Monday, September 30, 2019

World War II In Iraq and Syria Interview With Case Western’s Prof Broich

British troops at Habbaniya Air Base, Anbar which was surrounded by the Iraqis during the start of the 1941 Anglo-Iraq War (Imperial War Museim)


In 1941, the British overthrew the government of Prime Minister Rashid Al-Gailani in Iraq and invaded Syria. Baghdad had reached out to the Germans and Italians, Syria was run by Vichy France, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill believed that the Axis was making a play to take over the Middle East. These two conflicts are barely mentioned in World War II histories today, but at the time it was a major event for all those involved. John Broich, an Associated Professor of History at Case Western Reserve University recently published a book on this subject Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941. This is an interview with Prof. Broich about the war in Iraq and Syria.

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 30


1924 Frontier Commission appointed to determine border between new nation of Turkey and Iraq
(Musings On Iraq book review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)
(Musings On Iraq book review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)
1958 Agrarian Reform Law issued by Gen Qasim in attempt to redistribute land from large landowners to
peasants
(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)
1958 Pres Qasim removed Arif as Dep PM and Interior Minister because he was a threat to the govt
1980 Ayatollah Khomeini refused all talks with Iraq to end war Demanded Saddam step down Iraq had to
admit it was aggressor and pay reparations Basra was to come under Iranian control until Iraq paid debt Referendum in Kurdistan or autonomy or joining Iran
1980 Iranian air force launched Op Scorch Sword attacking Iraq’s Osirak nuclear facility Only minimal
damage Iran also bombed Baghdad
1980 Iraqis were stopped outside Dezful Ahvas and Abadan in Khuzistan province Allowed Iran to re-
supply and have access to Shatt al-Arab
1980 Soviet’s Brezhnev said Iran and Iraq both friends of USSR 2 needed to negotiate end to war Soviets
main military supporter of Iraq
1980 State Dept told Italy’s Foreign Ministry that USSR turned down request by Iraq for additional military
equipment
1982 Iranian Op Muslim ibn Aqil Attacked between Qasr e-Shirin and Sumer in center Goal was to invade
Diyala take Baquba and threaten Baghdad 60,000 Iranians vs 36,000 Iraqis Only advanced 6 mi before counterattacked by Iraq forced withdrawal
1984 Iran Op Val Fajr 7 attacked Meimak Heights central front to stop Iranian shelling of area
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
2001 Report Al Qaeda defector said bin Laden did not like Saddam because of his attacks upon Muslim
civilians
2001 Iraqi defector told Sunday Telegraph Saddam started crash program to produce WMD in six months
2002 Iraq and UN negotiated new weapons inspections in Vienna but blocked 8 presidential sites US
rejected deal
(Musings On Iraq article UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)
2002 NYTimes OpEd by Clinton era counterterrorism official Benjamin said Saddam thought bin Laden a
threat and 2 didn’t cooperate
2003 UN Sec Gen Anan said that UN would only renew its role in Iraq if sovereignty passed to an interim
govt
2003 Def Sec Rumsfeld aide ate with Pentagon Def Policy Board member Gingrich and Dep Sec Def
            Wolfowitz who were lobbying against Bremer
2003 Def Policy Board member Gingrich would later say Bremer at CPA was biggest foreign policy disaster
in recent times
2003 Bush told Justice Dep investigating possible unauthorized disclosure of undercover CIA official fmr
Amb Wilson’s wife VP Cheney’s office had leaked her name to press to discredit Wilson
(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)
2003 Constitutional preparatory committee came up with 3 ways to name delegates to constitutional
committee Couldn’t agree on which to use
2004 Iraq Survey Group final report said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for rockets not centrifuges
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
2004 UK intel report said Sunnis did not believe in politics because didn’t gain anything Said majority of
Sunnis supported insurgency Felt loss of power fear of Shiite rule and Iranian influence United by opposition to occupation Sunnis believed armed struggle rather than politics could achieve their goals
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2007 Report Sahwa expanding 30,000 tribesmen organized by US so far including 8,000 in Mansour and
Abu Ghraib in Baghdad 3,500 in Diyala
2008 Sheikh announced 20 Tribal Support Councils created in Dhi Qar by PM Maliki Creation of Tribal
Support Councils in Dhi Qar led to attacks upon sheikhs in political rivalry between SIIC and Dawa
(Musings On Iraq article on PM Maliki’s patronage system including Tribal Support Councils)
(Musings On Iraq article Disputes over PM Maliki’s Tribal Support Councils)
2014 UK launched first air strikes on IS
2014 Cabinet authorized govt to provide weapons, equipment, salaries to Hashd
2017 Iraqi military said it was going to take over Kurdish border posts by stationing troops on Turkish and
Iranian side in retaliation for independence referendum
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)
2018 KRG held parliamentary elections Had low voter turnout 58.4%
(Musings On Iraq article on impact of KRG elections)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Sunday, September 29, 2019

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 29


1915 British forces took Kut Suffered 1200 causalties
1917 2nd Battle of Ramadi ended with Ottomans losing city to British
1980 Iraq took Geilan Zarb across from Maysan
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)
1981 Iran retook Abadan 2nd largest city in Iran 2000-3000 Iranians 600-1500 Iraqis died 5000 Iranian
wounded 2500 Iraqis captured Opened road to allow supplies and reinforcements to western Iran Iraqi forces withdrew to Khorramshahr
1986 Heavy Iraqi air strikes on Kharg Island Iran oil terminal
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraqi Mirages, The Dassault Mirage Family In Service With The Iraqi Air Force, 1981-1988)
1987 Ali Hassan al-Majid reduced food rations for Kurds outside govt controlled camps 
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)
1998 Iraq Liberation Act introduced into Congress
(Musings On Iraq book review of Iraq In The Eye of the Storm that includes Iraq Liberation Act)
2001 Def Sec Rumsfeld ordered review of all existing Iraq war plans
(Musings On Iraq article on how Bush admin went from 9/11 to Iraq invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy
Tragedy)
2003 Islamic Army of Iraq founded
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)
2004 Briton Kenneth Bigley beheaded by Zarqawi
2005 Balad bombing killed 95
2005 NYTimes reporter Miller told grand jury VP Cheney’s chief of staff Libby told her fmr Amb Wilson’s
wife was a CIA agent Was retaliation for Wilson challenging White House over Iraq-Niger uranium story
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)
2005 Gen Abizaid and Gen Casey told Congress number of Iraq army battalions that could operate
independently dropped from 3 to 1
2006 Sadr told Mahdi Army commanders they needed temporarily disarm Cut size of their units to make
them more manageable All militiamen to go through orientation and be issued new IDs
2006 Sadrist cleric gave sermon in Kufa saying patience running out for PM Maliki to bring about security
and stability
2006 British launched Op Sinbad against militias in Basra
2006 Report Senior British officers were lobbying Blair govt to withdraw forces from Iraq Said forces could
achieve little and frustrated with slow development of new ISF
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2006 Report 3 Iraqi reporters in south arrested for accusing a governor a judge and police officers of being
corrupt
2006 Special Inspector Gen Iraq Recon Bowen testified to Congress Said 13 of 14 projects by Parsons Corp
were substandard and had serious problems Also criticized projects by KBR and Bechtel
2006 Accordance Front head Dulaimi’s bodyguard arrested on suspicion he was planning bombings within
the Green Zone
2007 PM Maliki repeated claim that he got promise from Tehran to stop Iranians arms shipments to Iraq
            Never happened
(Musings On Iraq interview with Galen Wright of Arkenstone blog on Iranian arms shipments to Iraqi militias) 
(Musings On Iraq article on Iran’s Iraq policy)
2017 Pres Barzani’s office threatened unilateral independence if talks with Baghdad weren’t opened
immediately
(Musings On Iraq article on KRG referendum)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)
2017 Secretary of State Tillerson issued statement that US didn’t recognize the KRG referendum
2017 Intl flights cancelled out of Irbil airport after travel ban imposed by Baghdad in retaliation for
referendum
2017 Iran threatened to ban fuel shipments to Kurdistan in retaliation for referendum

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Saturday, September 28, 2019

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 28


1915 British defeated Ottomans at Battle of Es Sinn driving them back to Kut Wasit
1917 2nd Battle of Ramadi started between Ottomans and British
1980 UN Resolution 479 called for cease-fire in Iran-Iraq War Rejected by Iran
1980 Saddam offered ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War Said he wanted Iran to recognize its rights to Shatt al-
Arab and the territory it seized in war Non-aggression and non interference in internal affairs
1980 Saddam realized invasion was going slower than planned Iraqi forces hadn’t achieved any major war
goals yet
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)
1980 Iraq reached Geilan Zarb across from Maysan Didn’t attack town waited for artillery to arrive next
day
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)
1980 Iraq took Susangard and Bosan in Khuzistan without a fight Didn’t have forces to hold either Set up
observation posts around area
1980 1st time UN Security Council discussed Iran-Iraq War Iraq’s UN amb blamed Iran for war saying it
violated treaties and attacked Iraqi territory
1980 Muslim countries’ committee visited Baghdad to try to mediate Iran-Iraq War
1980 Soviet Tass news agency criticized Iraq invading Iran as undermining national liberation movements
in Middle East
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1980 PM Begin said that Israel had supported Kurds
2001 After NSC meeting on start of Afghan war Bush said he believed Saddam was involved in 9/11 but
Iraq would be dealt with later
(Musings On Iraq book review Plan of Attack: The Definitive Account Of The Decision To Invade Iraq)
2002 Bush radio address Said Iraq could launch a WMD attack upon US in 45 minutes
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq, One Of The Worst Intelligence Failures In US History)
2002 US gave draft UN resolution to France Russia China on new weapons inspectors Gave 7 days for
Iraq to provide weapons declaration to UN 23 days to open all WMD sites Set up military bases for inspectors to work out of that would have no fly and no drive zones around them If Iraq failed to meet these demands UN member states were authorized to use all means to restore peace Were meant to make demands that Iraq would never comply with and justify war
(Musings On Iraq article UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy
Tragedy)
2003 Natl Sec Adv Rice and Sec State Powell said that US had lots of new intel on Iraq’s WMD since 1998
when inspectors left in response to criticism
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq, One Of The Worst Intelligence Failures In US History)
2003 Natl Sec Adv Rice said were always questions about Iraq’s nuke program but no question it had
            WMD
2003 Natl Sec Adv Rice on NBC said that US didn’t know how bad Iraq’s society was because Baghdad
looked so good Said US didn’t know what it was going to find in Iraq before invasion Admitall that US never looked at studies of Iraq
(Musings On Iraq Rice: We Didn’t Know How Bad Iraq’s Infrastructure Was Because Baghdad Looked So Modern)
2003 Report DIA review found defectors provided by INC invented and exaggerated info about Iraq’s WMD
2004 PM Allawi told Al Arabiya TV that govt had waited long enough on Fallujah and Iraqi forces would
help take the city
(Musings On Iraq book review The Battle for Fallujah, Occupation, Resistance and Stalemate in the War in Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Occupation of Iraq, Winning The War, Losing The Peace)
2004 US troops started operation to clear Samarra of insurgents
2004 PM Blair said intelligence on Iraq’s WMD was wrong but getting rid of Saddam was right
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2004 Report Jan 03 Natl Intel Council issued 2 reports saying US invasion of Iraq would increase support
for Islamism and could lead to insurgency
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)
2006 UK Op Sinbad in Basra began focusing on police and reconstruction Didn’t get support of PM
Maliki who was against action vs militias
2006 Al Qeada in Iraq kidnapped brother of Sheikh Jassim and 3 tribesmen from Albu Soda and executed
them in Anbar Would lead tribe to turn against Al Qaeda in Iraq
2006 Gen Zahner deputy chief of staff for intelligence Multi-National Force Iraq said explosive found
with militias came from Iran
(Musings On Iraq interview with Galen Wright of Arkenstone blog on Iranian arms shipments to Iraqi militias) 
(Musings On Iraq article on Iran’s Iraq policy)
2006 Report UK Def Min think tank said that Iraq war radicalized disillusioned young Muslims and led
them to Al Qaeda War was recruiting tool for jihadist groups
2006 Report Around 240,000 Iraqis had registered as IDPs Feb-Jul 06
2006 Report death squads mostly from Mahdi Army returned to Baghdad’s Ghaziliya after cleared by US
during Op Together Forward Iraqi police were letting militiamen back in
2006 Report US military complained about Maliki govt not allowing it to go after Mahdi Army in Baghdad
US said death squads were major problem with sectarian violence Aug and Sep US went after Mahdi Army commanders in Najaf and Baghdad and Maliki objected Maliki also cancelled planned US-Iraqi joint op to move into Sadr City Maliki had list of figures including Sadrists and Mahdi Army members US couldn’t arrest in Baghdad Govt spokesman Dabbagh said unfair to treat militias like insurgents Said US should go after insurgents first
(Musings On Iraq book review Voices From Iraq, A People’s History, 2003-2009)
2006 Report Maliki govt tried to send ISF units to Diyala US said they couldn’t until committed 4000
troops promised for Op Together Forward in Baghdad Diyala site of major sectarian fighting for control of province with ISF helping militias
2006 Report US intel officer said Mahdi Army splintering Said 6 militia leaders had broken away Sadr
appointed 4 different leaders to try to control militia in Basra
2006 InspGenIraqRecon report Baghdad Police College just completed a disaster 1 entire building had to be
shut down due to leaking pipes warped floors human waste flooding areas Was built by Parsons Corp that had series of corrupt and fraudulent contracts throughout Iraq since 2004
2008 InspGenIraqRecon report said Iraq had lost $16 bil in potential oil sales Jan 04-Mar 06 due to
insurgent attacks Even without those attacks Iraqi oil would be plagued by criminals oil smuggling and poor infrastructure
2008 SIIC Governor of Dhi Qar came out against establishing Tribal Support Councils there because seen as
tools of PM Maliki
(Musings On Iraq article on PM Maliki’s patronage system including Tribal Support Councils)
(Musings On Iraq article Disputes over PM Maliki’s Tribal Support Councils)
2017 Iraq Pres Masum said that KRG referendum was constitutional but separation of Kurdistan was not
(Musings On Iraq article on KRG referendum)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)
(Musings On Iraq War of Words Continues Between Baghdad and Irbil After KRG Referendum)
2017 Pres Barzani said that cooperation between Irbil and Baghdad was important but Iraqi govt acting
recklessly and pushing Kurds away
2017 Turkey said it was suspending training program with Peshmerga over independence referendum

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Friday, September 27, 2019

Musings On Iraq In The News

Was interviewed by Erik Gustafson along with Omar al-Nidawi for Enabling Peace In Iraq Center (EPIC) about the Iran-Iraq War.

Link to all of Musings On Iraq's appearances and citations

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 27


1915 Battle of Es Sinn began between Ottoman and British forces
1980 Muslim countries’ committee visited Tehran to try to mediate Iran-Iraq War
1981 Iraqis withdrew in disarray losing most of their equipment in face of Iran Op Samen ol-Ameh in
            Abadan Khuzistan
1984 Japan offered ceasefire proposal to UN to end Iran-Iraq War
1985 At UN Iraq For Min Aziz blamed Iran for starting and continuing the Iran-Iraq War Said Tehran
wanted to overthrow the Iraqi govt
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1989 Bombing in Baghdad’s British Club done by unnamed Kurdish group No casualties
2001 Ahmed Chalabi said Iraq and Al Qaeda linked since 1990s and wanted to use bin Laden against US
2001 Badr met Talabani and other PUK officials in Sulaymaniya Talked about enrolling Badr members
in Univ of Sulaymaniya and investment opportunities Talabani agreed to allow Badr to invest in PUK areas
2003 Insurgents fired 3 rockets at Rashid Hotel in Baghdad
2004 Sec State Powell said US forces would retake Fallujah to ensure January 05 elections
(Musings On Iraq article on pre-Surge US Iraq strategy)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Battle for Fallujah, Occupation, Resistance and Stalemate in the War in Iraq)
2005 UK official met with Sadrist in Basra Claimed Mahdi Army not attacking British forces Wanted
follower released UK said follower admitted to attacks on UK forces and wouldn’t release him Sadrists threatened future attacks if follower not released
2006 British and ISF announced plan to purge Basra city of militias as part of Op Sinbad Was to last until
Feb 07 and prepare for British withdrawal from Iraq
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2006 Joint Chiefs created Council of Colonels that would in part review Iraq strategy
2006 Anbar sheikhs met with PM Maliki asked that Anbar Salvation Council replace Anbar provincial
council Maliki aide later said PM didn’t trust Awakening or US helping them
(Musings On Iraq article on Anbar Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq article on change in perceptions that led to Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Carter Malkasian on Anbar Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Confronting Al Qaeda, The Sunni Awakening and American Strategy In Al Anbar)
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Marines Take Anbar, The Four-Year Fight Against Al Qaeda)
(Musings On Iraq book review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)
2006 State Dept poll almost ¾ of Iraqis would felt safer if US forces left Iraq 65% wanted immediate US
withdrawal Univ Maryland poll 71% wanted Iraqi govt to ask Coalition to leave within a year Most thought US would refuse 77% said US wanted permanent bases in Iraq Sunni support for US withdrawal dropped from 83% in Jan 06 to 47% in Sep 06
2006 Report West Point published letter by Al Qaeda leader Attiya l-Jazari to Zarqawi Told Zarqawi he had
to look at bigger picture in Iraq instead of just military strategy Had to unite insurgency Reach out to Sunnis and tribes Needed to consult with Al Qaeda before making major decisions Said didn’t do that before starting attacks upon Shiites and bombing in Jordan Also called for greater cooperation with fellow Islamist insurgents like Ansar al-Sunna Warned vanity led to defeat of Algerian insurgency in 1990s
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)
2007 Report Sep 07 US arrested commander of Baha Araji battalion created by Sadristand run out of
Defense Ministry for expelling Sunnis from Baghdad Soldiers were mostly Mahdi Army Battalion was disbanded in May 07 Soldiers-militiamen sent to other units Commanders from one of army’s top battalions arrested for working with Mahdi Army in Baghdad for killing and kidnapping civilians
2008 Iraqi police and Asayesh got into gun battle in Jalawla east Diyala over dispute with Asayesh Ended
deal with Kurds to withdraw from govt buildings in district PM Maliki moved ISF into district to pressure Kurds leading to these confrontations
(Musings On Iraq article on Maliki’s pressuring Kurds in Diyala)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq After America, Strongmen, Sectarians, Resistance)
2012 ISI attacked Tikrit prison with car bombs mortars suicide bombers and released 100 prisoners
2017 72% of registered voters took part in KRG independence referendum Around 2.9 mil voted yes
224,000 voted no
(Musings On Iraq article on KRG referendum)
(Musings On Iraq War of Words Continues Between Baghdad and Irbil After KRG Referendum)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)
2017 IraqiCivilAviationAuthority sent notices that international flights to Irbil and Sulaymaniya suspended
in retaliation for referendum
2017 Parliament passed resolution saying PM Abadi should maintain unity of Iraq Called for Pres Barzani to
be brought to court over referendum
2017 KRG said it was willing to allow observers from Baghdad at its airports
2017 Kataib Hezbollah compared Pres Barzani to IS’s Baghdadi and said he would be dealt with same way
as Islamic State was
2017 Kirkuk Governor Karim rejected parliament’s call to deploy troops to disputed areas

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Review Squandered Victory, The American Occupation And the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq



Larry Diamond was a political science professor at Stanford University specializing in democracy who was called up by his friend from that school National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to help the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) draft Iraq’s transitional constitution. Diamond had opposed the 2003 invasion, but thought it worthwhile to try to help foster democracy in the country. He came away deeply troubled by his experience which he wrote about in Squandered Victory, The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq. He believed the United States constantly made mistakes both before and after the invasion to the point that he called it “criminal negligence.”

Musings On Iraq Book Reviews By Topic

Pre-Ottoman Era

Christianity in Iraq by Suha Rassam

Iraq, A History by John Robertson

The Kurds, A Modern History by Michael Gunter

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 26


1920 Ramadi fell to British during 1920 Revolt
(Musings On Iraq book review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)
1980 Khomeini issued message saying Iran was fighting for God vs Iraq Called on Iraqi soldiers to return to
Islam and not follow Saddam Called on Iraqis to rise up and overthrow Saddam
1980 Iran and Iraq temporarily stopped oil shipments due to attacks on each others’ facilities
1980 Saddam letter to UN Said Iran refused to recognize Iraqi territory and sovereignty to explain war
1980 Muslim countries created committee to try to mediate Iran-Iraq War
1980 After 4 days of combat Iraq lost 16 planes vs 5 Iranian ones in air combat Another 24 Iraqi and 19
Iranian ones damaged Was too high attrition rate Iraq ordered end to air raids upon Iran as a result
1981 Iran Op Samen ol-Ameh to break siege of Abadan began Infiltrated Iraqi lines and forced Iraqis to
retreat to Darkhovin in south
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1981 International Atomic Energy Agency condemned Israel’s destruction of Osirak nuclear reactor and
suspended aid to Israel
1996 KDP announced it was forming its own cabinet to run Kurdistan without PUK
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
2001 Bush told Def Sec Rumsfeld to plan for Iraq invasion but do it informally
(Musings On Iraq article on how Bush admin went from 9/11 to Iraq invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy
Tragedy)
(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Bush Administrations and Saddam Hussein, Deciding on Conflict)
2002 Bush met with 18 Congressmen to lobby them on Iraq Said he’d talked to military commanders and
they had no problem with regime change Said Iraq had WMD Building facilities to make more If it got uranium could build a bomb in 6 months Repeated British claim that Iraq could use WMD in 45 min
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq, One Of The Worst Intelligence Failures In US History)
(Musings On Iraq article on how poor US intel work led to claim Iraq rebuilt its nuclear weapons program)
2002 CIA Dir Tenet warned Bush not to use the 45 min claim because came from questionable source
2002 Bush told press Al Qaeda could become an extension of Iraq and Iraq and Al Qaeda were both part of
war on terror Said each day Iraq could give WMD or a nuke to terrorists
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Future The aftermath of regime change)
(Musings On Iraq book review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)
2002 Sec State Powell told Senate Foreign Relations Comm that Iraq-Niger uranium deal was proof had
nuke program Said Iraq tried to buy aluminum tubes for nuke program
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
2002 Def Sec Rumsfeld said Iraq had active WMD programs Said bulletproof confirmation of ties
            between Iraq and Al Qaeda
2002 White House spokesman claimed Iraq trained Al Qaeda in chemical weapons
2002 Pentagon and intel officials questioned White House claims of Iraq-Al Qaeda ties in the press
2002 32 foreign policy experts ran full page ad in New York Times “War with Iraq is not in America’s
national interest”
2004 US arrested Gen Najm head of Iraqi National Guard in Diyala for ties to insurgency
2005 NSC report on Iraq Security better but insurgents adapting Not enough US troops PM Jaafari not
doing well
2006 NSC report Interior Ministry carrying out extra judicial killings
2006 Awakening of Anbar conference held in Ramadi Issued 11 point program Called for talks with
Baathists reviewing make-up of ISF Securing highway through Anbar Stand against terrorism No arms unless okayed by govt Condemned tribes working with insurgents Wanted to rebuild economy Strengthen sheikhs Respect rule of Law New Anbar govt
(Musings On Iraq article on Anbar Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq article on change in perceptions that led to Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Carter Malkasian on Anbar Awakening)
(Musings On Iraq book review of Confronting Al Qaeda, The Sunni Awakening and American Strategy In Al Anbar)
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Marines Take Anbar, The Four-Year Fight Against Al Qaeda)
(Musings On Iraq book review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Sheriff of Ramadi, Nvy SEALS and the Winning of Anbar)
2006 US brigade from 1st Armored Div extended tour in Ramadi by 6 weeks Would be crucial to support
Awakening and secure city
2006 Bush forced to release parts of secret intel report after it was leaked to the press on international
terrorism that said Iraq was creating new generation of jihadists and created resentment in Muslim world against US
2006 UN report said that Iraq war providing recruits and training for Al Qaeda Said inspiring Taliban Said
new IEDs used in Iraq were found in Afghanistan less than month after first use
2007 Transparency International report found Iraq 3rd most corrupt country in world Same as in 2006
(Musings On Iraq interview with Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Stuart Bowen on corruption in Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq interview with anti-graft US official Vincent Foulk)
2017 PM Abadi said if KRG released info on oil revenue placed oil under Baghdad control KRG could get
share of budget grants loans
(Musings On Iraq article on KRG referendum)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)
2017 Turkey’s For Min said KDP’s representative to Ankara could not return to country after KRG
referendum

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Iraq Trying To End Displacement Crisis By Expelling People From Camps

(Human Rights Watch)

The Iraqi government said that it wants to resolve the displaced (IDP) problem this year. Early signs show that means expelling people from camps whether they want to go or not. Human Rights Watch and Al Mada reported that this started in Ninewa province.

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 25


1919 Churchill wrote Gen MacMunn commander in Mesopotamia that his plan to reduce
troop by 120,000 by spring of 1920 needed to be vastly sped up and keeping that many troops would crush the finances of Mesopotamia
(Musings On Iraq article on Churchill’s views on Mesopotamia)
1921 Gertrude Bell wrote King Faisal was unpopular and resented for being installed by the British
(Musings On Iraq book review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)
1931 Iraqi newspaper called for one party rule under an autocrat King Faisal
1967 Arif govt sent delegation to France to buy weapons after defeat in 1967 Arab-Israeli War and
            inability to bring Kurdish revolt under control
1973 Baathist Naim Haddad named head of Progressive National Patriotic Front with Communists
KDP and Baath
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)
1980 Iraq began attacking Dezful Ahvaz Khorramshahr in Khuzistan province
1980 Iraq shelled Abadan refinery largest in world Iran retaliated with air raids on Iraqi oil facilities in Basra
Zubayr Mosul Kirkuk
1980 Iranian airstrike on Um Qasr driven off Iraq attacked Bushehr sinking 4 Iranian navy ships Also
bombed some tankers trapped in Shatt al-Arab
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1991 Barzani and Talabani went to Baghdad to negotiate with Saddam over governance in Kurdistan after
uprising
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)
1997 Op Dawn Turkey invaded Kurdistan to attack PKK
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
1997 UN inspectors found Iraqi Food and Drug Examination Lab in Baghdad worked on gangrene since
1980s
1997 UN inspectors attempted to inspect Special Security Office but denied
(Musings On Iraq book review The Saddam Tapes)
(Musings On Iraq article UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)
(Musings On Iraq article Charles Duelfer’s Account Of The End Of The 1990s U.N. Inspections)
2002 Bush said couldn't distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam in war on terror because they were
equally evil
(Musings On Iraq book review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy Tragedy)
2002 Natl Sec Adv Rice told PBS NewsHour Iraq provided chemical weapons training to Al Qaeda Came
from Al Qaeda cmdr Libi who made up story under torture in Egypt
2002 DefSec Rumsfeld and CIA DepDir McLaughlin briefed NATO defense ministers on Iraq-Al Qaeda ties
2002 US and UK worked on draft UN resolution demanding inspectors return to Iraq
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
(Musings On Iraq article UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)
2002 National Intelligence Office for Strategic and Nuclear Programs had analyst meeting to draft Natl Intel
Estimate on Iraq CIA and DIA analysts at Natl Intel Estimate meeting said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for centrifuges and that Iraq reconstitution nuclear program Energy and State Dept analysts at Natl Intel Estimate meeting said tubes were for rockets
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
(Musings On Iraq article on how poor US intel work led to claim Iraq rebuilt its nuclear weapons program)
2003 Bush said 9/11 changed how he viewed Iraq as a threat to US
2003 Sec State Powell announced 6 month deadline for Iraqis to draft new constitution
2003 House Intel Comm wrote letter to CIA Dir Tenet criticizing pre-war intel on Iraq’s WMD and Iraq-Al
Qaeda ties after review
2003 Baghdad hotel used as base for NBC News bombed 1 guard killed
2003 UK intel report Said attacks increasing against Coalition mostly aimed at US Attacks evolving
Getting more sophisticated Iraqis working for Coalition being targeted Militias carrying out illegal arrests and murders Al Qaeda in Iraq forming long term strategy to go after infrastructure
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2005 Ayatollah Sistani condemned violence in Iraq
2006 U.S. Joint Chiefs started review of Iraq strategy
2006 Report Iraq had replaced Afghanistan as main training ground for terrorists Insurgents
from Iraq had gone to Afghanistan and Pakistan and imported tactics such as car bombs
2006 Report ruling parties agreed to deal to delay autonomous southern region plan for 18 months
2006 Report DIA found 2005 elections increased sectarian tensions in Iraq Assessment by 50
counterinsurgency experts in August found US forces relied too much on force alienating Iraqis
2006 Mujahadeen Shura Council issued statement saying it could fight the Hamza battalions organized
by Albu Mahal tribe in Qaim because they were enemies of Islam
2007 ISI bombed meeting of police sheikhs and leaders of Hamas of Iraq and 1920 Revolution Brigades in
Baquba
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)
2007 PM Maliki told Council on Foreign Relations he had stopped sectarian war in Iraq Said reconciliation
needed time Wanted long term US military presence Said Iraq and Syria no longer interfering in Iraq and all Iranian support for militias had ended Said Anbar Awakening were sons of Iraq
2007 2nd class of Sahwa in Abu Ghraib graduated from police training Now 1,550 new police 1 policeman
complained Shiite Muthanna Brigade in district were blocking sahwa from operating there
2007 US and ISF arrested 59 soldiers at Defense Ministry’s military academy in Baghdad for carrying out
bombings kidnappings murders Dean led gang at academy Killed academy’s director in 2005 New director was kidnapped by group Received EFPs from Iran
2009 Report Sadr was attempting to reconcile with Asaib Ahl Al-Haq before 2010 elections AAH was to
send delegation to Iran to meet with Sadr
(Musings On Iraq Sadr Tries To Reconcile With Breakaway Legue Of The Righteous)
2017 Kurds held independence referendum in three Kurdish provinces and disputed areas they occupied in
2014
(Musings On Iraq article on KRG referendum)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

3 Province Poll Finds Most Iraqis Feeling Secure

(Shafaaq News)

The group PAX released a survey on security in Iraq in July 2019. It interviewed 1,429 people in Basra, Kirkuk and Salahaddin. The last two were post-war zones, while Basra provided the perspective of Iraqis not directly involved in the conflict. It found that people generally thought the country was better off, although there was some trepidation about the future.

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 24


1920 British took Fallujah during 1920 Revolt
(Musings On Iraq book review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)
1978 In Iran-Iraq deal Iraqi troops surrounded Imam Khomeini’s house in Najaf Told he could only stay in
Iraq if abandoned politics
1979 Iraq warned Iran to not to interfere in Bahrain after Ayatollah Rohani called on Shiites to rise up
against their Sunni rulers
1980 Iraq headed towards Zagros Mountains in slow advance destroying timeline for invasion which was
supposed to be a blitzkrieg Took Mehran in south
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)
1980 Iranian planes attacked 6 Iraqi bases to try to destroy Iraqi air force in the air Iraq didn’t respond
relying upon air defenses 4 Iranian planes shot down 2 others lost Destroyed 3 Iraqi planes on the ground Also bombed 2 refineries in Baghdad and Basra Damaged Iraq-Turkey pipeline
1980 Iraq bombed Iran’s Bandar Khomeini petrochemical complex and Ahwaz fuel depot
1980 Iranian Navy attacked Basra and Fao Peninsula Destroyed 2 oil terminals limited Iraq’s exports
1980 Iran started naval blockade of Shatt al-Arab, Basra
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)
1990 Kurd Shiite and Communist opposition parties claimed united front against Saddam
(Musings On Iraq book review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)
(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)
1990 Joint Chiefs head Gen Powell briefed Bush arguing for sanctions over war with Iraq Bush said he had
to take action
(Musings On Iraq book review The Bush Administrations and Saddam Hussein, Deciding on Conflict)
1991 UN Inspectors found over 53,000 documents on Iraq’s nuclear program at Atheer facility but were
held for 4 days by Iraqis until they could leave During standoff US IAEA member Galluci sent important info about seized documents to State Dept
(Musings On Iraq article UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Saddam Tapes)
1991 Talabani accused Iraqi army of stopping 300,000 displaced Kurds from returning to their homes
2001 William Safire OpEd said clear link between Iraq-Al Qaeda via Ansar al-Islam
(Musings On Iraq Why Didn’t Bush Strike Zarqawi And Ansar al-Islam In 2002?)
2002 UK dossier on Iraq WMD released PM Blair told parliament that Iraq had WMD and it was producing
them Dossier said that Iraq could use WMD in 45 minutes That Iraq could build a nuclear bomb in 2 years Iraq tried to buy uranium from Africa Said no definitive intelligence that aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for nuke program
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
(Musings On Iraq article on Iraq-Niger uranium story)
(Musings On Iraq Book Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)
2002 UK ForSec Cook was surprised dossier on Iraq was mostly old WMD material
2002 CIA Dir Tenet briefed Senate Foreign Relations Committee on intel on Iraq’s WMD Told comm Iraq
rebuilding its nuclear program Proof bought aluminum tubes Mentioned Niger uranium deal Sen Biden asked CIA Dir Tenet what technical evidence did CIA have of Iraqi WMD Tenet said none but had good human source
(Musings On Iraq article on how poor US intel work led to claim Iraq rebuilt its nuclear weapons program)
(Musings On Iraq article Iraq, One Of The Worst Intelligence Failures In US History)
2002 State and Energy Dept intel analysts testified to Senate Foreign Relations Comm that they did not
believe aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for centrifuges
2003 Bremer met Bush said he was optimistic about Iraq but concerned about growing attacks Bremer
complained about Congress number of US troops quality of intel training new Iraqi forces Bush told Bremer he was too controlling and doing too much Bremer said he would work on it
2003 CPA Governor of Anbar Mines warned that attacks and public anger at US growing
2004 Bush and PM Blair talked about staying course in Iraq and PM Allawi needing a professional staff
2004 Report Defense Science Board review found US didn’t have enough troops to stabilize Iraq
2004 US forces claimed Tal Afar cleared of insurgents
2006 Report National Intel Estimate said that Iraq war led ot new generation of Islamic radicalism Said Iraq
war made terrorism worse
2008 Provincial Election Law passed allowing vote on Jan 31 2009 by not including Kirkuk and KRG
(Musings On Iraq article on passing 2008 Election Law)
2008 Natl Command Center said 2000 Diyala Sanwa had been hired into police since July and looking to
recruit 4000 more Def Min said 3000 Diyala Sahwa joined army Came after arrest of Sahwa leaders in May who wanted to run in elections and raids upon Islamic Party aligned with Sahwa Part of PM Maliki’s attempt to divide and conquer Sahwa in Diyala
(Musings On Iraq article on Maliki carrot and stick approach to Diyala Sahwa)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Monday, September 23, 2019

Security In Iraq Sep 8-14, 2019

(Shafaaq News)

The second week of September saw a small dip in incidents from the week before that had a relatively high number of attacks. Islamic State operations were the usual mix of shootings, IEDs and mortar fire, but there were three that were more bold. Another difference was that Diyala was not the most violent area as it has been throughout most of the year.

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 23


1955 Iran joined Ira, England Turkey security agreement Would become anti-Communist Baghdad
Pact
1961 KDP banned by Gen Qasim and several leaders arrested due to Mustafa Barzani’s Kurdish revolt
(Musings On Iraq book review of The Kurds, A Modern History)
(Musings On Iraq book review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)
1980 All Iranian air bases bombed Sep 22 were repaired and launched attacks on 8 Iraqi airfields and the
Dora refinery in Baghdad Lost 7 planes Destroyed 3 Iraqi ones
(Musings On Iraq Inauspicious Start To Iran-Iraq War)
1980 Iraq retaliated with airstrikes on 2 airbases with no real results Lost 4 planes 3 by friendly fire
1980 Iran came up with Operation Kama to attack Iraqi planes in flight because couldn’t destroy them on
the ground
1980 Iraq took Qasr e-Shirin across from Diyala to protect road to Baghdad
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)
1980 Iran bombed Fao port sinking 6 Iraqi navy ships
1980 King Hussein of Jordan said he backed Iraq in war Didn’t want to lose an ally and face Israel Syria
Saudis and Iran alone Became major route for trade and weapons to Iraq
1986 Iran ended Op Karbala 3 in Fao Peninsula and Majnoon Island
1986 Soviet For Min Shevardnadze told UN that USSR was attempting to negotiate end to Iran-Iraq War
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)
(Musings On Iraq book review The Iran-Iraq War)
1989 Kuwait Emir given medal by Saddam in Baghdad for help during Iran-Iraq War
2001 Nat Sec Adv Rice told CNN Iraq would be stage two of war on terror
(Musings On Iraq Iraq, 9/11 And The Bush Administration)
(Musings On Iraq From 9/11 To The Invasion of Iraq: Analysis of Bush Administration Decision Making)
(Musings On Iraq book review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)
(Musings On Iraq book review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy
Tragedy)
2001 Guardian article claimed Iraq knew about 9/11 attacks beforehand Said Iraq gave money and support
to Al Qaeda Claimed Iraqi intel met with Al Qaeda in Pakistan 4 months before 9/11 Sent money to Al Qaeda Quoted Israeli intel officer who said 9/11 probably funded by Iraqi intelligence Quoted INC defector ex-nuke scientist Hamza who said Iraq probably behind 9/11 False story
2001 Telegraph quoted INC defector ex-nuke scientist Hamza that Iraq probably behind 9/11 Claimed
trained pilots for suicide attacks False story
2002 PM Blair told cabinet Iraq dossier would show Iraq expanding WMD capabilities and erosion of
sanctions one cause Educ Sec Morris asked Blair what had changed about Iraq to go to war other than Bush being elected
2002 Former UN inspector Albright for Inst for Science and Intl Security issued report aluminum tubes Iraq
tried to buy were not for centrifuges Probably rockets
(Musings On Iraq article on the aluminum tubes story)
2003 Bush speech at UN said Iraq was frontline in war on terror
2003 Fr Pres Chirac and UN Sec Gen Annan speeches at UN criticized Iraq war saying US undermined
international system 
2003 Gallup pol majority of Iraqis thought life would be better in 5 years 2/3 of Baghdadis said removing
Saddam was worth hardships
2003 Iraqi Governing Council member Aqila Hashemi died after being shot 3 days before outside her home
2004 PM Allawi visited White House asking for more reconstruction money and bringing back old army
units
(Musings On Iraq book review The Occupation of Iraq, Winning The War, Losing The Peace)
2006 Army chief of staff called Gen Petraeus to review Iraq policy
2006 DefPolicyBoard member Adelman told Rumsfeld he was a failure as SecDef and never took
responsibility for Iraq
2006 Report only 1000 of promised 4000 Iraqi soldiers deployed to Baghdad for Op Together Forward II
Iraqi troops refusing to leave their home provinces
2007 ISI accused Hamas of Iraq and 1920 Revolution Brigades of killing its members
(Musings On Iraq book review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)
2016 Sunni tribal Hashd began destroying 220 homes in Aithah Salahaddin belonging to IS sympathizers

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Musings On Iraq In The News

I contributed to this article on Iran sending missiles to Iraq and what the U.S. can do about it "Amid Reports That Iran Is Moving Shor...