1991 Uprising

This timeline covers the southern and Kurdish uprisings in Iraq that followed the end of the Gulf War

 

Musings On Iraq interview with National Univ of Singapore’s Fanar Haddad on the Impact of the 1991 Uprising

Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want

Musings On Iraq Remembering The 1991 Uprising In Iraq

Musings On Iraq Saddam’s View of Iraq’s 1991 Uprising

Ahulbayt Video on 1991 Uprising

Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East

Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents

Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein

 

1991

Feb 15 Pres Bush called on Iraqi military and people to overthrow Saddam twice

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

 

Feb 28 Bush announced cease-fire in Gulf War

Feb 28 Jalal Talabani tried to tell State Dept of impending Kurdish revolt but was turned

            away

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Mar 1 Iraqi army units in Basra began revolt after end of Gulf War

(Musings On Iraq Remembering The 1991 Uprising In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Saddam’s View of Iraq’s 1991 Uprising)

(Ahulbayt Video on 1991 Uprising)

Mar 1 Pres Bush said that the Iraqi people should overthrow Saddam

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

 

Mar 2 Shiite revolt spread to Suq al-Shuyukh and Nasiriyah in Dhi Qar

Mar 2 Shiite rebels attacked military intelligence headquarters in Basra Rebels started

executing Baathists and security personnel

Mar 2 Iraqi Hammurabi Div ordered to move north from Basra to help put down uprising

Fired upon US 24th Inf Div breaking Gulf War ceasefire Was destroyed by US

 

Mar 3 Demonstrations against Saddam started in Najaf following Gulf War Fired upon by

            security forces

 

Mar 4 Najaf and Kufa joined Shiite revolt

Mar 4 Iraqi forces began retaking Basra from rebels

Mar 4 Kurdish rebellion started in Raniya

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Mar 5 Police tried to arrest army deserters in Raniya but Kurdish rebels seized city Began

            executing Baathists and security personnel by throwing them off roof of a building

Mar 5 Karbala joined Shiite revolt

Mar 5 Ayatollah Khoei issued fatwa for people in Najaf to follow Islamic Law Protect

            property during uprising

Mar 5 Secretary of Defense Cheney said US would not be able to hold coalition together if

            it moved on Saddam

Mar 5 US Gen Brandtner said US would not let weapons go to Shiite rebels in southern

            Iraq

Mar 5 Report Saudia Arabia worked with Syria to create Iraq Salvation Movement made up

of Dawa Communists KDP PUK pro-Syrian Baath Party ISCI

 

Mar 6 Saddam appointed cousin Ali Majid Interior Minister to put down uprisings

Mar 6 State Dept spokesman said foreign powers should not get involved in Iraqi

            uprisings

Mar 6 Kurdish uprising started in Kol Sanjaq

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 6 Turkey said it would send troops into Iraq to stop Kurdish independence

 

Mar 7 Ayatollah Khoei issued 2nd fatwa calling for clerical leadership to run Najaf and

restoring order during uprising

Mar 7 Iraqi officials asked for WMD to put down rebellion in Najaf

Mar 7 Bush Admin warned Iraq not to use WMD against Shiite and Kurdish uprisings

Mar 7 Govt forces began artillery and rocket fire on Najaf shrine

Mar 7 Peshmerga began uprising in Sulaymaniya

Mar 7 Saddam offered Shiites and Kurds share in govt in exchange for loyalty oath but

turned down

Mar 7 Iranian Pres Rafsanjani said Saddam was unpopular and should give into popular

demand and step down

 

Mar 8 Peshmerga captured Sulaymaniya from govt forces Executing 700 Baathists and

            security officials

Mar 8 Turkish Pres Ozal changed policy and held talks with KDP and PUK for first time

Mar 8 Iranian Pres Rafsanjani called on Saddam to step down from power

 

Mar 9 Kurdish rebellion started in Halabja and Arbat

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 9 Hussein Kamal led Iraqi forces to retake Karbala from rebels

 

Mar 10 Iranian Revolutionary Guard attacked 2 Mujahedeen e-Khalq camps in Iraq during

            Shiite uprising

(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval Postgraduate School’s Ostovar on history of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard)

Mar 10 Kurdish uprising spread to Tuz Kharmato and Dohuk

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 10 Govt imposed curfew in Kirkuk to try to stop unrest

 

Mar 11 Shiite uprising in Hillah put down

Mar 11 Rebels from Najaf met French forces who said they would meet Gen Schwarzkopf

            Never happened

Mar 11 Kurdish uprising started in Irbil

Mar 11 Massoud Barzani offered amnesty for soldiers who surrender to Peshmerga

Mar 11 Peshmerga began attacking Kirkuk, Iraqi army responded by taking hostages

            inside city

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Mar 12 Govt operation to retake Najaf from Shiite rebels began

Mar 12 Iraqi refugees fleeing country claimed govt forces used napalm to put down

            uprising

 

Mar 13 Pres Bush said Iraqi helicopters should not be used to put down Shiite and

            Kurdish uprisings

Mar 13 Kurdish uprising spread to Zakho

Mar 13 Kurdistan Front announced council to run Kurdish areas during uprising

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 13 325 Iraqi opposition leaders from 23 factions met in Beirut to discuss uprising

            in Iraq Led to Free Iraqi Council led by Saad Salih Jabr

(Musings On Iraq Origins Of Iraq’s Ethnosectarian Quota System)

Mar 13 Was anti-govt protest in Baghdad

 

Mar 14 Pres Bush warned Iran not to take advantage of Iraq uprisings to try to annex

            any territory

 

Mar 15 Saddam declared southern revolt over

Mar 15 Rebels in Diwanaiya attempted and failed to take Hillah

Mar 15 Iraqi govt forces began operation to retake Tuz Kharmato from Peshmerga

Mar 15 US met with Iraqis Told them they could not fly planes Objected to Iraqis using

helicopters to put down Shiite uprising Iraq said rebellion led by Iran

Mar 15 U.S. shot down Iraqi fighter after warned it no flights allowed during uprisings

 

Mar 16 Saddam made 1st address since Gulf War Blamed southern uprising on Iran Said

            Kurds worked with foreigners & always defeated

 

Mar 17 Iraqi army began assault to retake Karbala from Shiite rebels

Mar 17 Refugee claimed govt killed 250-300 people of Najaf after Shiite uprising

Mar 17 Kurds began fleeing Tuz Kharmato in face of govt offensive to retake it

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 17 Baghdad held 1st tribal loyalty ceremony to shore up support during uprising

Mar 17 Saddam said he would introduce democracy and create a new constitution

 

Mar 18 Secretary of State Baker after tour of Middle East and Soviet Union said most

            leaders thought Saddam would be gone by end of year

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

Mar 18 Kurdish leader Rahman called for international help with food and medicine

            during uprising None came

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 18 Report Bush admin expected Saddam gone by end of 91 Said expected Baathists to

remain in power Didn’t support break up of country Thought Shiite opposition pro-Iran

 

Mar 19 Saddam’s troops recaptured Karbala from Shiite rebels Went district to district

            taking young men and executing them

Mar 19 Govt forces arrested Ayatollah Khoei following Shiite uprising 105 relatives staff

            students & clerics arrested in Najaf by govt forces

Mar 19 Bush admin officials accused Iran of trying to overthrow Saddam and place

            friendly Shiites in power in Baghdad

 

Mar 20 Kirkuk fell to Kurdish rebels Began executing Baathists and security officials

Mar 20 Kurdish leaders said that all of Iraqi Kurdistan had been liberated from Iraqi

            forces

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 20 Ayatollah Khoei made to appear with Saddam on TV to denounce Shiite uprising

            The Ayatollah was then placed under house arrest in Najaf

Mar 20 Report Kuwait and many other Arab govts all believed Iran behind 91 uprising

 

Mar 21 Govt offensive to retake Kirkuk from peshmerga began day after Kurds took it

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 21 Govt announced state of emergency in Baghdad

 

Mar 22 US shot down another Iraqi fighter after warned it no flights during uprisings

Mar 22 Turkey held second meeting with KDP and PUK Talabani said this marked a new

            page in Kurdish-Turkish relations

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Mar 23 Sadoun Hammadi, a Shiite became premier as Saddam tried to appease Shiites

            while putting down uprising

 

Mar 24 Turkish Pres Ozal met Bush in US and told him an independent Kurdistan in Iraq

            would lead to greater Kurdistan affecting Turkey Syrian Iran

 

Mar 26 Fierce fighting between Iraqi forces and Peshmerga on Khanaqin-Jalawla road,

            Diyala

Mar 26 Talabani returned to Iraq after 3 years Gave speech talking about freeing all of Iraq

            working with Iraqi opposition to create a provisional govt 

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 26 White House meeting on Iraq uprising Decided not to get involved

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

Mar 26 Bush told press Iraqi rebels had not asked U.S. for help during uprising

Mar 26 Bush administration said they would not stop Iraq from using helicopters to

            put down uprisings

Mar 26 Bush National Security Adviser Scowcorft secretly met Saudi King Fahd who told

            US to stay out of 1991 uprising

 

Mar 27 2nd day of fighting between Iraqi forces and Peshmerga on Khanaqin-Jalawla road,

            Diyala

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 27 White House spokesman said that US had made no promises to Shiites or Kurds

            and US public not interested in getting involved in an Iraqi civil war

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

 

Mar 28 SCIRI head Hakim said Shiite rebels in south only fighting in rural areas after

            lost cities to Iraqi army

 

Mar 29 Iraqi troops recaptured Kirkuk from Kurdish rebels

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 29 Iraqi troops captured Tanuma, Basra from rebels

 

Mar 30 Saddam’s troops re-entered Dohuk and Irbil to put down Kurdish rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Mar 30 Majid al-Khoei son of Grand Ayatollah al-Khoei met with Saudi intelligence and

was turned down for aid because US objections

 

Mar 31 Govt op to retake Sulaymaniya from Peshemerga began

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 1 Peshmerga repelled govt attack to retake Sulaymaniya

Apr 1 Saddam’s forces put down Kurdish revolt in Zakho

Apr 1 Barzani said 3 mil Kurds had fled to northern mountains along Turkish border

            to escape govt attacks

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 2 State Dept U.S. never said that it was for removing Saddam

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

Apr 2 Turkey said that 30,000 Kurds had entered country and 220,00 more coming as

            Saddam put down Kurdish revolt

Apr 2 Iran and Turkey went to UN about Iraq’s suppression of Kurd and Shiite revolts

            and refugee crisis it was creating

Apr 2 Kurds began fleeing Sulaymaniya in face of govt offensive to retake it from

            Peshmerga

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 3 Saddam’s troops captured Sulaymaniya last major town held by Kurdish rebels

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

Apr 3 Saddam told aides that Iraqi army was psychologically defeated by Gulf War

            and that was why Shiites and Kurds rose up against govt

(Musings On Iraq Saddam’s View of Iraq’s 1991 Uprising)

 

Apr 4 Report Pres Bush gave CIA okay to support opposition in Iraq led to creation of Voice

of Free Iraq radio station run by Saudis during Gulf War Didn’t allow support for 91 uprising

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

Apr 4 Britain offered $37 mil in humanitarian aid to Kurds

Apr 4 Turkey said it couldn’t support Kurdish refugees flowing into country so shut

            border 10,000 crossed into Turkey 80,000 held at border

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 5 Saddam declared that Kurdish and Shiite rebellions were crushed following Gulf

            War

Apr 5 UN Resolution 688 condemned Saddam’s repression of its civilian population

Apr 5 Some displaced Kurds began leaving mountains after govt appeals to them while

            Turkey let 80,000 into country

Apr 5 Bush authorized airdrops of supplies to Kurds

 

Apr 6 UNHCR est 750,000 Kurds fled to Iran and 280,000 to Turkey and 300,000

            on Iraq-Turkey border

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 7 Sec of State Baker condemned Iraq crimes against its people but said US would

            not get involved

Apr 7 US began humanitarian airdrops to Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 12 Report Bush admin decided that Shiite and Kurdish uprisings after Gulf

            War strengthened Saddam and ended hopes of coup

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

 

Apr 13 Pres Bush said US would send humanitarian aid to Iraq and condemned govt

            attacks on civilians but would not get more involved

 

Apr 16 Bush denied US responsible for telling Iraqis to revolt and then not supporting

them

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

(Musings On Iraq Review The United States And Iraq Since 1990, A Brief History With Documents)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

Apr 16 Pres Bush said that US would set up relief camps in Kurdistan to help refugees

            after Saddam put down revolt

Apr 16 Baghdad and Kurds announced ceasefire and start of talks

 

Apr 18 Saddam agreed to UN setting up offices in Iraq to help displaced following

            Shiite and Kurdish uprisings

Apr 18 Report 500-1,000 displaced Kurds were dying a day along Iraq-Turkey border

 

Apr 21 Iraqi govt forces began attack on southern marshes in Maysan Basra and Dhi Qar

            to root out rebels

 

Apr 22 Report that Iranian intelligence and Revolutionary Guard working in Iraq to help

revolts

(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval Postgraduate School’s Ostovar on history of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard)

 

May 1 68,000 displaced caused by uprising following Gulf War

 

May 12 Baghdad took journalists to mass grave with 100 bodies it claims were killed

            by Iranians and Shiite rebels in southern Iraq

 

 

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