through its territory

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

 

Dec 24 Golden Square army colonels overthrew PM Jamil Midfai for trying to remove pan-Arab

officers Backed by Nuri al-Said who became PM and Taha al-Hashemi who became Minister of Defense Rashid al-Gaylani became Chamberlain of Royal Office Said moved to punish ex-PM Sulaiman 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

1939

Feb 7 PM Said headed Iraqi delegation to London Conference on Palestine Believed Iraq could end

Palestinian issue Won support from pan-Arab officers

 

Feb 19 King Ghazi summoned army chief of staff Fawzi and ordered invasion of Kuwait PM Said

reversed order

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

 

Mar 1 PM Said claimed coup attempt to remove King Ghazi by fmr PM Sulaiman and

Gen Sidqi followers in army Many didn’t believe there was any coup Said just getting revenge on his political enemies Fmr PM Sulaiman given death sentence for coup plot Commuted to five years imprisonment upon intervention of British ambassador

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 30 King Ghazi gave pan-Arab speech saying he was interested in Arab brothers in Syria

            Palestine Kuwait

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

 

Apr 3 King Ghazi died in car accident King Faisal II took power but was only 3 His cousin Abd

al-Ilah chosen to rule in his place

Apr 3 Ger Amb to Iraq Gobba spread rumors that England behind Ghazi’s death Led to

            riot in Mosul that sacked British consulate and killed consular

 

Apr 4 Death of King Ghazi publicly announced PM Said resigned

 

Apr 5 Illah asked Nuri al-Said to become PM again

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Apr 6 Abd al-Illah became Regent of Iraq to rule in place of infant King Ghazi Gained position with

backing of UK and PM Said

 

May 23 After British White Paper on Palestine passed PM Said tried but failed to convince the Mufti

of Jerusalem to support it

 

Jun 12 Regent Ilah gave speech supporting British White Paper on Palestine Was part of his pro-

British policy

 

Sep 1 PM Said said that all Iraqi railways rivers ports and airfields could be used by British under

Anglo-Iraq Treaty after German invasion of Poland

 

Sep 2 British asked Iraq to break ties with Germany Intern all Germans Provide aid if needed

 

Sep 3 PM Said advocated declaring war on German after British did Interior Min announced it would

censor all news due to outbreak of WWII

 

Sep 5 PM Said broke relations with Germany as WWII started Didn’t consult with Golden Square

officers that wanted concessions from British first Also arrested all Germans in Iraq and deported them to India

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Sep 9 Mufti of Jerusalem who was living in Baghdad sent proposal to Italy Said in return

for Italian support for Arab nationalism and aid in Palestine Iraq would give it and Germany access to its oil block England from sending troops through Iraqi territory and secret treaty with Baghdad Proposal was first sent to Germans Italians had given to Mufti before with few results so had no confidence in him Germans were willing to give money and weapons to him if Italy agreed It did

 

Oct 18 German ambassador to Turkey told Iraq’s Finance Minister Shawkat Germany

supported Arabs but gave no specific promises or support

 

Nov 1 Report to UK cabinet said PM Gaylani had to be dealt with because of

            contacts with Germany and refusal to sever ties with Italy

Nov 1 UK Chiefs of Staff recommended removing Gaylani via diplomatic moves

 

Nov 7 British cabinet decided to send emissary to Iraq to demand Regent remove PM

            Gaylani from power for his overtures to Axis

 

Dec 5 US Amb to Iraq sent not to PM Gaylani saying he was worried about direction of

            Iraq-English relations because of Gaylani’s overtures to the Axis

 

Dec 15 Foreign Minister Said wrote memo to PM Gaylani and Regent that Iraq had to

            back England and US during WW2

 

1940

Feb 18 PM Said resigned over growing problems with pan-Arabist Golden Square officers

Said wanted Gaylani to become PM and he would become Foreign Minister to maintain pro-British policies Golden Square officers objected to idea because didn’t want Said and Gen Taha Hashemi included Went to Regent calling for their exclusion from new govt Regent disagreed and had Gen Umari Mosul garrison commander retire as a result

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Feb 20 Gen Umari Mosul garrison commander attempted coup rather than be forced

            to resign by Regent Put down by Golden Square officers

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Feb 22 Nuri al-Said named PM again 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

 

Mar 28 Nuri al-Said convinced Golden Square officers to get Gaylani to form new

            govt Said would become Foreign Minister

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 30 Regent had one of the Golden Square officers ordered to Diwaniya He refused

order Was pushed by UK to try to break up pan-Arab officers in army

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 31 Rashid Ali al-Gailani became PM in deal with Nuri al-Said and Golden Square officers 1922-

58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

May 25 Iraq Foreign Minister Said said England and France should grant Syria and

            Palestine independence to counter Axis propaganda

 

Jun 6 Churchill wrote War Sec Eden saying he wanted Indian brigades sent to Iraq to

            show British strength Told no troops available

 

Jun 10 Italy declared war on Allies England asked Iraq to break relations with Rome as

            a result

 

Jun 12 UK For Sec Lord Halifax told War Cabinet situation in Iraq gotten worse due to

German victories in France German and Italian propaganda had been using Arab anger over Palestine and Syria against UK Few now believed that UK could protect them Arabs wanted to be on winning side in war

 

Jun 26 PM Gaylani asked Italy to become involved in Syria to block Turkey occupying it

            Came after Syria joined Vichy France

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

 

Jun 28 Italian Amb told Iraq it wanted an independent Syria Lebanon and Iraq as well Ambassador

didn’t check with foreign office beforehand

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Jul 1 UK Cabinet decided to send division from India to Basra to pressure PM Gaylani who refused

to break relations with Italy and demanded changes to Anglo-Iraq Treaty UK Mideast Cmdr Gen Wavell opposed idea saying it would make situation worse Cabient cancelled deployment

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Jul 4 Regent of Iraq asked England to occupy Syria that had joined Vichy France so that

            pan-Arab union could be formed of Iraq Syria and other Arab countries

 

Jul 5 PM Gaylani made overture to Germany by sending Justice Minister Shawkat to meet

German Ambassador to Turkey von Papen Papen said that Middle East was Italy’s sphere of influence so Germany could only act as an intermediary Shawkat said Iraq wanted Germany to stop Italian imperialism from expanding in Middle East and support pan-Arabism instead Papen said Iraq should contribute to war vs England and Shawkat said that would happen Shawkat asked for Syrian govt to be restored and aid in Palestine

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Jul 10 England decided to send Indian Div to Basra after PM Gaylani wanted to block British troops

moving through Iraq as part of Anglo-Iraq Treaty UK Middle East commander Gen Wavell afraid sending troops to Iraq would destabilize region so had unit sent to Egypt instead

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Sep 9 Mufti of Jerusalem who was living in Baghdad sent proposal to Italy Said in return

for Italian support for Arab nationalism and aid in Palestine Iraq would give it and Germany access to its oil block England from sending troops through Iraqi territory and secret treaty with Baghdad Proposal was first sent to Germans Italians had given money to Mufti before with few results so had no confidence in him Germans were willing to give money and weapons to him if Italy agreed It did

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

 

Oct 18 German ambassador to Turkey told Iraq’s Finance Minister Shawkat Germany supported

Arabs but gave no specific promises or support

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Oct 10 UK official told UK Amb Iraqi politicians pan-Arab London unwilling to change Palestine

policy meant Iraq would be lukewarm towards UK until it started winning in WWII

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

Nov 1 Report to UK cabinet said PM Gaylani had to be dealt with because of contacts with Germany

and refusal to sever ties with Italy

Nov 1 UK Chiefs of Staff recommended removing Gaylani via diplomatic moves

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Nov 7 British cabinet decided to send emissary to Iraq to demand Regent remove PM

            Gaylani from power for his overtures to Axis

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Dec 5 US Amb to Iraq sent note to PM Gaylani saying he was worried about direction of Iraq-

English relations because of Gaylani’s overtures to the Axis

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Dec 15 Foreign Minister Said wrote memo to PM Gaylani and Regent that Iraq had to back England

during WW2

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Dec 17 Regent called cabinet meeting telling them they lacked unity to run govt PM Gaylani

rejected Regent’s criticism and blamed problems on For Min Said Later in day Regent asked Gaylani to resign He refused Pro-Said MPs criticized Gaylani PM asked Regent to dismiss parliament

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

1941

Jan 28 Regent of Iraq appointed 2 new ministers to try to dismiss PM Gaylani leading to

            Gaylani to plot against Regent

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

Jan 30 Regent of Iraq fled Baghdad for Diwaniya fearing retaliation by PM Gaylani

Jan 30 British were hoping to use Regent fleeing to spread unrest in Iraq to remove PM

            Gaylani from power

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Jan 31 PM Gaylani stepped down fearing civil war due to his reaching out to Axis that had split

govt and angered British

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Jan 31 UK Foreign Office decided to give money to Regent to help him return to power

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

Feb 3 Regent asked Gen Taha al-Hashemi to become PM Hoped he could control Golden Square

officers

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Feb 7 Germany told Italy it was thinking of arming Iraq and was going to give money to

            Mufti of Jerusalem who was living in Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Feb 28 Mufti of Jerusalem Pan-Arab Golden Square officers Rashid al-Gaylani had secret meeting

Decided to remove PM Hashemi if he insisted on ending relations with Italy Golden Square decided to replace PM Hashemi with Gaylani if he would not change policy on Italy Agreed on no concessions to England Refused to break relations with Italy Would expel pro-British politicians

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 7 Head of Political Dept at German Foreign Ministry Ernest Woermann argued that Berlin

should find ways to send arms to Iraq but that Baghdad should not declare war on UK because couldn’t win

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Mar 17 After consulting with UK Foreign Minister Suwaidi convinced PM Hashemi and Regent to

move against Golden Square officers Golden Square called on army to overthrow Hashemi

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 21 Regent told UK Amb that he would dismiss PM Hashemi govt if it didn’t deal with

            Golden Square officers

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 30 Regent had PM Hashemi send one of the Golden Square officers to Diwaniya He refused

order

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Mar 31 Golden Square officers decided to remove PM Hashemi in coup

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Apr 1 PM Hashemi deposed in Golden Square officers’ coup after Hashemi tried

to remove them Army surrounded royal palace but Regent escaped to Anbar with help of US ambassador Nuri al-Said and other pro-British politicians fled Iraq

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

Apr 1 US and England believed Iraq coup part of German plan in coordination with

            invasion of Balkans and Libya Wasn’t

Apr 1 Golden Square officers thought British were plotting against them

 

Apr 2 Regent of Iraq arrived at British airbase at Habaniya Anbar after Golden Square officers tried

to arrest him after coup Regent tried and failed to organize resistance to coup in Basra Then fled to Jordan

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Apr 3 Golden Square officers picked Gaylani to become PM for 3rd time Started arresting

            pro-British politicians

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

Apr 3 British War Office asked commander in Middle East what forces available

for Iraq after Golden Square military coup

Apr 3 Nazi Germany sent letter saying it supported the Golden Square coup and would

            lend military aid

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

Apr 4 British called new Gaylani govt illegal and distributed copies of message by Regent

            to resist

Apr 4 Ultra intel in UK intercepted message from Italian amb in Tehran that Rome and

            Berlin were going to send arms to Iraq via Syria

Apr 4 UK Chiefs of Staff asked Middle East commander Gen Wavell how many troops he

            could spare for Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

Apr 6 British commander in Iraq asked for military reinforcements from Egypt but

turned down

Apr 6 Iraq banned British military from moving from Habaniya base Confiscated

            radios from British Military Mission

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 7 UK Middle East commander Gen Wavell told War Office military intervention in

Iraq not possible and diplomacy should be used instead Wavell thought Regent of Iraq could be restored to power by strong statement and show of force by Royal Air Force

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 8 UK Joint Planning Staff said all measures should be taken to overthrown PM Gaylani

Apr 8 Churchill ordered Secretary of State for India to put together a military force to

            send to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

Apr 8 German Foreign Office said it supported Arab action against British for their

Freedom

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 9 German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop was told Gaylani govt was pro-Axis and

Germany working on getting it arms from region Ribbentrop okayed arms shipments to Gaylani govt and sabotage in Iraq and region against English

Apr 9 Germany and Italy made joint statement of support for PM Gaylani promising

            military and financial aid Encouraged Gaylani to confront England

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 10 London ordered India to send forces to Shaiba air base and Basra

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

Apr 10 British expeditionary force put together in India to be sent to Iraq to deal with PM Gaylani

Apr 10 PM Gaylani convened parliament and asked it to pick new Regent Selected

            Sharif Sharaf veteran of Arab revolt and relative of Hashemite family

Apr 10 PM Gaylani gave speech at parliament that his govt would honor Anglo-Iraq Treaty

            of 1930 to stall British action against him

Apr 10 Hitler decided to give military aid to Iraq

Apr 10 Italian ambassador to Iraq said Golden Square coup sign Iraq believed Axis was

            winning WW2 and would soon be in Middle East

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Apr 11 UK Ambassador to Iraq wrote that PM Gaylani’s speech that he would honor Anglo-Iraq

Treaty deprived England of its best excuse against his govt and that his will should be tested by telling him British troops would be landing soon in Basra and travelling through Iraq which was right under treaty

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 12 British convoy left India for Basra with infantry brigade Then told its arrival would

            be delayed until PM Gaylani told troops arriving to test his will

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 13 UK decided to go ahead with troop deployments to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 16 Britain told Iraq that troops would be landing in Basra soon under Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 16 PM Gaylani agreed to allow British troops landing in Basra but demanded that

they immediately set out for Palestine or Egypt

Apr 16 German letter arrived saying it would support Iraq revolt against British

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 17 PM Gaylani asked Germany for military aid in case of war with British

Apr 17 British naval convoy moved towards Shatt al-Arab waterway in Basra

Apr 17 British battalion from India started arriving at Shaibah air base

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 18 Britain landed 20th Infantry Brigade in Basra Dock workers went on strike

Apr 18 British battalion from India completed deployment to Shaibah air base

Apr 18 PM Gaylani asked Italian Amb if Axis would give Iraq military aid against

            British and Axis air power 1st time Iraq asked for military intervention from Axis

Apr 18 PM Gaylani asked UK Amb that no more British troops land in Iraq and they all

            had to leave Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 19 British 20th Infantry Brigade finished its landing in Basra and 7 planes flown into

            Habaniya airbase

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 20 Churchill told Foreign Secretary Eden that British troops landed in Iraq to

            establish a base in Basra to establish control of province

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

Apr 20 PM Gaylani told UK Amb that Iraqi forces in Basra would be reinforced to a full

            division Said UK had no right to land troops and keep them in Basra

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 21 PM Gaylani asked UK Amb that no more British troops land in Iraq and they all

            had to leave Iraq

Apr 21 Hitler told military aid to Iraq could only be delivered by air and that would require

stop in Syria which would need approval of Vichy France Hitler got intelligence of large British forces in Iraq and more arriving so was skeptical of providing aid to Gaylani govt

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 23 PM Gaylani asked for German military intervention in case of war with England

Apr 23 London decided to land an entire division from India in Basra

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 24 PM Gaylani and Mufti of Jerusalem met with Italian ambassador Told him they

            were angry Axis had done nothing to help Iraq vs British

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 25 Iraq-Italian treaty signed to provide financial and military aid to Iraq for war against

            UK Axis would get oil concessions and use ports and military bases

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 26 PM Gaylani asked Axis for military and financial aid against British

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 28 PM Gaylani and Golden Square officers decided to go to war with British Asked

            Axis for military and financial aid for second time to be used against British

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

Apr 28 UK Amb to Iraq told PM Gaylani second contingent of British troops landing

at Basra Gaylani refused them entry Amb ordered start of evacuation of British civilians from Iraq

Apr 28 364 British troops airlifted to Habaniya air base

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 29 More British troops from 20th Infantry Brigade arrived in Basra Iraq protested

Apr 29 British Ambassador told British women and children to leave Baghdad because

            of expected war with Iraq

Apr 29 PM Gaylani sent Iraqi forces to British air base at Habaniya Anbar 11th Inf Brigade

ordered to Baghdad to later be deployed to Anbar UK Emb in Baghdad informed UK forces in Habaniya Iraqi army heading their way

Apr 29 Iraqis flooded Habaniya area limiting movement of British troops there Occupied

Kirkuk oil fields Cut oil to Haifa and restarted flow to Lebanon for Vichy France that could be used by Axis

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Apr 30 PM Gaylani refused permission for British troops to land in Basra

Apr 30 2 brigades of Iraqi soldiers surrounded British Habaniya base ordered British to cease

operations there Iraq had 9000 troops British 2250

Apr 30 Iraqi forces surrounded British embassy in Baghdad

Apr 30 PM Gaylani hoped to pressure British to leave Iraq without a fight

Apr 30 UK memo to Chiefs of Staff discussed destroying Iraq’s oil wells to deny them to Germany

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

May 1 British decided on pre-emptive attack to move Iraqi army away from Habaniya base in Anbar

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

May 1 PM Gaylani went to Turkish Amb to Iraq saying British violating 1930 treaty and expected

English air strikes any time Gaylani asked Turkish ambassador to contract British and try to stop conflict Message was passed to British ambassador to Iraq

May 1 Iraqi police opened fire on British workers in Rutba, Anbar England responded by sending

forces from Transjordan to town

May 1 British bombers sent from Egypt to Shaibah air base

May 1 1st Battalion of Iraq’s 11th Inf Brigade sent from Baghdad to Fallujah to confront British

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

ANGLO-IRAQ WAR/WORLD WAR II

 

May 2 English commander at Habaniya base Anbar consulted with London and got

permission to attack Iraqis surrounding camp British planes bombed Iraqis starting Anglo-Iraq War British lost 22 planes and 10 pilots

May 2 Iraq launched air strike upon Habaniya base in retaliation Shelled air field damaging

            40 planes British lost 13 dead and 20 wounded

May 2 Grand Mufti in Baghdad declared jihad against British after attack on Iraqi forces

            in Habaniya

May 2 Iraqi forces took British fort at Rutba, Anbar

May 2 British troops broke up angry mob of Iraqis at Zubeila, Basra

May 2 Iraqi govt asked Germany for diplomatic relations to be restored and military aid

            including planes

May 2 UK Chiefs of Staff ordered Mid-East Commander Gen Wavell to make plans to

            destroy Iraq’s pipelines

May 2 Iraq’s 1st Inf Brigade ordered from Baghdad to Ramadi to block British troops from

            Transjordan being sent to Habaniya Air Base 11th Inf Brigade sent to Habaniya

May 2 British took Iraq out of Sterling zone and had foreign banks close to impose

            economic sanctions on Gaylani govt

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

May 3 2nd day UK bombing Expanded to Iraqi air bases and supply lines in Baghdad and Diyala

May 3 Iraqi air force bombed Iraqi army in Ramadi by accident in night raid

May 3 Churchill ordered British troops to march from Palestine to Iraq

May 3 UK commander for Mid-East Gen Wavell given command of Iraq Complained no

forces to spare and negotiations should be used instead Wavell later claimed he could send a small force from Palestine to Iraq but it would threaten security in the region and again called for talks with Baghdad

May 3 PM Gaylani told Italian ambassador Iraq needed German and Italian air support to

deal with British, financial aid and a German military mission to work with Iraq General Staff

May 3 German Foreign Min Ribbentrop supported sending special representative to

Baghdad along with military liaison officers to set up arrival of German aid Also suggested sending fighter and bomber squadrons to Iraq Hitler agreed

May 3 Communists called on public to support Gaylani govt when war started Saw him as anti-

imperialist

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 4 British bombed Iraqi air bases in Baghdad and Baquba Destroyed or damaged

            29 planes in Baghdad 14 in Baquba

May 4 British bombers arrived at Habaniya airbase from Egypt while Iraqis continued

            to shell base 150 UK troops also flown into base

May 4 British troops in Habaniya base launched attacked and failed to take Sin al-Dhibban used to

            cross Euphrates and supply Iraqi troops outside base

May 4 British dropped leaflets on Baghdad saying war was with Gaylani govt not

            Iraqi people

May 4 Regent broadcast radio message asking people not to follow Gaylani govt Baghdad

            radio called on govt to arm the people

May 4 PM Gaylani sent diplomat to Tehran and told embassy in Turkey to pressure

            Germans to send aid

May 4 UK Chiefs of Staff told Mid-East commander Gen Wavell he had to take action

            against the Gaylani govt

May 4 UK War Sec Eden told Iraqi charge d’affaires if war continued and Germany joined all

            of Iraq would become a battlefield

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 5 UK Mid-East commander Gen Wavell told to think up air strike plan against Kirkuk oil

            fields Idea was later dropped

May 5 Gen Wavell told Chiefs of Staff didn’t think a force from Palestine could relieve Habaniya

Base in Anbar that their departure would threaten security in Palestine and Egypt therefore talks should be taken up with Baghdad

May 5 Iraqi troops at Habaniya ran out of ammunition and not re-supplied Began withdrawing 300

captured by British

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 6 UK Foreign Min Eden told parliament if Iraq withdrew forces from Habaniya and

            fighting stopped London willing to talk Policy was to remove PM Gaylani

May 6 Iraq launched largest air attack on Habaniya air base Iraqis then began to withdraw

from outside base due to lack of water and rations 409 Iraqi soldiers captured Iraqis suffered 1,000 casualties Iraq launched 2nd air raid on Habaniya later that day Iraqis lost initiative in Anglo-Iraq War when gave up in Habaniya Had no plan or leadership to do more than lay siege to base

May 6 British and Assyrian forces took Sin al-Dhiban, Anbar captured 300 Iraqi soldiers

May 6 British planes destroyed Iraqi column heading for Habaniya inflicting over 1,000

            casualties and prisoners taken

May 6 PM Gaylani told Mufti of Jerusalem to contact Germans and ask them for

            immediate aid

May 6 German deal with Vichy France allowed military equipment to be moved from

            Syria to Iraq to fight British

May 6 German air unit sent to Syria bound for Mosul to confront British

May 6 More British troops landed in Basra

May 6 Churchill dismissed UK Mid-East cmdr Gen Wavell for his objections to military

            action in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 7 British troops took Ashar, Basra Iraqis bombed British Habaniya air base Iraqi forces

retreating from Habaniya ran into Iraqi units coming from Fallujah Columns stopped to consult Attacked and destroyed by British planes from Habaniya base 1,000 Iraqis killed

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 8 British Arab Legion left Palestine to take back Fort Rutba, Anbar from Iraqi

police Legion was attacked by German aircraft and one regiment refused to cross Transjordan border into Iraq

May 8 British Royal Air Force reported Iraqi air force combat ineffective Lost 25 planes

            Another 20-30 heavily damaged

May 8 6 more English planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt

May 8 Vichy France agreed to transfer weapons from Syria to Iraq to use its air fields and okayed

landing of German planes

May 8 Iraq Defense Minister Shawkat went to Turkey for talks Ankara offered end of

fighting permission for UK to use bases in Iraq In return UK would recognize Gayalani’s govt

May 8 Iraq Finance Minister Suwaidi went to Saudi Arabia to explain conflict with England and

            ask for mediation Ibn Saud said Iraq should talk with London and end war

May 8 UK Mideast Cmdr Gen Wavell said not enough troops to take Baghdad and fight

            Iraqi and Axis forces

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 9 Germany announced aid package for Iraq

May 9 German diplomat arrived in Syria to organize arms shipments to Iraq

May 9 Start of 100 German and 20 Italian airplanes landing in Syrian bases to fight British in

Iraq British intel found out about planes being flown from Greece to Syria and that Vichy France sending trains full of military aid to Iraq

May 9 British planes bombed Iraqi police holding Fort Rutba, Anbar while Iraqi

            reinforcements arrived Bombed air bases in Mosul and Rashid

May 9 British cmdr in India Gen Auchinleck told Chiefs of Staff British had to deal

            with Iraq

May 9 PM Churchill told Mid-East commander Gen Wavell he had to take bold military

            action against Iraq and wouldn’t negotiation with PM Gaylani

May 9 Jordanian soldiers mutinied and refused to cross over into Iraq 240 men left unit

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 10 New German ambassador to Iraq arrived in Mosul with 2 He 111 bombers

May 10 Iraqis abandoned Fort Rutba allowing British to capture it

May 10 UK India commander Gen Auchinlek advocated occupying Baghdad Mosul

Kirkuk to preclude German intervention Mid-East commander Gen Wavell replied that Iraq not as important as other fronts and he had limited resources

May 10 UK Mideast cmdr Gen Wavell told Churchill attack on Baghdad could start

Arab revolt Wavell told Churchill some Jordanian forces already refused to go to Iraq Wavell finally gave order for forces in Jordan to head for Habaniya Anbar Wavell ordered that Baghdad was not to be occupied

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 11 British forces left Haifa, Palestine heading for Habaniya, Anbar

May 11 More British planes landed as reinforcements at Habaniya air base

May 11 German military aid began arriving from Syria by train Stored in Mosul but

            never used

May 11 German diplomat Dr. Grobba arrived in Baghdad along with 3 German planes and

            20,000 Pounds for PM Gaylani

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 12 Soviet Union recognized PM Gaylani’s govt

May 12 British reinforcements from Palestine and Transjordan attacked by a German

            Bomber as they entered Iraq

May 12 German air force liaison officer killed while trying to land in Baghdad during dog

            fight between Iraqi and British fighter planes

May 12 PM Gaylani told German ambassador to Turkey that Ankara made offer to be

middleman with England Gaylani feared Ankara would intervene in Iraq German ambassador dismissed that idea

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 13 Iraq told German ambassador to Turkey that it agreed to Turkish offer to

            mediate with England

May 13 Golden Square officers rejected Turkey’s offer to mediate with England and

threatened to shoot PM Gaylani if he accepted He offered to resign Mufti of Jerusalem had to intervene

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

May 13 1st trainload of Nazi German war supplies from Vichy France controlled Syria arrived in

Mosul to support PM Gaylani’s govt Never used

May 13 British forces bombed Syrian-Mosul railway to try to block Axis aid to Iraq

May 13 Jordanians from Palestine arrived at Fort Rutba in Anbar  

May 13 German planes attacked British forces at Habaniya air base 1 British plane shot

            down by German plane over Mosul

May 13 Egyptian Chief of Staff Gen Masri arrested while attempting to fly to Iraq to join

            fight vs British

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 14 Churchill authorized British air force in Iraq to attack German planes in Syria

May 14 2 British fighters flew out of Iraq and attacked 2 German bombers in Syria

            damaging them

May 14 German war planes began landing in Mosul Were attacked by British planes

May 14 Iraq Finance Minister Suwaidi met German ambassador Told to take up Turkish

mediation offer to stall for time until Axis aid could be organized German ambassador promised German planes were arriving and military aid coming from Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 15 German major arrived in Baghdad to lead Brandenburgers Commandorecon unit

in Iraq along with squadron of bombers and squadron of fighters Met with PM Gaylani Decided priority blocking Transjordan force form reaching Habaniya base Was too late to do that

May 15 Germany had total of 24 fighters and bombers in Iraq to help Gaylani govt fight

            German planes were painted in Iraqi colors to hide their origin

May 15 British bomber attacked Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar

May 15 German plane bombed British force from Palestine heading towards Habaniya

May 15 British received intel that German planes flying to Iraq from Syria

May 15 Kurds began discussing revolt against PM Gaylani to take advantage of crisis with

            British

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

May 16 While British planes bombed Iraqi column outside Rutba, Anbar English ground

            forces were attacked by German planes

May 16 German planes attacked Habaniya base British destroyed 10 German planes in Irbil

            and Mosul

May 16 German commander in Iraq agreed with Baghdad’s plan to retake Habaniya but

            didn’t have forces to do it

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

May 16 Mullah Mustafa Barzani escaped Baghdad and headed for Sulaymaniya

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

May 17 British forces set out from Habaniya base to try to take Fallujah

May 17 10 British planes landed at Habaniya air base from Egypt and launched

attack on German planes in Mosul British bombed Baghdad air base Shot down 2 German fighters

May 17 German liaison officer with Iraqi govt killed by an Iraqi soldier flying into

            Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 18 British bombed Fallujah while troops begin surrounding town

May 18 Transjordan force arrived at Habaniya base in Anbar Were attacked by German planes

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 19 British took Fallujah from Iraqi forces after heavy bombing Was necessary to

            cross Euphrates onto Baghdad 300 Iraqis captured

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

May 19 Iraqi command found out about loss of Fallujah and decided to launch

            counterattack

May 19 Iraq Defense Minister Shawkat returned from Turkey Was accused of being a

traitor by Golden Square officers for talking about mediation with England Fled to Turkey

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

May 19 Mullah Mustafa Barzani arrived in Sulaymaniya after escaping Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

 

May 20 German planes attacked British Habaniya air base in Anbar

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 21 Iraqis launched counterattack attempting to retake Fallujah from British Entered

            town

May 21 German planes bombed air base at Habaniya for a second day

May 21 Iraq launched raids into Basra city suburbs but failed

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 22 Iraq attempt to recapture Fallujah failed

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

May 22 Regent of Iraq along with Nuri al-Said arrived at British base at Habaniya, Anbar

            Said sent letter to Iraqi commander in Ramadi who agreed to switch sides

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 23 German planes attacked British forces in Fallujah Iraqi artillery shelled town

May 23 Hitler Order 30 Germany would support Arabs against British especially in Iraq

May 23 UK Mid-East commander Gen Wavell and Indian commander Gen Auchinlek met

in Basra Decided to send forces to Baghdad and more to be sent from India to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 24 Mufti of Jerusalem told Italians Arab revolt hinged on Iraq and it needed more support

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

May 25 British attacked Iraqis 6 miles up from Basra city 10th Indian Div ordered to head north

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 26 2nd trainload of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul but never used

May 26 12 Italian planes landed in Kirkuk from Syria to operate under Germans Immediately

attacked British forces in Anbar

May 26 Mussolini met with German military attache’ and expressed concern about Iraq Asked

whether Berlin would give substantive or symbolic support to Iraq Mussolini told German military attache’ Iraq could turn tide in Mediterranean Attache’ said Berlin serious about Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

May 27 Operation Regulta began British forces marched north from Basra to Kut and

            onto Baghdad Captured Ur

May 27 British forces moved from Fallujah to cut Baghdad-Mosul road and railway Forced Iraqis out

of Taji north of Baghdad

May 27 PM Gaylani told Italians he was disappointed with Axis assistance

May 27 UK Foreign Min Eden said that Regent Ilah lacked a strong character but he was

            loyal to England

May 27 Germans began withdrawing from Iraq

May 27 12 Italian fighters landed in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 28 British forces captured Khan Nuqta fort on march from Fallujah to Baghdad

May 28 British troops moved from Basra to Baghdad take Ur

May 28 British forces attacked Abu Ghraib canal but turned back by Iraqis

May 28 British intel spread rumor to Iraqi military that 100 tanks heading to Baghdad

            Led PM Gaylani to flee

May 28 3rd shipment of German military supplies arrived in Mosul Never used

May 28 Iraq Chiefs of Staff decided to withdraw to Kirkuk to avoid British attack on

            Baghdad PM Gaylani joined them

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 29 Italian planes got into dogfight with British planes over Baghdad 1 Italian and 2

            British planes shot down

May 29 British defeated Iraqi forces at Abu Ghraib Turned back at Abu Ghraib canal in

            push on Baghdad for second time

May 29 British forces defeated by Iraqi army at Kadhimiya, Baghdad

May 29 PM Gaylani told military leadership had fled to Persia leading to his own

            escape there along with Mufti of Jerusalem

May 29 German ambassador to Iraq fled Baghdad for Kirkuk fearing British advance

May 29 Governor of Baghdad captured by British on trip to Samarra

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 30 Last brigade of British 10th Infantry Division from India landed in Basra

May 30 British troops reached Baghdad Iraqi army barracks in province bombed leading it

            to ask for peace

May 30 Baghdad mayor and army officers approached British embassy asking for armistice

May 30 German Ambassador to Iraq Grobba fled to Mosul Told German Foreign Minister

Ribbentrop Iraqis still in the fight Ribbentrop said that more planes would arrive by June 1 Grobba said because of lack of fuel German planes would have to operate from Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

May 31 Mayor of Baghdad worked out peace treaty with British surrendering city

May 31 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader appointed himself governor of southern Iraq

            and told Jews to stay in homes

May 31 German ambassador to Iraq told Berlin UK-Iraq armistice signed False rumor British

            seized Mosul airport forced him to flee to Syria

May 31 German High Command told German planes heading to and based in Iraq to

            gather in Aleppo until further notice

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

Jun 1 Regent of Iraq returned to power after PM Gaylani overthrown by British

Jun 1 497 Iraqi soldiers killed and 695 wounded British lost 150 troops during Anglo-

            Iraq War

Jun 1 Regent welcomed at airport by group of Jews from Baghdad who were attacked

            on way home that violence continued into capital

Jun 1 Farhud anti-Jewish pogrom in Baghdad started Around 120 people killed and

            850 wounded

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Jun 1 Yunis Sabawi pro-Nazi leader who appointed himself governor of southern Iraq

            planned pogrom against Jews but deported by British

Jun 1 British troops barred from entering Baghdad during Farhud UK Foreign Office

            thought it would look bad for Regent to return to power backed by English troops

Jun 1 German Gen Felmy head of military mission to Iraq arrived in Syria after Anglo-

            Iraq War was over

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

 

Jun 2 Jamil al-Midfai named PM in new govt after PM Gaylani overthrown by British

            Declared martial law 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

Jun 2 Anti-Jewish pogrom the Farhud in Baghdad continued until curfew imposed 187

            killed in 2 days

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Jun 2 Regent of Iraq Ilah ordered end to Farhud

Jun 2 British intelligence officer asked why British troops weren’t sent to Baghdad to stop

            the Farhud Thought London didn’t want to upset the Regent

Jun 2 UK 20th Indian Brigade ordered from Basra to Baghdad to help secure area

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

 

Jun 3 3rd train load of German military aid arrived from Syria Stored in Mosul after war ended

Jun 3 British troops occupied Mosul after overthrowing Gaylani govt

 

Jun 5 British forces occupied Kirkuk

 

Jun 6 British forces sent to Haditha and pushed insurgents led by Qawujki into Syria

 

Jun 8 British campaign started against Vichy French in Syria using troops in Iraq

            Germany used Syria to supply pro-Ger Gaylani govt in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

 

Jun 9 Another British brigade landed in Basra

 

Jun 10 British air force destroyed train shipment of German military aid heading for

            Iraq from Syria Anglo-Iraq War already over

 

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

 

Jun 16 Another British brigade landed in Basra to help secure Iraq after Anglo-Iraq War

 

Jul 14 PM Midfai declared martial law in Sulaymaniya to stop revolt by Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 25 British forces in Basra and Diyala invaded Iran where Shah refused to expel Germans

            spreading Axis propaganda

 

Oct 9 Nuri al-Said became PM 3rd time Went after supporters of former PM Gaylani 1922-58 were

59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq review of Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941 on Said govt)

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958 on Said govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1942

Jan 6 Court sentenced former PM Gaylani and 3 Golden Square colonels to death in absentia

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Apr 8 UK ambassador to Iraq Sir Cornwallis wrote PM Said was following through with Anglo-Iraq

Treaty and anti-British forces were being put into concentration camps

 

Oct 8 PM Nuri al-Said formed a new cabinet Part of political instability during monarchy Were 10

elections and 59 cabinets from 1922-58

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

 

1943

Jan 16 Iraq declared war on Axis

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

 

Jan 20 Fmr PM Gaylani in exile in Germany made radio broadcast claiming Iraq still

            in state of war with England

(Musings On Iraq review of Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

 

Jul 1 Mustafa Barzani led rebellion against govt Iraqi troops backed by British airplanes

            suppressed revolt by Oct 1945

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Dec 25 PM Nuri al-Said formed his 3rd cabinet Made Mullah Mustafa Barzani Minister of Kurdish

Affairs in failed attempt to co-opt him and end his revolt

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1944

Feb 16 Parliamentary Party formed mostly of large land holding sheikhs Supported

            whatever govt Regent backed

 

Jun 3 Hamdi al-Pachachi became PM 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Sep 9 Iraq and Soviet Union established diplomatic relations

 

Sep 25 PM Said told Egyptian PM Nahas two countries should organize an Arab summit Led to

Arab League

 

Sep 30 UK Ambassador to Iraq Sir Cornwallis said PM Said was no longer interested in his govt and

might be dangerous as a result Sir Cadogan of Foreign Office asked if Said should be removed as a result

 

Oct 7 Protocol of Alexandria signed that would lead to formation of Arab League Iraq was one of the

architects

 

1945

Feb 12 Mullah Mustafa Barzani founded Freedom Party Included Kurdish govt officials and army

officers Said goal was to create cooperation amongst tribes

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 22 Arab League formed Iraq was one of the architects

 

Mar 30 UK Ambassador to Iraq Sir Cornwallis wrote he was afraid old Iraqi elite were never going to

change and that would lead to violence between haves and have nots

 

Aug 7 Army attacked Barzani and pushed back

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 10 Police tried to disarm Barzani tribe Barzani attacked several police posts

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 16 Baghdad railway workers strike for higher wages spread to Samawa

 

Apr 18 Baghdad railway strike spread to Basra

 

Apr 19 Baghdad railway strike spread to Mosul

 

Aug 25 Army moved against Kurdish Baradosti tribe Was attacked by tribe and suffered heavy losses

            Another army column ambushed in Zebari tribal area

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Sep 4 Iraqi forces along with anti-Barzani tribes launched new assault upon Kurdish forces in Barzan

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Sep 25 Mulla Mustafa Barzani fled into Iran to escape govt offensive

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Dec 27 Regent of Iraq gave speech promising political reform improved social security fighting

employment, redistribution of wealth

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

 

1946

Feb 23 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM for 2nd time Was supposed to carry out Regent’s

reform program Ended martial law allowed limited political parties freed political prisoners lifted censorship 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 29 Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Would cooperate over Tigris and Euphrates

            security education communication economies

 

Mar 31 Mullah Mustafa Barzani named general in Mahabad Republic in Iran

 

May 30 PM Suwaidi resigned over controversy over Iraq-Turkey Friendship Treaty Nuri

            al-Said negotiated treaty without consulting with govt

 

Apr 2 National Democratic Party and Istiqlal/Independence Party licensed Became major

            opposition parties during monarchy

 

Jun 1 Arshad al-Umari became PM of Iraq, would hold office 2 times 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jul 3 Oil workers in Kirkuk led by Communists held meetings about their work conditions Led to

strike

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jul 12 Police tried breaking Communist oil worker strike in Kirkuk Fired on workers killing 8

wounding 50 Killing of workers condemned by press PM Umari govt shut down papers as a result Incident helped lead to fall of PM Umari’s govt in November

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Aug 16 Kurdistan Democratic Party founded Mullah Mustafa Barzani its president and Hamza

Abdullah secretary general

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Nov 21 PM Umari forced to resign in aftermath of Kirkuk Massacre where oil strikers killed

Nov 21 Nuri al-Said became PM 4th time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958 on Said govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1947

Mar 29 Sayid Salih Jabr became PM 1st Shiite PM of Iraq 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Apr 25 After Mahabad Republic crushed by Iran Mullah Mustafa Barzani retreated back to Barzan,

Iraq

 

Apr 26 Iraq left San Francisco Conference on creating UN to protest creation of Israel

 

Apr 28 Mustafa Barzani and 500 supporters returned to Iraq from Iran

 

May 27 Mullah Mustafa Barzani decided to leave Iraq to USSR via Turkey and Iran after many of

his followers were arrested after returning from Iran and his brother Sheikh Ahmed Barzani surrendered to govt

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jun 15 Mustafa Barzani revolt against govt put down and he fled to Soviet Union

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jun 29 Baghdad hung four of Barzanis lieutenants and arrested Shekh Ahmed Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Nov 28 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamail told UN that creation of Israel would lead to

            unrest in Middle East

 

1948

Jan 3 Iraq’s Foreign Minister Jamali said that Iraq was sensitive about the 1930 Anglo-

            Iraq Treaty

(Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Statesman, A portrait of Mohammed Fadhel Jamali)

Jan 3 Independence Party held meeting and decided to protest against govt and 1930

            Anglo-Iraq Treat

 

Jan 4 Students in Baghdad protested against 1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty Broken up by

            police

 

Jan 6 College students went on strike in Baghdad after police broke up Jan 4 protest over 1930

Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Jan 8 College student strike in Baghdad ended when arrested students were released by

            police

 

Jan 15 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty signed British troops withdrew but Iraq tied to England

            until 1973 Led to more protests

Jan 15 One version of Anglo-Iraq Treaty included speeding arms sales to Iraq including

automatic weapons for Iraqi police that were really going to be turned over to Palestinians Also included Iraqi forces taking over all the areas the British withdrew from in Palestine to prevent creation of a Jewish state Was not included in final version of treaty

 

Jan 16 Communists led protests against new Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by police 4

            killed Led to large sectors of country to turn against treaty

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 18 New Anglo-Iraq Treaty published Led to 3 day strike and major protest in Baghdad led by

Communists with participation of Baathists and National Democratic Party

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 19 Kurds from Iraq and Iran met in Baku, Soviet Union Mustafa Barzani led plans

            for Kurdish movement

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jan 20 March by railway workers and students against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon by

            police killing some demonstrators Organized by Communists

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 21 Communist led demonstrators against Anglo-Iraq Treaty fired upon again Led Regent to

            repudiate treaty

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 23 More protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty this time leading to fights between

            Communists and Independence party

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 26 PM Said said that Anglo-Iraq Treaty was still on the table after Regent rejected it

            Led to new protests Said ordered suppression of demonstrations

 

Jan 27 Communists called for more protests against Anglo-Iraq Treaty to try to topple

govt Mass demonstrations led to clashes with police who opened fire in Baghdad 300-400 killed More wounded

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 29 PM Jabr forced to resign over protests over Anglo-Iraq treaty organized by Communists

            Regent also against Jabr

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jan 29 Sayid Mohammed al-Sadr replaced him as PM

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 18 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Apr 4 Port of Basra strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Apr 6 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Apr 14 2nd Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Apr 14 General Student Association formed and joined protests and strikes against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

1948 ARAB-ISRAELI WAR

 

Apr 20 Operation Hametz began with Jewish forces attacking Arab villages held by

            Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab-Israeli War

 

Apr 23 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Apr 29 Battle of Katamon begins between Jewish forces attacking Iraqi volunteers and

            Arab Legion

 

Apr 30 Jewish forces took Jaffa, and 7 other towns held by Iraqi volunteers in 1st Arab

            Israeli War

 

May 1 Iraqi volunteers defeated by Jewish forces in Battle of Katamon

May 1 Chiefs of Staffs of Arab countries met and came up with general plan for war with Israel Each

country had own objectives however meaning each fought separately

 

May 2 Port of Basra protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

May 12 Railway strike against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 12 Iraqi air force deployed to Transjordan for Arab-Israeli War

 

May 14 Arab-Israeli War broke out Iraq sent forces to Palestine

 

May 15 Kirkuk oil workers protested against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 15 Iraq Egypt Jordan Syria armies entered into Palestine to join in 1948 Arab-

            Israeli War Iraqi army attacked Kibbutz Gesher in northern Palestine

May 15 Baghdad declared martial law due to war but was really aimed at ending protests

            over Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

May 18 Port of Basra protest against Anglo-Iraq Treaty

May 18 Iraqi air force bombed Israeli airfield

 

May 22 Iraqi army defeated in Battle of Gesher and retreated to West Bank

 

May 25 Iraqi forces took Geulim and reached Kfar Yona and Ein Vered

 

May 29 Battle of Jenin between Jewish and Iraqi forces started

 

Jun 1 Jewish forces attacked Iraqi positions in Jenin but were turned back

 

Jun 11 UN negotiated armistice in Arab-Israeli War

 

Jun 26 Muzahim al-Pachachi became PM 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jul 6 Iraqi air force attacked Israeli military base

 

Jul 15 Iraqi air force bombed Haifa and Israeli airfield

 

Jul 18 Iraqi air force ordered to find and destroy 3 Israeli B-17 bombers Couldn’t find them but

            bombed Israeli airfield

 

Aug 28 Jews forbidden to work in banking or foreign currency transactions after creation

            of Israel

 

Oct 8 Export-import licenses for Jewish businesses forbidden after creation of Israel

 

Oct 19 All Jewish govt workers fired after creation of Israel

 

Dec 2 Baghdad told oil companies they should not employ Jews after creation of Israel

 

1949

Jan 6 Student strikes started at College of Medicine Pharmaceutical College Law College in Baghdad

while protests started in Hillah Najaf Basra Kirkuk Sulaymaniya Communists played leading role

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

Jan 6 Regent Abd al-Ilah named Nuri al-Said to become PM for 5th time Told parliament his main

job was dealing with Communists 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958 on Said govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Feb 10 Communist Party Chairman Fahad and 2 politburo members convicted and sentenced

to death for leading party

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Feb 14 Communist Chairman Farhad hanged by PM Said to try to squash opposition protests

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Feb 15 2 Communist politburo members hanged by PM Said to put down protests

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Feb 19 PM Said said Jews had been mistreated in Iraq and warned that things could get

            worse for them due to Israel

 

Dec 10 Ali Aiyubi became PM for 2nd time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1950

Jan 7 British memo said Iraqi Military Mission in Damascus was preparing for coup in

            Damascus to join Iraq and Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

 

Feb 5 Tawfiq Suwaidi became PM 3rd time 5 of his 11 ministers were Shiites 1922-58 were 59

cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 4 Denaturalization law allowed Jews to leave Iraq if gave up citizenship

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 7 Opposition MPs left parliament claiming they were being silenced in assembly

            Were hoping to cause protests and bring down PM Suwaidi’s govt but failed

 

Mar 8 105,000 Iraqi Jews registered to immigrate to Israel Almost 40,000 had already

            immigrated under new govt law allowing immigration

 

May 10 Grenade thrown at car company owned by Jews in Baghdad 4 injured 2nd of 7

such attacks on Jews 1950-51 Iraq prosecuted Jews claiming Zionist plot to get Jews to move to Israel Opponents argued that most Jews had already signed up to leave Iraq so no need to scare them into going

 

May 20 1st flight of Near East Air Transport Took Iraqi Jews to Israel Airline was owned

by Jewish Agency who worked to get Jews to move to Israel When Israel created Iraqi govt banned immigration Mar 1950 govt allowed temporary immigration for one year Stripped Jews of Iraqi citizenship and govt confiscated their property

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

May 20 Note from Lebanese Amb in Baghdad to Syrian Foreign Minister Bey said Iraq

            wanted to seize Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of Ropes Of Sand)

 

Jun 3 Grenade attack in Jewish neighborhood of Baghdad 3rd of 7 such attacks on Jews

            1950-51

 

Jul 15 Cabinet resigned when PM Suwaidi complained his brother not appointed head of

Cassation Court Stayed in office because Regent out of country and couldn’t call for new govt

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 21 Nuri al-Said threatened to revoke license of transport company if didn’t fill

            quota of shipping 500 Jews out of Iraq per day

 

Sep 15 Nuri al-Said became PM 6th time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Sep 18 PM Said threatened to expel Jews from Iraq over Israel

 

1951

Jan 14 Grenade thrown at Baghdad synagogue 4 killed 10 wounded 4th of 7 such attacks

            on Jews 1950-51

 

Mar 14 Grenade hit American Cultural Center in Baghdad wounding some Jewish visitors

            5th of 8 such attacks on Jews 1950-51

 

Mar 19 Grenade hit US information office in Baghdad

 

Jun 5 Grenade hit Jewish car dealership in Baghdad 6th of 7 such attacks on Jews 1950-51

 

Jul 17 Iraq made last payment to Turkey of oil revenues in return for giving up claims to

            Mosul after WWI

 

Aug 13 PM Said signed deal with Iraq Petroleum Company to split pre-tax profits 50-50 with

            Iraqi govt

 

1952

Jul 15 Mustafa al-Umari became PM 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 23 Communist led strike at Basra port over pay Broken up by police Started year of

            Protests called Intifada against Regent

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Oct 26 Baghdad Pharmacy College strike over exams Turned into riot that spread to other cities 

 

Nov 17 Opposition parties agreed to coordinating committee to lead strikes Started Intifada against

            Regent

 

Nov 22 Baghdad protests against Regent Started 1952 Intifada Communists one of main organizers

Clashes with police led to 1 dead 52 wounded Led to PM Umari resigning

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 23 Gen Mahmoud formed new military govt and declared martial law to put down protests

Police stations and US Info Library in Baghdad burned Clashes with army killed 12 wounded 25

Nov 23 Nuredin Mahmoud became PM in new military govt 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

 

Nov 24 Soldiers opened fire on protests against Regent of Iraq killing 18 and wounding 84 during

Intifada Led to riots

 

1953

Jan 29 Jamil al-Midfai became PM for 5th time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

May 2 King Faisall II became of age to directly rule Iraq replacing Regent al-Ilah

 

Sep 17 Mohammed al-Jamali became PM Cabinet included 7 Shiites most ever Presented

reform package which parliament rejected eventually bringing down his govt 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Statesman, A portrait of Mohammed Fadhel Jamali)

 

1954

Jan 28 PM Jamali ended martial law imposed Nov 1953

(Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Statesman, A portrait of Mohammed Fadhel Jamali)

 

Apr 19 PM Jamali resigned over disagreement with Nuri al-Said about Syrian elections

Jamali wanted to influence vote with propaganda Said thought that waste of money

(Musings On Iraq review of Ropes Of Sand)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Statesman, A portrait of Mohammed Fadhel Jamali)

 

Apr 29 Arshad al-Umari became PM for 2nd time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

May 9 Iraq and Syria met to discuss unification Never happened

 

Jun 9 Regent dissolved parliament and new elections held Opposition of Communists Baathists

National Democratic Party formed united front to run in election but interference from govt meant only got 11 seats

 

Jun 10 Police fired on demonstrators in Baghdad organized by opposition parties

 

Jun 17 PM Umari resigned so he could go on annual vacation to Turkey to escape summer

            heat in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jun 20 Police fired on demonstrators in Baghdad organized by opposition parties

 

Jun 27 Parliament dismissed as part of Nuri al-Said’s demands before he returned as premier  

 

Aug 3 Nuri al-Said became Iraq’s PM 7th time Went after opposition parties 1922-58 were 59

cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Sep 1 PM Said started crackdown on opposition Withdrew nationality from Communists

            Allowed prosecution of Communist supporters Limited rights of political parties

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Sep 12 New parliamentary elections held Over 100 parliamentarians ran unopposed Ensured

            Nuri al-Said of govt he wanted so he could sign Baghdad Pact

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

1955

Feb 24 Iraq signed security treaty with Turkey which UK eventually joined Would become anti-

Communist Baghdad Pact Iraq got control of Habaniya and Shaiba air bases from England UK would come to aid of Iraq in war and continue with military supplies under treaty Was attempt by UK to maintain its position in the region

 

Sep 23 Iran joined Iraq, England, Turkey security agreement Would become anti-Communist

Baghdad Pact

 

Nov 3 Pakistan joined Iraq, Turkey, England, Iran security agreement that became Baghdad Pact

            Egypt’s Nasser opposed deal Started cold war between Nasser and PM Said

 

1956

Jan 8 Interior Minister announced conspiracy against govt by Egypt Based upon evidence

Egypt involved in bombings of Turkish embassy in Baghdad and assassination attempt on PM Said

 

Nov 1 Iraq filed complaint with England over Suez Crisis and imposed martial law to try to stop

protests

 

Nov 5 Encouraged by Egypt and Syria along with Communists and opposition parties protests strikes

and riots broke out in Baghdad Mosul Najaf over Suez crisis

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 11 Communists issued manifesto saying violence might be necessary for Iraq’s circumstances

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Dec 17 Foreign Min Nuri al-Said speech said Iraq had always fought vs Communism Zionism and

France Said Iraq was only country truly committed to pan-Arabism Criticized those that supported current Arab states because they were created by imperialism

 

Dec 21 Communist uprising in Al-Hay put down and leaders executed

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

1957

Jan 5 Iraq backed Eisenhower Doctrine to oppose communism in Middle East

 

Jun 15 Nuri al-Said made cover of Time magazine

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Jun 30 Ali Aiyubi became PM 3rd time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Oct 12 Meeting at Ayatollah Muhsin Hakim’s house founding Dawa Party

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’ite Movement in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Shi’ism and Social Protest)

 

Dec 15 Abdul-Wahab Mirjan became PM Cabinet included 3 Kurdish ministers 1922-58 were 59

cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1958

Feb 1 Egypt and Syria created United Arab Republic PM Said afraid pan-Arabists

would overthrow his govt so Iraq could join Republic Syria suggested union with Egypt out of fear that Iraq was trying to forge coup or overthrow govt and take over country

(Musings On Iraq review of Ropes Of Sand that includes Iraq plots against Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

 

Feb 11 Jordan began talks with Iraq for a federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s

            United Arab Republic

 

Feb 14 Iraq and Jordan announced Arab Federation in response to Egypt and Syria’s

            United Arab Republic Kuwait asked to join but said no

 

Mar 3 Nuri al-Said became PM for 8th time 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review of ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

May 19 Ahmad Baban became PM Was a Kurd 1922-58 were 59 cabinets

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jul 12 Communist party members were warned that something big was going to happen in

anticipation of Free Officers’ Coup that overthrew monarchy

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Jul 13 Col Arif gained control of 20th Brigade and began march towards Baghdad from

            Diyala to start 1958 coup

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Jul 14 Free Officers led 1958 coup overthrowing King Faisal II and Iraq’s monarchy

Jul 14 Gen Qasim became head of state King Faisal II and family were killed

Jul 13 Col Arif gained control of 20th Brigade and began march towards Baghdad from

            Diyala to start 1958 coup

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

 

Jul 15 Deposed PM Nuri al-Said executed by Free Officers His body was later dug up,

hung and burned in Baghdad streets Regents body taken from royal palace Mutilated Dragged through Baghdad streets

 

 

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This Day In Iraqi History - Jan 17

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