British Mandate In Iraq (1919-32)

This timeline covers the period after World War I when the British tried direct rule over Iraq after creating the country out of three Ottoman provinces (Basra, Baghdad, Mosul)

 

Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny

Musings On Iraq review A Short History of Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied

Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930

Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921

Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East

Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East

Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell And Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam

Musings On Iraq review Iraq in Turmoil, Historical Perspectives of Dr. Ali al-Wardi, From the Ottoman Empire to King Faisal

Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941

Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989

Musings On Iraq review The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State

Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History

Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope

Musings On Iraq review Understanding Iraq, the Whole Sweep of Iraqi History, from Genghis Khan’s Mongols to the Ottoman Turks to the British Mandate to the American Occupation

Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between Occupations, Perspectives from 1920 to the Present

Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad

Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq

Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies

Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970

Musings On Iraq review Iraq and Gertrude Bell’s The Arab of Mesopotamia

Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970

Musings On Iraq review The Making of Iraq 1900-1963, Capital, Power and Ideology

Musings On Iraq review Iraq and Imperialism, Thomas Lyell’s The Ins and Outs of Mesopotamia

 

1918

 

Nov 16 UK High Commissioner Wilson wrote average Iraqi saw the future of Iraq with British

and agreed with occupation

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Dec 1 UK PM George asked French PM Clemenceau to renegotiate Sykes-Picot giving Mosul

to British Got French to agree In return France got stake in Iraqi oil and Syria

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Dec 17 UK cabinet member Amery said Mesopotamia should be under British administration after

war

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1919

Apr 8 UK and France began negotiations to give France oil concession in Iraq for UK getting

Mosul province

 

Apr 18 France and England signed Long-Berenger oil deal France got 20% of Iraqi oil via

Turkish Petroleum Company France agreed to help build oil pipeline from Iraq to Mediterranean

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

 

May 1 War Min Churchill wrote PM George that British army was overstretched

            with new additions like Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

May 21 UK PM George abrogated Long-Berenger UK-French oil deal due to

disagreement with France over Iraq-Syrian border George wanted Iraq to extend to Mediterranean

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

 

May 22 Sheikh Mohmoud Barzanji started rebellion against British in Sulaymaniya

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 12 Churchill wrote Lloyd George saying were too many troops in Mesopotamia that

could crush its finances

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Aug 13 War Min Churchill told PM George that keeping large British forces in Mesopotamia was           a financial drain

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Aug 30 War Min Churchill wrote that half the British forces in Mesopotamia should

            be sent home

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Sep 25 Churchill wrote Gen MacMunn commander in Mesopotamia that his plan to reduce

troop by 120,000 by spring of 1920 need to be vastly sped up and keeping that many troops would crush the finances of Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

 

1920

Jan 4 Cpt Mann UK political officer in Shamiya said that Iraqis were angry that

            British had not kept WWI promises of independence

 

Jan 23 British cabinet decided Iraqi oil would be developed by a public company Foreign

Secretary Lord Curzon overturned decision Decided Turkish Petroleum Company would keep its oil rights signed with Ottomans

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Jan 28 Turkish National Pact said Turkey gave up rights to all Ottoman provinces with

Arab majorities including Basra and Baghdad Did not include Mosul province which Turkey claimed had a Turkish majority Kurds were called Turks

Jan 28 British also claimed Mosul province which it occupied after armistice with Ottomans in 1918

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Feb 7 War Min Churchill wrote there were far too many British troops in Iraq than could be

sustained and therefore a new Iraq policy should be created

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Mar 8 Hundreds of ex-Ottoman soldiers including many Iraqis petitioned Prince Faisal

            about how Arab revolt didn’t work out during WWI Went to Iraq to fight British

 

Apr 19 Start of San Remo meeting with Britain France Italy and Japan Decided on split

            up of Ottoman Empire and creation of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Apr 23 Ataturk gave speech demanding Turkey’s southern territories include Mosul and

            Sulaymaniya

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Apr 24 UK gave France 25% of Turkish Petroleum Company in return for agreeing to British

            mandate in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

 

Apr 25 San Remo Agreement created British Mandate in Iraq France agreed to give up

            Mosul vilyat in return for oil concessions in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

(Musings On Iraq review An Analysis of Hanna Batatu’s The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

May 5 British mandate announced in Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

(Musings On Iraq review An Analysis of Hanna Batatu’s The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

May 12 US protested to England about San Remo agreement’s division of Iraqi oil

            between France and England saying London promised open door policy in region

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

May 17 Huge joint Sunni-Shiite demonstration in Baghdad during Ramadan against

            British rule

(Musings On Iraq review A Short History of Iraq)

 

Jun 2 Revolt against British started when sheikh in mid-Euphrates refused British

            Taxation, arrested and freed by tribe

(Musings On Iraq review A Short History of Iraq)

Jun 2 Ex-Ottoman Iraqi officers marched from Syria to Tal Afar hoping to spark revolt

            against British there Joined by Shammar and Jabouri tribes

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jun 4 Ex-Ottoman officers and Shammar and Jabouri tribes arrived in Tal Afar to fight

            British and seize town

 

Jun 5 Ex-Ottoman Iraqi officers and Shammar and Jabouri tribes took Tal Afar from

            British

 

Jun 6 Sir Percy Cox was reassigned to run Iraq from his posting in Persia

 

Jun 7 Ex-Ottoman soldiers led by Jameel al-Midfai reached Mosul with about 1,000 men

            hoping to start revolt against British

 

Jun 8 Ex-Ottoman officers and soldiers attacked Mosul but were defeated by British

 

Jun 9 British forces retook Tal Afar after bombing broke Iraqi rebels

 

Jun 13 War Min Churchill wrote PM George that British army over extended in

Mesopotamia and asked whether UK should give up Mosul province because of costs

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jun 15 War Min Churchill wrote UK Cabinet that he was ready to give up Mosul

            province to save costs

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jun 21 Foreign Min Lord Curzon wrote that Iraq High Comm Wilson’s ideas were

            backwards and him leading Mandate was a problem Wilson rejected self-rule

 

Jun 28 Was meeting in Mishkhab Najaf to plan for revolt against British

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 5 Revolt leaders in Shamiya passed demands to British Wanted full independence

End to fighting Withdrawal of British administrators from Mid-Euphrates Release of leading cleric Shirazi

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 6 British forces defeated by tribal forces in Aridiyat during 1920 Revolt British lost

            48 dead and 167 wounded

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 13 Tribal forces surrounded British garrison at Abu Skhair during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 14 Banu Hassan tribe joined 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 15 UK Chief General Staff Wilson heard of 1920 revolt and ordered dispatch

            of division from India to put it down

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 17 British worked out ceasefire with Iraqi rebels to end siege of Abu Sukhair

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 19 Start of 2nd Battle of Aridiyat between British and tribal forces

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 20 Pro-Independence delegation of Iraqis met UK High Commissioner Wilson who

invited 20 pro-British Iraqis Meeting went nowhere British later tried to arrest pro-independence delegates

Jul 20 British reinforcements arrived helping defeat tribal fighters in 2nd Battle of Aridiyat

Jul 20 Tribal fighters laid siege to Kufa

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 22 Albu Hassan took Kifil from British 1920 Revolt All of Mid-Euphrates under

            tribal control except for Hillah Babil

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

Jul 22 TE Lawrence wrote British officials refused to give Iraq autonomy

 

Jul 24 British regiment driven from Kifl during 1920 Revolt after losing 180 men killed

            and 160 captured

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 25 Karbala joined 1920 Revolt Tribal fighters beat British at Raranjiya

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Jul 26 Gertrude Bell wrote that Baghdad started the 1920 Revolt but not lost control of

            it when tribes rose up and they listened to no one Baghdad did not start revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Jul 28 US complained 2nd time to England about San Remo agreement that divided

            Iraq’s oil between England and France

 

Jul 30 War Minister Churchill approved sending division to Mesopotamia from India

            to put down 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 6 UK Cabinet decided to send Sir Percy Cox to Baghdad to help deal with 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 9 UK For Sec Lord Curzon replied to US complaints about San Remo agreement

saying US would not be shut out of Iraq oil and was just business deal not treaty Curzon was not being truthful

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

Aug 9 Railway line to Baghdad cut by tribal fighters in Diyala during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 10 Treaty of Sevres started the break-up of the Ottoman Empire including ceding

Mesopotamia to the British Treaty included call for a Kurdish state and full protection for Assyrians Turkey rejected treaty Also claimed Mosul province citing Madrid armistice when British forces only held small part of vilyat

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 12 British military cmdr Sir Haldane criticized High Commissioner Wilson for

            failing to arrest notables in Baghdad that supported 1920 Revolt

Aug 12 UK Col Leachman killed by Sheikh Dhari in Fallujah helping to spread 1920 revolt to the

west

Aug 12 British forces ordered to withdraw from Baquba to Baghdad leaving city to tribal

            fighters during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 13 6 British officials were killed during 1920 Revolt in Shahraban

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 15 British PM Lloyd George wrote Sir Herbert Samuel that the French strongly

objected to Faisal becoming King of Iraq George felt that Faisal was a weak leader

 

Aug 17 Ex-Ottoman Iraqi officers asked leading Shiite cleric Shirazi for money Were

            rejected by Sayid Tabikh who called the officers mercenaries

 

Aug 25 British gave limited self-rule in Najaf to try to stop 1920 Revolt there

Aug 25 UK Cmdr Gen Haldane wrote that almost all the tribes north of Diyala had

            joined the revolt and was afraid it was spreading to Kirkuk and Irbil

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 26 War Minister Churchill wrote PM George that he thought reinforcements from India

            would lead to victory in 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 27 British forced to withdraw from Shatra during 1920 Revolt British were able to

            retake Baquba from tribes

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Aug 30 War Minister Churchill denied Middle East commander Gen Haldane additional

reinforcements to put down 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Sep 1 All but 1 policeman abandoned his job in Suq al-Shuyuk during 1920 Revolt

            Forced British to withdraw from town

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Sep 5 Gertrude Bell wrote that Iraq was in the middle of a jihad during 1920 revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Sep 19 Gertrude Bell said 1920 Revolt was result of British not fulfilling promises to give Iraqis

their own govt Said UK was about to give Iraqis freedoms that no one in London ever thought of a result of revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Sep 24 British took Fallujah during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Sep 26 Ramadi fell to British during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 1 Sir Percy Cox landed in Basra as new British high commissioner of Iraq Was

            told to prepare for Iraqi independence

 

Oct 3 Gertrude Bell called mujtahids a group of popes standing in the way of British

plans Claimed Shiites were problem in Iraq Said Sunnis should rule Iraq because Shiites would impose a religions state That was why Mosul province had to be included in Iraq to add more Sunnis Said British were looking for Iraqi to be new ruler but couldn’t find one so had to pick a son of Sharif of Mecca

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Oct 4 All of Upper Euphrates modern day Anbar was under British control during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 8 US Consul in Baghdad blamed UK High Commissioner Wilson’s heavy administration taxes

and bombing civilians for causing 1920 revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 10 Sayid Abu Tabikh made head of Iraqi provisional govt during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 12 Tribes lost Rwairij to British during 1920 Revolt Led to clerics in Karbala to begin to

surrender

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 17 Kufa fell to British during 1920 Revolt Led to surrender of Najaf next day Tribal siege of

Diwaniya also ended

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 18 Najaf surrendered to British in 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Oct 25 Jaafar al-Askari former Ottoman officer and officer in Arab Kingdom of Syria with King

Faisal made Defense Minister Used 10 officers including brother in law Col Nuri al-Said to begin creation of new Royal Iraqi Army

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Oct 26 UK High Commissioner Sir Cox formed Iraqi provisional govt after 1920 Revolt led British

to give up direct rule Abd Naqib of Baghdad was premier Had 21 ministers 12 with no portfolios Naqib opposed giving any ministries to Shiites

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

Oct 26 UK High Commissioner Sir Cox said Basra province showed no support for Mandate

Merchants in province just wanted to maintain status quo Mid-Euphrates sheikhs and landlords the same Baghdad and Mosul provinces want to have role in govt Intellectuals were nationalists

 

Nov 3 UK Foreign Office official suggested US Standard Oil be allowed oil rights in Iraq to not

allow Turkish Petroleum Company a monopoly and faster development of industry

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

Nov 3 Gertrude Bell said Shiites were complaining about not being represented in cabinet but

dismissed them as being mostly Persians

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Nov 11 League of Nations announced British Mandate in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review An Analysis of Hanna Batatu’s The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Nov 11 Abdul al-Rahman al-Gaylani became Iraq’s 1st PM

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

 

Nov 15 Report to UK Foreign Office said provisional Iraqi govt was set up in Karbala

            during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Nov 20 US complained 3rd time to UK about San Remo agreement that divided up Iraqi oil

between France and England

Nov 20 British worked out ceasefire with Hachcham tribe last one fighting in 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Nov 26 Last British correspondence saying that 1920 Revolt had ended UK lost 2,269 Iraqis

            8,450

(Musings On Iraq review of Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

 

Nov 29 Gertrude Bell wrote few tribes were talking about self rule and many rejected it in Basra

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Nov 30 British said all of its colonial offices were under control of Iraq council of state

 

Dec 2 UK High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Henry Dobbs wrote that conscription in Iraq would

cause revolt and was already problem in Basra Said authority of Iraqi govt depended upon British backing and military power

 

Dec 4 Churchill wrote PM George that his desire to hold Mosul and Mesopotamia was     compromised by his anti-Turk policy that was threatening Mosul

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Dec 13 Churchill argued at cabinet meeting that British should withdraw to Basra province to save

money in Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Dec 23 Iraq-Syria border set with Deir Ezzour going to latter

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

 

Dec 25 Gertrude Bell wrote that Faisal was the only solution to Iraq and its first choice to be king

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Dec 31 Iraq High Commissioner Sir Cox reported that many sheikhs of large confederations

supported Mandate and didn't want an Iraqi govt

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

1921

Jan 6 Govt issued order to form Iraqi General Staff Nuri al-Said became Chief of Staff 1st unit of

Iraqi army formed Recruited 250 former Ottoman officers and sent them for British training

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Jan 8 Churchill wrote British High Commissioner Sir Percy Cox saying too expensive to maintain

British forces in Mesopotamia therefore Arab govt should be created to run things

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jan 9 Foreign Secretary Lord Curzon wrote Churchill supporting Faisal for Iraq’s monarch

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Jan 10 Gertrude Bell letter said if British had created Iraqi state 2 years ago there would

            have been no 1920 Revolt and blamed High Commissioner Wilson

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Jan 12 Churchill wrote Sir Percy Cox asking him what he thought of Faisal

Jan 12 Churchill wrote to Foreign Minister Lord Curzon Said that Faisal might be best man to be

Iraq’s monarch

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Jan 22 Gertrude Bell wrote that British officers in Mosul province thought they could

            convince Kurds to vote for Faisal as king in referendum They didn’t

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Feb 7 Gertrude Bell wrote that Shiites were mad that they were not in govt and govt

            wanted to remain all Sunni

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Feb 22 Churchill wrote PM George that he thought an Arab govt should be created to run

            Mesopotamia for UK

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Feb 24 Churchill met with French who argued against Faisal being put in power in

            Mesopotamia because of his record in Syria against France

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Mar 12 Start of Cairo Conference where Britain decided on its future Middle East policy

with Mesopotamia being a centerpiece Colonial Secretary Churchill’s main concern at Cairo Conference was cutting costs for London Said British troops would be withdrawn in Mesopotamia as quickly as possible Air power would be used instead for control Sir Percy Cox and Gen Haldane objected to Churchill’s troops reduction plan saying soldiers still needed in Mesopotamia Royal Air Force said it would need another year to set up in Mesopotamia Meant Churchill could not withdraw British troops as quickly as he wanted Most at conference supported a Hashemite either Faisal or Abdullah becoming ruler in Mesopotamia Churchill said putting Faisal in power in Mesopotamia would be part of larger policy to have Hashemites beholden to England in Mecca and Transjordan Churchill believed putting Faisal in power would lead to Mesopotamian govt that could run things and save UK money Churchill was open to creating a Kurdish state Thought would be a buffer between Turkey and Mesopotamia Sir Percy Cox and Gertrude Bell argued for a unitary Mesopotamian state that included Kurds at Cairo Conference

(Musings On Iraq How England Chose Feisal As 1st King Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Mar 12 Colonial Secretary Churchill wrote PM George saying UK troop costs in

            Mesopotamia were a huge waste and there would be a quick withdrawal

 

Mar 16 Churchill told Foreign Secretary Lloyd George there was no longer a plan for a Kurdish

state Instead Kurds would be included in new Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 19 UK Cairo Conference decided that independent Mesopotamia govt would pay

part of British expenses especially for troops Decided that Sir Percy Cox would offer amnesty for those involved in 1920 Revolt Then Faisal would offer his services to Mesopotamia as a way into power Decided an Anglo-Mesopotamia treaty would be necessary to ensure relations between two countries

(Musings On Iraq How England Chose Feisal As 1st King Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Mar 21 Colonial Secretary Churchill wrote PM George lobbying for Faisal to be approved

            as new ruler of Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Mar 22 UK Cabinet approved Colonial Secretary Churchill’s choice of Faisal as new

            ruler in Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Mar 23 UK Foreign Secretary told French Ambassador to UK that London had run into

problems and large expenses in Mesopotamia and that had led to decision to give the Arabs their own govt

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Mar 30 Cairo Conference decided on indirect rule in Iraq Would make Faisal King of a pro-

British Iraqi govt allowing withdrawal of British forces Would keep naval presence in Basra RAF squadrons in rest of Iraq Maintained British High Commissioner for Iraq and advisers within Iraqi govt

(Musings On Iraq How England Chose Feisal As 1st King Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Apr 17 UK High Commissioner in Iraq Sir Cox exiled Sayid Talib to Ceylon because he

            aspired to be king and opposed Faisal for position

 

Apr 20 Churchill wrote Iraq High Commissioner Cox that Faisal needed to be told all

British would be out of Iraq by end of year unless he gave up demands for more power

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

May 3 Gertrude Bell wrote Mid-Euphrates tribes were perplexed that British picked Faisal to be

            King of Iraq when he led revolt against British while king of Syria

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

May 26 Govt passed law allowing for enlistment to new Iraqi army

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Jun 12 Gertrude Bell wrote that Faisal entering Iraq with the British wouldn’t have been as good

            as him leading a jihad but he would still be an inspiration to the new Arab state of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Jun 14 Churchill asked Colonial Office if King Faisal was Sunni or Shiite and who were

            the religious people in Karbala

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

 

Jul 7 American consul in Baghdad wrote that Faisal would become King of Iraq even

            though he was unpopular in the country

Jul 7 Gertrude Bell noted that Iraqi notables couldn’t wait for election to appoint Faisal

            King because would take 2 months and that was too long

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Jul 11 Iraq council of state declared Faisal monarch of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

 

Jul 16 Council of state confirmed plebiscite choosing Faisal as king of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

 

Jul 19 Royal Iraqi Military College opened

 

Aug 1 Gertrude Bell wrote US diplomat that England carried Faisal on its shoulders into power

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Aug 6 Gertrude Bell wrote that Iraq might be the best chance England had to straighten out the

            Mideast and if it worked it would change relations between Europe and Asia

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Aug 14 Gertrude Bell wrote that Kurds in Irbil and Mosul had voted for Faisal in referendum and

            in return they would get Kurdish officials

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Aug 15 Faisal said he wouldn’t accept restrictions on sovereignty included in UK’s

            Iraq mandate Wanted an Anglo-Iraq treaty that would give him full power

Aug 15 Churchill wrote Iraq Commissioner Cox that Faisal needed to stop making

            demands of UK and do what London told him

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Aug 19 UK cabinet decided Faisal would be coronated king and then Anglo-Iraq treaty drafted

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

 

Aug 21 King Faisal’s coronation Started negotiations over Anglo-Iraq treaty

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Sep 4 Colonial Secretary Churchill memo said he supported Iraqi govt and independence to

            maintain British influence in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Sep 10 1st Iraqi cabinet formed under newly coronated King Faisal

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Sep 12 Abd al-Rahman al-Naqib named Iraq’s 1st PM Were 14 govts under Mandate

 

Sep 25 Gertrude Bell wrote Faisal was unpopular and resented for being installed by British

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Oct 1 UK Air Marshall Sir Salmond named military commander in Iraq

 

Nov 24 Churchill memo said when King Faisal could pay for his own govt he could decide the

future of Iraq Until then UK was footing the bill

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

1922

Feb 1 UK intel report said cabinet told Def Min to count time in Arab Revolt in WWI

double for pensions vs officers that joined afterward to privilege ex-Ottoman officers that originally joined King Faisal Favored Iraqi leaders like Jaafar al-Askari and Nuri al-Said

 

Feb 8 UK Secretary of State for War Evans wrote cabinet Iraqi army weak British

military presence small Iraq vulnerable to Turkey tribal unrest so UK should withdraw from Mosul and fall back to just Basra

 

Feb 9 UK cabinet adopted Colonial Secretary Churchill’s proposal to put Royal Air

Force in charge of security in Iraq replacing army Churchill believed RAF control would cut costs for London

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

Feb 16 Gertrude Bell complained to her father that King Faisal had surrounded himself with

            nationalists that demanded Iraq’s complete independence from England

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Feb 21 British official told Foreign Office it should back King Faisal because that would allow

            England to exit Iraq and escape expenses of running country

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Mar 6 King Faisal threatened to end Anglo-Iraq treaty talks if term mandate wasn’t dropped from

Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Mar 11 Wahabi Ikhwan from Saudi Arabia attacked south of Nasiriya slaughtering civilians

 

Mar 27 General Haldane commander of UK forces compared Iraqis to children

 

Apr 6 Fatwa issued by Shiite clerics said Saudi Ikhwan were brigands and Shiites

            could fight them published in Iraqi paper

Apr 6 Shiite tribes mostly responsive to fatwa against Ikhwan Clerics were hoping

            Sunni tribes would also respond but they thought Baghdad should deal with issue

 

Apr 9 Karbala conference led to call for war against Wahbis unless compensation paid

            for raid in southern Iraq and if Ibn Saud didn’t punish Ikhwan

Apr 9 Ikhwan invasion of south Iraq resolved by letters between Iraq and Saudis

            Ibn Saud apologized for attack

 

Apr 19 Colonial Secretary Churchill said King Faisal’s demand that mandate be dropped

            from Iraq impossible under League of Nations that created mandate

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Apr 28 UK Iraq Commissioner Cox said King Faisal racially weak for disagreeing with him

 

May 24 Mujtahid Sheikh Mahdi al-Khalisi told mid-Euphrates tribes that British trying

            to get their way with new Anglo-Iraq treaty

 

Jun 4 Gertrude Bell said King Faisal was indecisive and lacked backbone to stand up to others

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

 

Jun 21 Nephew of cleric Khalisi arrested for posting anti-election fatwa in Khadimiya

Baghdad When police tried to arrest man for posting anti-election fatwa followers came to his aid but still detained

Jun 21 Mujtahid Khalisi called for shop closings in Khadimiya to protest nephew’s arrest Few

complied

 

Jun 22 Standard Oil told State Dept that it and other US companies were interested in

            exploring in Iraq

Jun 22 Gertrude Bell wrote that Shiites were all under the pay of leading cleric Sheikh Mahdi

            al-Khalisi who she said wasn’t an Arab but a Persian

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Aug 23 King Faisal struck by appendicitis leading to surgery Was no Iraqi govt at time

Aug 23 British High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox assumed control of Iraqi govt

while King Faisal had surgery and recovered Cox banned opposition, exiled and deported its leaders banned two opposition papers Silenced opposition and Shiite leaders

 

Aug 24 On anniversary of King Faisal’s coronation opposition gave him a petition

calling for an assembly to draft a constitution, elections for a parliament, and independence for Iraq

Aug 24 On his way to celebration for anniversary of King Faisal’s coronation British

High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox was met by anti-British slogans being chanted outside the palace During celebration Haras Party leader Basir gave anti-British speech Cox demanded King punish perpetrators

 

Aug 25 British High Commissioner for Iraq Cox demanded apology from King Faisal

            for anti-Mandate comment at his party

 

Aug 26 King Faisal apologized to British Iraqi Commissioner Sir Cox for anti-British comment

            made at his coronation anniversary party

 

Aug 29 Turkish troops testing border with Iraq attacked Rania in Sulaymaniya

 

Aug 31 Gertrude Bell wrote King Faisal telling him that he was vain and weak

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Sep 1 UK Colonial Secretary Churchill wrote PM Lloyd George UK position in Iraq tenuous

Said Iraqi officials fouling up some provinces Iraq likely to face another budget deficit Differences with US meant Iraq oil not developed British had to keep troops in Mosul due to threat from Turkey Churchill argued that England should withdraw from Iraq because too costly

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

 

Sep 2 Turkish troops tested border with Iraq Seized Rania in Sulaymaniya after four days of

            fighting

 

Sep 5 UK PM George told Colonial Secretary Churchill England was going to stay in

            Iraq because of its oil potential George had thought about complete withdrawal

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Sep 8 Gertrude Bell wrote that while King Faisal was beloved he was also weak and that was

because he was Oriental Was in relation to Faisal’s demand for Iraqi independence which Bell believed was due to Faisal’s nationalist advisers that she saw as troublemakers

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

 

Sep 10 King Faisal returned to office after his appendices were removed King thanked British high Commissioner Sir Percy Cox for running govt in his absence and for shutting down opposition

 

Sep 11 Colonial Secretary Churchill told King Faisal accepted England supporting Iraq’s

membership in League of Nations after Anglo-Iraq Treaty signed Faisal demanded Iraqi sovereignty and thought he had right to League membership without England

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Sep 30 PM Naqib named new cabinet Were 14 govts under Mandate

 

Oct 1 UK Air Marshall Sir Salmond named military commander in Iraq

 

Oct 5 King Faisal accepted Anglo-Iraq Treaty

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

Oct 5 UK Secretary of State for War Evans lobbied cabinet to withdraw from Mosul province

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Oct 10 Anglo-Iraq Treaty signed Opposition parties opposed it Allowed British advisers in Iraqi

govt who would be paid for by Baghdad Said King Faisal would follow suggestions of High Commissioner for Iraq Military would be under British command Foreign relations would be controlled by London Services would be turned over to Iraq but it would have to pay costs of building them Iraq would run railroad but would be British owned Basra port would be run by trust under British direction Port would owe England $2.5 million Turkish debt would be held by Iraqi govt Foreigners charged with crimes would go to British court Was to last 20 years

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Oct 25 Gertrude Bell wrote that King Faisal was trying to create his own party made up

            of “extremists” but they were playing him

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Nov 11 UK Colonial Sec argued UK should keep Mosul Said if Turks gained Mosul would be

            threat to UK holdings in Iraq and King Faisal

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Nov 15 Elections brought new PM Law to power in England who wanted to withdraw from Iraq

            Created Iraq commission to review policy

 

Nov 16 UK cabinet voted to keep Mosul province as part of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Nov 20 Abd Sadoun became Iraq’s 2nd PM His orders were to organize elections for an assembly to

write constitution Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

Nov 20 Lausanne conference convened to end WWI with Ottomans and decide whether British or

Turks got Mosul vilyat

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Dec 11 Colonial Office wrote only reason King Faisal accepted in Iraq was because he was

            backed by British

 

Dec 12 Sir Herbert Samuel proposed UK create Arab state of Iraq Hijaz Palestine Trans-Jordan

maybe Najd Samuel believed large Arab state would contain pan-Arab desire and assuage fears of increased Jewish presence in Palestine because they would be part of a much larger Arab country

 

Dec 16 UK Lord of the Admiralty told Iraq commission Iraq oil would be important in case of war in

Far East

 

Dec 22 British cabinet said it wanted an independent Iraq and that Anglo-Iraq treaty would be best

way to maintain relationship

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Dec 24 Anglo-Iraq declaration to League of Nations talked about giving Kurds rights and own govt

in their region

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

1923

Jan 3 Administrative Inspectors Law reduced number of British advisers to Iraqi govt offices and

limited their power

 

Feb 15 UK Head of Board of Trade Sir Graeme told Iraq commission Iraq too costly and British

            should withdraw

 

Feb 27 UK High Commissioner in Iraq Cox wrote London that Faisal complained Anglo-Iraq treaty

was only new phase of mandate instead of ending it

 

Mar 23 UK Iraq commission issued final report Said British withdrawal would probably lead to

collapse of King Faisal and humiliation for British Said England should stay in Iraq to maintain pro-British govt in Arab world oppose Turkish expansion control Persian Gulf and Iraq oil

 

Apr 12 In response to Turkish threat to Mosul mujtahids issued fatwa forbidding Iraqis to fight for

British against fellow Muslims the Turks

Apr 12 Gertrude Bell wrote that mujtahids were all Persians and should be deported for issuing fatwa

against Iraq defending Mosul against Turks

(Musings On Iraq review of Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

 

Apr 22 British troops occupied Rowanduz in military campaign to subdue Kurds

            opposed to being included in new Iraq Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 26 UK’s Iraq committee presented findings and okayed by cabinet to stay path in Iraq

 

May 10 Sir Henry Dobbs the High Commission wrote to the American Consul in Iraq

            that King Faisal was not a strong leader and he expected trouble under his rule

 

Jun 21 Nephew of mujtahid al-Khalisi arrested for posting anti-election fatwa in

Kadhimiya Baghdad When Khalisi’s son tried to post fatwa police arrested him and one other son Khalisi called for shops to close in protest but few complied

 

Jun 27 Govt arrested cleric Khalisi and others blaming them for posting fatwa on

Khadmiya shrine against Iraqis defending Mosul against Turks Khalisi would be deported to Persia

Jun 27 Persian mujtahids and businesses in Najaf protested arrest of cleric Khalisi for his

            opposition activities

Jun 27 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini led protest to Karbala trying to get clerics and

            religious students to leave for Persia to protest arrest of cleric Khalisi

 

Jun 29 Mujtahids Isfahani and Nayini arrived in Karbala in protest march against

            deportation of cleric Khalisi but only two other mujtahids joined them

 

Jul 3 35 clerics and religious students left Iraq for Persia to protest deportation of

            Mujtahid Khalisi for his opposition work

 

Jul 5 UK report Shiites wanted a weak Mandate so they could set up their own theocracy

Hoped King Faisal would be able to win loyalty of people and undermine Shiite clerics Shiites also mistrusted elections and believed all power would go to Sunnis Also didn’t seem to like Faisal

 

Jul 22 UK Minister to Tehran arrived in Baghdad to discuss deportation and immigration

of Iraqi opposition figures to Persia Iraqi govt said they could return after elections for assembly held

 

Jul 24 Turkey signed Treaty of Lausanne agreeing to League of Nations deciding future

            of Mosul 

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Nov 22 PM Sadoun resigned over differences with Shiite leaders and King Faisal

Nov 22 Jafar Pasha al-Askari became Iraq’s 3rd PM Shiites got Education and Finance Ministries

Shiite leaders pledged allegiance to King Faisal as a result Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1924

Feb 7 UK Colonial Sec Thomas wrote British air power was effective way to control rebellions

            tribes in Iraq

 

Apr 27 New parliament met for 1st time to ratify Anglo-Iraq Treaty write constitution

write law for parliamentary elections Was lots of opposition to treaty Some wanted to amend it which was objected to by British

 

Apr 30 Baghdad said willing to give land to Assyrians

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

May 19 Sir Percy Cox told Constantinople Conference Assyrians would be settled in northern

            Iraq by govt

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

May 21 Turkey told Constantinople Conference Assyrians should return to Turkey

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

May 31 UK High Commissioner for Iraq said Assyrians would get autonomous homeland

            in Dohuk Called on Iraqi govt to grant Assyrians land

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 2 UK run Baghdad Times said if Anglo-Iraq Treaty not ratified Iraq would lost

            Mosul to Turks

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Jun 4 Anti-British protests in Baghdad closed parliament

 

Jun 6 UK run Baghdad Times said Iraqis were turning on British protection for Mosul

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Jun 8 UK run Baghdad Times said England would give Iraq independence in 4 yrs

            at most if Anglo-Iraq Treaty passed

 

Jun 10 UK High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Percy Cox set June 10 as deadline for Iraq parliament

to pass Anglo-Iraq Treaty but failed to do so Cox got Iraqi MPs taken from their homes and forced them to approve treaty

 

Jul 10 First elections held in Iraq Was for Constituent Assembly

 

Jul 31 MP Daud Chalabi rejected quotas in new parliament for minorities claiming

            elections would be by population ensuring everyone representation

 

Aug 2 Yasin al-Hashemi became PM of Iraq Was ordered to organize elections for

            an assembly to draft a constitution Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Aug 23 American Consul in Iraq said King Faisal had no popular support and many

            were openly opposed to him

 

Sep 30 Frontier Commission appointed to determine border between new nation of

            Turkey and Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Nov 15 Frontier Commission started demarcating border between Iraq and new nation of Turkey

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Dec 4 Sir Henry Dobbs wrote Colonial Secretary Said King Faisal was a foreigner in Iraq who

wasn’t able to build support amongst the population Said authority of Iraqi govt depended upon British backing and its military might

 

1925

Jan 27 League of Nations Commission on Mosul arrived in province to protests

Commission interviewed hundreds of locals and mapped economy, land, trade routes, ethnicities

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

 

Feb 4 League of Nations’ Mosul commission final report said Mosul should go to

British Iraq Mandate with Kurds getting concessions Also said British Mandate should continue in Iraq to ensure stability

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 14 Iraq deal gave Turkish Petroleum Company right to explore for oil in entire country

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

 

Mar 25 King Faisal signed new election law and constitution

 

Apr 14 British declined Iraqi request to form Royal Iraqi Air Force

 

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq after laws discriminating against Persian nationals

            in Iraq were removed

 

May 11 British Colonial Secretary wrote Arab elites knew Iraq was being held together by

            England

 

Jun 11 Head of League of Nations Mosul Commission called King Faisal a “poor creature”

Jun 11 British intel report Iraqi govt picked MPs privately Political parties had no power

            and no programs

 

Jun 26 Abdul Sadoun became PM of Iraq for 2nd time Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jul 17 Frontier Commission report to League of Nations on where border between

Turkey and UK controlled Iraq should be Said Mosul vilyat should be in Iraq after British seized it after WW1 armistice Said Assyrians should return to Turkey

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Sep 19 Turks went to Permanent Court of International Justice to try to keep Mosul province

            after League of Nations said it should go to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Dec 16 League of Nations set Turkey-Iraq border with Mosul province going to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

1926

Apr 21 Turks told British it no longer wanted Mosul just a stake in the province’s oil

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

May 30 Verbal agreement made between British and Turks to give Turkey 10% of

            Mosul oil revenues for 25 years in return for giving up claims to province

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jun 5 Turkey and England agreed to have Mosul join Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jul 5 Turkey and Britain signed treaty setting Turkey-Iraq border UK agreed to give

            Turkey 10% of Mosul oil revenues in return

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jul 18 Turkey and England agreed on final border between Iraq and Turkey

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Nov 21 Jaffar al-Askari became PM of Iraq for 2nd time Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

1927

Jan 30 1st student protest in Iraq held over firing of teachers Organized by Communists

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Feb 24 UK Iraq Commissioner Dobbs said that if Iraq not given independence would be

            unrest and England would have to re-occupy country or leave

 

Apr 4 UK official LS Amery wrote Foreign Secretary Austen Chamberlain Said British got

Mosul by trick promising 25 year British Mandate in Iraq but now pushing for Iraqi independence seven years later

 

May 8 Iraqi cabinet resolution said Assyrians would be settled in the country

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

May 19 General Askar asked British 3rd time to form Royal Iraqi Air Force London agreed

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

Jun 9 UK Colonial Secretary memo said after Iraq independence new Anglo-Iraq Treaty would

            assure British influence in country

 

Jun 17 Lord Cecil said British public opinion was overwhelmingly against staying in Iraq

 

Jul 28 British report Difficult to settle Assyrians in north because land already inhabited

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Aug 14 Report Assyrians refused to settle in northern Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Oct 14 Turkish Petroleum Company struck oil at Baba Gurgur field, Kirkuk starting Iraq’s oil

industry

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Oct 15 1st successful oil well started at Baba Gurgur field in Kirkuk

(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

 

Nov 12 Kurdish MP Rowanduzi said Shiites and Kurds both opposed govt conscription for army

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Nov 21 King Faisal asked for full Iraqi independence and ending roll of British High

            Commissioner in negotiations over new Anglo-Iraq Treaty

 

Nov 29 UK Foreign Secretary Chamberlain told King Faisal talks over Anglo-Iraq Treaty should

be delayed for two years and Faisal would have to run Iraq on his own British knew Faisal afraid of potential unrest and were trying to intimidate him during negotiations over new treaty Tactic worked

 

Dec 14 Agreement made over new Anglo-Iraq Treaty Wasn’t signed due to Iraqi complaints

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

1928

Jan 11 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 3rd time Replaced Askari who was forced to resign

            over opposition to his conscription plan for army Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Jan 30 Sheikh Dhari who led revolt against British in Upper Euphrates/Anbar sentenced

            to death Was commuted to life in prison

 

Feb 1 British sent note to Iraqi govt saying opposed conscription and if govt ran into problems over

it British wouldn’t help

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

May 21 British official said Iraqi provincial administrators picked who would be elected to

parliament

 

Jul 31 Red Line Agreement allowed British Dutch French US Turkish oil companies to jointly

control Turkish Petroleum Company Would lead to creation of Iraq Petroleum Company

 

Aug 1 1st Iraqi students sent to Royal Air Force college in England for training to form first pilots of

Royal Iraqi Air Force

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

Oct 18 Shiite sheikhs issued statement about conscription saying only the Shiites would be drafted

as Kurds and western tribes would never allow it meaning Shiites would make all the sacrifices

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

Dec 2 Sir Henry Dobbs wrote that conscription in Iraq would cause revolt and was already problem

in Basra

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

 

1929

Jan 15 Sir Henry Dobbs said King Faisal was like a “chameleon” who would always change and

drove those around him mad

 

Mar 9 British appointed Air Inspector to control new Royal Iraqi Air Force

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

Apr 3 Persian Shah and King Faisal passed notes that legal barriers over unequal treatment of

Persian nationals in Iraq had been lifted

 

Apr 25 Iran officially recognized Iraq as a country Hadn’t before due to complaints of mistreatment

of Persians in Iraq

 

Apr 28 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi became PM, would hold that office 3 times Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jul 22 Iraq High Commissioner Sir Gilbert Clayton said giving Iraq concessions was best way to

maintain good relations with Iraq and bad negotiations would have opposite effect

 

Sep 11 Iraq High Commissioner Clayton told Baghdad that it would be admitted to League of

Nations for independence in 1932

 

Sep 19 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 4th time Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Nov 13 PM Sadoun shot himself due to criticism he faced over his performance

 

Nov 18 Naji al-Suwaidi became PM Were 14 govts under Mandate

 

Dec 23 General Taha al-Hashemi made Chief of General Staff

 

Dec 28 Fmr Iraq High Commissioner Dobbs said if Iraq moved forward in its own dysfunctional way

and was better off than it was under Ottomans England would have succeeded

 

1930

Mar 23 Nuri al-Said became PM for 1st time Would hold office 8 times Went after opposition

silenced press controlled parliament Was picked by King Faisal to assure passage of Anglo-Iraq Treaty Were 14 govts under Mandate

(Musings On Iraq interview with Historian Phebe Marr comparing PM Said with PM Maliki)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

 

Jun 30 Anglo-Iraq Treaty agreed on independence in Oct 1932 Allowed British to keep

            military in Iraq and use Iraqi territory for 25 years

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

 

Jul 17 UK intel officer wrote that senior Iraqi army officers gained positions through

corruption and connections to politicians Said were divorced form their troops and would follow any politician that could give them benefits

 

Nov 16 Iraqi parliament ratified new Anglo-Iraq treaty ending British mandate but maintained

British influence

 

1931

May 31 Iraq made first payment of oil revenues to Turkey in return for giving up claims

            to Mosul

 

Apr 22 Commemorated as founding date of Royal Iraqi Air Force

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

 

Jul 22 Shiite leaders told Yasin Hashemi they would back him for PM if they got

            majority of cabinet posts

 

Sep 25 Iraqi newspaper advocated for one party rule in Iraq under an autocrat King Faisal

 

Oct 19 PM Said named new cabinet Were 14 govts under Mandate

 

Oct 21 Royal Iraqi Air Force flew 1st combat mission attacking Kurdish rebels

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

1932

Feb 3 US Charge d’Affaires in Iraq said when King Faisal walked streets of Baghdad

didn’t pay attention to him and was only acknowledged by foreigners that recognized him

 

Feb 11 Executive Committee of the Shias in Iraq issued Manifesto Said no Shiite had been

elected to parliament from north and only 1-2 from the south, no Shiite given Interior Ministry or any other important post, land policy angered sheikhs, schools promoted Sunnism, few Shiite officials and all in low positions, called on England to remove govt and empower them against Sunnis

 

Apr 22 Royal Iraqi Air Force bombed Barzanji rebels in Kifri and Khanaqin

(Musings On Iraq review Wings of Iraq, Volume 1: The Iraqi Air Force, 1931-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

May 31 Kurdish revolt led by Barzanji put down by RAF

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jun 1 Most Assyrian Levies resigned over treatment of their community Worried about what new

            Iraqi govt would do with them

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 6 Assyrian National Pact issued Demanded land outside Iraq to settle on Recognize Mar

Shimun as representative of community Schools Said Assyrian Levies would resign if demands not met Govt rejected pact worried other minorities would make similar demands

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 18 Assyrian religious leader Mar Shimun presented petition to League of

            Nations Mandate Commission demanding autonomy for his people

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jun 22 Ahmed and Mullah Mustafa Barzani surrendered to Turks after being forced out of Iraq by

RAF bombing for opposing the settling of Assyrians in their area and refusing to pay taxes

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jun 29 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun issued letter telling Assyrian Levies to stop resigning

            Not all listened Over 400 still resigned

(Musings On Iraq review of The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

 

Jul 21 Iraq sent letter to British High Commissioner Humphrie saying it recognized 1920 Iraq-

Kuwait border in order for Iraq to join League of Nations

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

 

Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from Britain

 

 

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This Day In Iraqi History - Jan 17

  1974 Bakr govt held talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP ( Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History ) ( Mus...