Pres Bakr Govt – Baath Era (1968-79)

This timeline covers the start of the Baath era in Iraq that began with the 1968 coup that overthrew President Arif and replaced him with General Bakr

 

Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall

Musings On Iraq Review Culture, History & Ideology in the Formation of Ba’thist Iraq, 1968-89

Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East

Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam

Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq

Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope

Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II

Musings On Iraq review Socialist Iraq, A Study in Iraqi Politics Since 1968

Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970

 

1968

Jul 14 Coup against Pres Arif planned but called off after army officers backed out

            Baath would not drop coup

(Musings On Iraq review Socialist Iraq, A Study in Iraqi Politics Since 1968)

 

Jul 15 PM Yahya resigned over divisions within military over running country that

            would eventually lead to coup

 

Jul 16 Baath meeting after coup was called off Head of military intelligence Col Naif said

            he would join plot if he became PM Was agreed upon

(Musings On Iraq review Socialist Iraq, A Study in Iraqi Politics Since 1968)

 

Jul 17 Baath coup overthrew Pres Arif Gen Bakr became president Col Naif PM Col

            Daud Defense Minister

(Musings On Iraq review Socialist Iraq, A Study in Iraqi Politics Since 1968)

Jul 17 Saddam had lawyer Shawkat executed in Baghdad for refusing him money in

            1966

 

Jul 19 Col Naif announced new govt of Baathists and Nationalists Included 3 Kurdish

ministers but they didn’t take positions

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jul 25 PM Naif announced press censorship was ending

 

Jul 27 Communists issued demands to new Baath govt calling for National Front and

coalition govt

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Jul 29 Baath had Defense Minister Daud visit Jordan so that party could take control of

military while he was out of the country Daud arrested when he arrived in Jordan Sent into exile as ambassador to Saudi Arabia

 

Jul 30 Pres Bakr accused Def Min Daud and PM Naif of attempting to take over the

            govt PM Naif arrested and became Ambassador to Morocco Baath then

            purged govt of opponents

Jul 30 Pres Bakr became prime minister and commander and chief of armed forces

consolidating his power Appointed Saddam deputy secretary general of Baath Party

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Aug 2 Iraq announced it would seek better ties with Soviet Union and China

 

Aug 3 Bakr govt said willing to follow through with Arif govt’s 12 point program for Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 4 Bakr govt said it would implement demands for Kurdish language and culture to be

            recognized

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 5 Pres Bakr govt announced amnesty for Kurdish rebels Reconciliation attempt by new

            Bakr govt with Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 12 New Baath government of Pres Bakr said it was committed to uniting Iraq

            and Egypt

 

Aug 26 Mullah Mustafa Barzani had his two ministers resign from Bakr govt because Baath

was backing Jalal Talabani

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 30 Pres Bakr shut down Iraqi offices of Arab Socialist Union and ended Iraq-Egypt

            union plans

 

Sep 21 Provisional constitution drafted by three jurists and presented to Pres. Bakr

            Included return of parliament

 

Oct 1 Govt and Kurds started fighting again

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Oct 3 Soviet Union called for negotiations between Baghdad and Kurdish rebels

 

Nov 5 Baath militia fired on Communist strikers at factory outside Baghdad killing 2 Govt

            assassinated some Communist organizers

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 7 Baath National Guard fired on Communist march killing 3

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 10 Baath assassinated former Foreign Minister Nasir Hani and arrested Western

businessmen

 

Nov 12 1968 coup member Nasir al-Hani special adviser to Pres Bakr assassinated

 

Nov 18 Barzani called on UN to intervene in Iraq during Kurdish revolt Claimed Bakr govt

committing genocide

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

 

Nov 24 7th Baath Party Congress Izzat Mustafa ousted from Revolutionary Command

Council One of Saddam’s main rivals

 

1969

Jan 3 Pres Bakr launched new offensive against Barzani Talabani also attacked Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jan 24 Former MP Bajari during spy trial claimed opposition leaders were trying

            to overthrow Pres Bakr’s govt

 

Jan 27 14 hung in Baghdad after show trial over alleged Israeli spy ring uncovered by

Saddam Bakr govt declared day a national holiday and bused in people from around the country to watch After executions Bakr and other Baath leaders gave speeches to crowd against Zionist threat

 

Feb 4 Bakr govt claimed it had implemented 12 point program for Kurds Hadn’t

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Feb 20 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Mar 1 Barzani launched offensive against Bakr govt Attacked several oil facilities in Kirkuk

shutting down oil industry Talabani raised force to fight for govt

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 15 Bakr govt sent army brigade to Syria to protect against Israel

 

Mar 26 Pres Assad called for Iraq-Syria-Egypt union

 

Apr 3 Communist militant Hajj who tried and failed at armed revolt in 1968 appeared on

Baghdad TV attacked his group and denounced the Communists Was appointed Iraq’s representative to UNESCO in Paris as reward

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Apr 9 Jalal Talabani attempted to assassinate Mullah Mustafa Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 10 1st Spring Festival held in Mosul to highlight ancient Iraqi history as part of

            Baath campaign to create unified national identity

(Musings On Iraq review The Ba’thification of Iraq, Saddam Hussein’s Totalitarianism)

(Musings On Iraq review Culture, History & Ideology in the Formation of Ba’thist Iraq, 1968-89)

 

Apr 14 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Apr 15 Iraq complained to Iranian Ambassador that Tehran violating 1937 agreement

over navigation of Shatt al-Arab Iran was sending ships down waterway with military escorts without paying fees Complaint was taken as a threat by Iran

 

Apr 16 Shah unilaterally voided 1937 treaty over Shatt al-Arab which wasn’t legal Iraq

took issue to UN Iran refused to go to court over matter probably knowing that it would lose Shah decided to give military support to Kurds to put political pressure on Pres Bakr over waterway

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 19 Iraq began expelling Shiites claiming they were Iranian nationals in response to

Shah voiding 1937 Shatt al-Arab treaty Started backing Iran dissident group Claimed Khuzistan as part of Iraq

 

Apr 22 After Shah voided 1937 border treaty with Iraq Iran sailed ship down Shatt al-

Arab waterway in violation of treaty Iraq retaliated by expelling 10,000 Iranians

 

Apr 29 Iraq condemned Shah of Iran for unilaterally ending 1937 border treaty over

            Shatt al-Arab waterway

 

Apr 30 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

May 1 Iraq became 1st Arab country to recognize East Germany as part of alliance

            with Soviet Union

 

May 12 Dispute over Shatt al-Arab discussed at UN after Iran protested Iraq expelling

            10,000 Iranians

 

May 15 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

May 23 Pres Bakr offered self-determination to Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jun 2 Pres Bakr called for Iraq-Syria union

 

Jun 28 Baath created Dohuk province as part of 1966 June Declaration on Kurdish rights

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jul 4 Iraq signed technical agreement with Soviets to help with oil

 

Aug 8 Iraqi army destroyed Kurdish village of Dakan near Mosul as part of new govt

offensive

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Aug 21 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Aug 25 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Sep 8 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Sep 24 Barzani claimed beat back attack by Talabani forces in Panjwin area

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Oct 9 Baath announced language and cultural concessions to Kurds as part of talks with

            Mullah Mustafa Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Nov 9 Revolutionary Command Council went from 5 to 15 All new members were Baathists

Saddam become vice chairman

 

Nov 26 Bakr govt executed opponents in central Baghdad

 

Dec 12 Pres Bakr said no foreign agent of saboteur would remain in Iraq during show trials

and executions in Baghdad

 

Dec 21 Barzani said Bakr govt hadn’t offered any real concessions and talks were off

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

 

1970

Jan 20 Failed military coup against Pres Bakr led by ex-Gen Rawi and Col Samarraie

backed by Iran Tehran expelled Iraq’s ambassador, military attache and four embassy staff over failed coup Shah was opposed to Baathism’s Pan-Arabism and socialism He moved troops to border causing a war scare

 

Jan 21 Pres Bakr announced failed coup by army officers and a special tribunal would

            try the plotters 44 later executed Accused Iran of supporting coup

Jan 21 Imam Khomeini started lectures in Najaf outlining his concept of vilayat

            al-faqih

 

Jan 22 3 coup plotters executed by Pres Bakr govt

Jan 22 Iraq expelled Iranian ambassador accusing Tehran of backing 1970 failed coup

 

Jan 23 33 conspirators in coup against Pres Bakr executed

 

Jan 24 42 sentenced to death for coup plot against Pres Bakr

Jan 24 Bakr govt said it supported Arif govt’s 12 point program for Kurds Said willing to

grant Kurdish rebels amnesty

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Feb 2 Iraq went to UN over Shah placing troops on border after coup he backed vs Pres

            Bakr failed

 

Feb 3 Iraq went to Turkey to help mediate crisis with Shah of Iran Tehran suggested both

            sides withdraw forces from border as neither wanted war ending problem

 

Mar 3 Committee created for economic cooperation between Iraq and Soviet Union

 

Mar 11 Bakr govt agreed to Kurdish autonomy deal Included self-rule with an

assembly Recognized Kurdish language Promoted Kurdish culture Kurdish vice president Share of Kurdish oil revenue Mullah Mustafa Barzani agreed to give up heavy weapons and have Peshmerga integrated into army Since 1968 some 60,000 had died in Kurdish rebellion 300,000 displaced

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 12 Pres Bakr said war vs Kurds was over Kurds would have cultural autonomy and

national rights

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 18 9 man committee of Arabs and Kurds formed to carry out Kurdish autonomy deal

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 23 Communist leader in Baghdad Khadri found shot in street Baathists suspected

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Mar 29 New cabinet announced and 5 Kurds included as ministers

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 3 Defense Minister Tikriti and Interior Minister Ammash named co-VPs under Pres

            Bakr to try to end rivalry between two for power

 

Apr 10 Barzani said he wasn’t for Kurdish independence

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Apr 24 Mar Eshai Shimun religious leader of Assyrians invited back to Baghdad by Bakr

Given back citizenship Bakr promised cultural rights to Assyrians but talks failed Bakr trying to create buffer with Kurds using Assyrians and move them away from KDP

 

May 21 Pres Bakr issued Agrarian Reform Law to increase living conditions for peasants

            and increase farm production

 

Jul 3 Kurdish meeting chose Habid Karim as Vice President under Autonomy Agreement

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jul 16 2nd provisional constitution issued by Pres Bakr Said Iraq People’s Democratic

            Republic committed to Arab unity and socialism

Jul 16 Pres Bakr refused to accept Habid Karim as Kurdish VP accusing him of being pro-

Iranian Also refused to allow Kirkuk city to be capital of Kurdish region

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jul 20 Pres Bakr attacked Communists for not accepting Baathist leadership in govt

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Aug 4 Saddam visited Soviet Union and asked for debt relief Also for Moscow to stop

            aiding Kurds Soviets agreed

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

 

Sep 1 Iraq said it supported Palestinians when Jordanian govt attacked them during Black

            September

 

Oct 9 Saddam orchestrated removal of VP Tikriti Was made ambassador to Spain to get

him out of country Tikriti refused ambassadorship and flew back to Baghdad to confront Saddam Tikriti was arrested at airport and put on plane to be exiled to Algeria

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Oct 26 Plebiscite on whether Kirkuk would become part of Kurdish region delayed Never

happened

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

1971

Mar 20 Ex-Defense Minister and VP Tikrit assassinated in Kuwait by Bakr govt

 

May 31 Nixon went to Tehran Shah asked U.S. help to aid Kurds against Baghdad

            leading to covert CIA operation

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Nov 15 Baath issued Charter for National Action to try to draw Communists into govt

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 30 Iran backed by UK occupied uninhabited Lesser Tunb Island and took Greater Tunb

Island after fighting with Iraq Baghdad condemned move

 

Dec 1 Iraq broke relations with Iran and UK Expelled Iranian nationals Turned to Soviet

Union for support Iraq argued with Iran over Shatt al-Arab and Tehran funding and arming Kurds in alliance with US and Israel

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

1972

Jan 11 Kurds started rebellion against govt with support of US, Iran, Israel

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Jan 13 Bakr govt said it would take power away from Iraq Petroleum Company

 

Feb 10 Saddam visited Moscow to push for strategic agreement with Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Feb 28 Iraq Petroleum Company came to terms with Baghdad over nationalization

            including compensation

 

Apr 6 Soviet PM Kosygin visited Baghdad to sign strategic agreement with Bakr govt

 

Apr 7 Soviet PM Kosygin inaugurated Russian company’s production at North Rumaila

            oil field

 

Apr 9 Pres Bakr signed 15 yr treaty of friendship with Soviet Union

 

Apr 16 Bakr offered limited cultural rights to Assyrians under Law 251 in continued outreach

program to community considered important counter to Kurds and trying to split them away from KDP Govt didn’t fully implement law

 

May 14 Baath brought Communists into govt after Iraq-Soviet 15 year Friendship Treaty

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

May 17 Oil Ministry took hardline with Iraq Petroleum Company in 1st move towards

            nationalization

 

Jun 1 Pres Bakr with Public Law 69 nationalized Iraq Petroleum Company Created

Iraq National Oil Company Saddam main decision maker Had backing of Soviets and France

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Jun 11 Saddam went to France Finalized oil deal Said French holdings in Iraq would be

            last to be nationalized Also said Iraq wanted to buy weapons

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Jun 18 Iraq and France signed deal to allow France to keep its share of Iraq Petroleum

Company in return for technical aid to run industry France also allowed to buy Iraqi oil at lower prices Agreed to major arms deal

 

Oct 1 U.S. opened Interests Section in Baghdad after diplomatic relations were ended in 1967

 

1973

Mar 3 Iraq offered trade agreement to Kuwait then withdrew it when Kuwait demanded no

changes in territory Bakr wanted Warbah and Bubiyan Islands

 

Mar 20 Kuwait sent troops to try to expel Iraq building base on its territory leading to

            gunfight 3 killed US thought part of Soviet plot in Persian Gulf

 

Mar 22 Kuwait demanded Iraq withdraw its troops from its territory after gunfight on

            Mar 20 Iraq refused

 

Mar 24 Saddam visited Moscow to push for stronger Iraq-Soviet cooperation

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Apr 28 Iraq offered to talk with Kuwait over border dispute

 

May 5 Kuwait agreed to Iraqi offer to discuss border dispute

 

May 17 Iraq rejected border agreement with Kuwait saying it was never ratified by Iraqi

            constitution

 

Jun 30 Police Chief Kazzar launched failed coup against Bakr Arrested Defense Minister

Shihab and Interior Minister Ghaydan Failed to assassinate Bakr and Saddam Kazzar was captured trying to flee to Iran but not before he killed Shihab and seriously wounded Ghaydan

 

Jul 7 Police Chief Kazzar and 20 other coup plotters found guilty and given death

            sentence

Jul 7 Baath Regional Congress expanded membership to accommodate Saddam

            supporters

 

Jul 8 Police Chief Kazzar and 20 coup plotters executed

 

Jul 9 Another 36 coup plotters tried including Regional Command members Samarriea

            and Fadil and given death sentences

 

Jul 17 Baath created National Progressive Front with Communists

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

Jul 17 Pres Bakr claimed govt had implemented most of autonomy plan for Kurds but

            Kurds were undermining it

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Jul 27 Communists said Bakr govt’s policies leading Iraq towards socialism

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Aug 17 Progressive National Patriotic Front announced between Baath Communists and

KDP

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Aug 22 Sheikh Jabir al-Sabah visited Iraq and again offered to talk about border Iraq-

            Kuwait dispute Iraq demanded 2 islands from Kuwait which it refused to do

 

Sep 25 Baathist Naim Haddad named head of Progressive National Patriotic Front with

Communists KDP and Baath

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Oct 6 Yom Kippur Arab-Israeli War began Iraq would deploy forces to Syria

 

Oct 7 Iraq nationalized shares of US oil company and Shell in retaliation for West’s

            Support for Israel in 1973 Arab-Israeli War

 

Oct 12 Israeli 210th Div attacked Iraqi forces in Syria Destroyed 20 Iraqi tanks and forced

withdrawal Later in day Israeli and Iraqi tanks re-engaged forcing Israelis to withdraw 3rd engagement between Israelis and Iraqis forced Iraqis to withdraw

Oct 12 Israel sent in paratroops 250km into Syria to disrupt Iraqi reinforcements

            moving to front and stopped their advance

 

Oct 13 Continued fighting between Israeli and Iraqi forces in Syria

 

Oct 14 3rd day fighting between Israeli and Iraqi forces in Syria

 

Oct 15 Syrian-Jordanian-Iraqi offensive in southern Syria failed to achieve results

 

Oct 16 Iraqi, Syrian and Jordanian forces attacked Israeli positions during Arab-

            Israeli War but were turned back

 

Oct 17 Saddam said govt and KDP were far apart on autonomy talks for Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Oct 23 Baghdad ordered its units home in 1973 Arab-Israeli War

 

Nov 11 KDP attacked Communist villages in Sulaymaniya accusing them of taking arms

from govt and attacking party

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 14 KDP delegation went to Moscow where Soviets tried to mediate its dispute with

Communists

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 18 Communists said they would stop anti-KDP propaganda campaign attacking it as

feudal party and capitalist tool

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 19 KDP and Communists began talks to end hostilities between two KDP had been

attacking Communists for its alliance with Bakr govt

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 20 KDP and Communists agreed to end hostilities between the two

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

 

Nov 30 Soviets said Bakr govt policies leading Iraq towards socialism

 

Dec 1 Shah called Baathists group of crazy bloodthirsty savages as border dispute between

            Iran and Iraq heated up

 

Dec 12 Govt offered new autonomy plan for Kurds but rejected by Mustafa Barzani and KDP

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

1974

Jan 7 Baath Party congress organized by Saddam called for one party state

(Musings On Iraq review The Ba’thification of Iraq, Saddam Hussein’s Totalitarianism)

 

Jan 12 After 8th Baath Party Congress Bakr govt said it would reach out to western countries

while maintaining ties with Soviets

 

Jan 17 Bakr govt held talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Feb 10 Border dispute between Iran-Iraq led Iraq to attack Iranian border town of Mehran

killing 23 Iraqis 30 Iranians Tehran responded by flying F-4 jets deep into Iraqi air space in show of force

 

Feb 12 Iran-Iraq border dispute discussed at UN after firefight UN got Iran and Iraq to

            agree to talks to resolve border dispute

 

Mar 9 Bakr govt told Kurds had two days to accept government’s autonomy plan Kurds

objected because didn't include Kirkuk Sinjar Khanaqin and wanted new census Bakr said no

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 11 After talks with KDP broke down Pres Bakr announced Autonomy Law for Kurdistan

            would be implemented despite KDP rejecting it

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 12 KDP restarted rebellion after talks with Bagdad broke down

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

 

Mar 22 CIA memo said neither US nor Iran wanted a Kurdish govt but didn't want its

            conflict with Iraq resolved

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 23 Soviet Defense Minister Grechko arrived in Iraq to try to find compromise with

            Kurds Iran and US told Barzani not to make any deals

 

Apr 11 Govt executed 11 KDP members in Irbil during Kurdish rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 12 Iraqi planes bombed KDP bases during Kurdish rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 24 Iraqi planes bombed Qala Diza during Kurdish rebellion killing 130

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Apr 28 Iraq bombed Halabja killing 42 and wounding over 100 during KDP rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

May 21 UN Secretary General said Iran and Iraq agreed to withdraw forces and open talks

over border disputes

 

Aug 13 Iran and Iraq met in Turkey to negotiate border dispute

 

Aug 20 Iraq deployed 84,000 troops and 20,000 Kurdish militia to fight KDP

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Oct 5 Kurdish parliament appointed by Baghdad took office

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Dec 20 Govt secretly tried 25 Shiite leaders and executed 5 of them after religious pilgrimage

turned into protest against Bakr govt

 

1975

Mar 6 Iraq Iran Algeria foreign ministers met and signed Algiers Agreement to settle

            Iran-Iraq border issues

 

Mar 7 Iran and Iraq came to agreement over Shatt al-Arab and Iran said it would stop

            supporting Kurdish revolt

Mar 7 Iraqi army moved into Kurdistan after Iran withdrew support for Kurds under

            Algiers Agreement

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 9 Shah announced Algiers Agreement over border with Iraq

 

Mar 10 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council and Regional Command of Baath Party

            ratified Algiers Agreement with Iran

Mar 10 Mustafa Barzani sent letter to Kissinger saying that Kurds were being destroyed by

Iraqi govt and asked for US help

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 12 Baghdad offered KDP truce to allow its forces to retreat to Iran or surrender

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 13 KDP announced ceasefire with Baghdad after Iran said it would stop giving it aid

            following Algiers Agreement

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 16 Iraqi forces launched new offensive against Kurds

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

 

Mar 17 Iraq and Iran Foreign Ministers signed agreement to create three committees to

            resolve outstanding issues

Mar 17 US Sec State Kissinger responded to Barzani pleas for help saying that US

understood struggle Kurds were facing

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 22 Iran ended military aid to KDP

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 23 Mustafa Barzani and around 100,000 KDP members left Iraq for Iran ending

            Kurdish revolt

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Mar 26 Iranian premier visited Baghdad and laid out steps to implement Algiers Agreement

 

Apr 1 Iraq amnesty offer to Kurdish rebels and army deserters expired

Apr 1 Iran closed border to Kurds fleeing Iraqi government offensive against them

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Apr 2 Iraq army sealed border with Iran and declared Kurdish revolt over Mustafa

Barzani and 150,000 Kurds fled to Iran 1972-75 some 17,000 killed 280,000 displaced during Kurdish rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Apr 12 Saddam interview with NYTimes said Iraq not opposed to US or its people just

            its foreign policy which was anti-Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How Saddam’s View Of the US As A Threat Led To Kuwait Invasion)

 

May 22 PUK formed when Maosit Komala led by Nirshurwan Mustafa social democratic

            Bezutnawa led by Ali Askari and KDP’s Talabani joined

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Jun 1 PUK announced its formation and date celebrated as anniversary even though party

created in May

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

 

Jun 6 Shah, Pres Bakr and Algerian Pres Bunidan met to discuss Iran-Iraq border issues

 

Jun 7 Iran-Iraq agreed on Shatt al-Arab border, Shah would stop arming Kurdish revolt

            neither would support opponents of each other

(Musings On Iraq review Killing Hope, U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq review of The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq When The Shah and Nixon Manipulated The Kurds)

 

Jun 13 Iran-Iraq signed Reconciliation Treaty to resolve border issues

 

Jun 16 Iraq protested Algiers Treaty by placing pontoon bridge across Shatt al-Arab and

sending troops into Iran’s Khuzistan province Iran expelled Iraqis killing 88 of its soldiers

 

Jul 2 Iraq and Saudi Arabia agreed to divide neutral zone set up between two countries by

            British after WWI to set new border

 

Jul 17 Pres Bakr on 7th anniversary of Baath coup said Iraq would reach out to Gulf

            countries to improve relations

 

Sep 5 Saddam went to Paris to finalize terms of nuclear deal for a reactor and uranium

 

Sep 17 Iran and Iraq ratified border treaty between two

 

Oct 5 Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz went to Damascus to discuss uniting Iraq and Syria

 

Nov 17 France-Iraq nuclear deal France would provide enriched uranium build a

            reactor and power station called Osirak in Iraq 

 

Dec 21 Iraq funded attack on OPEC ministers by Carlos the Jackal and the Popular Front for

the Liberation of Palestine in Vienna Austria Saddam wanted the Saudi and Iranian oil ministers killed because they supported Kurdish revolt They were kidnapped but released

 

1976

May 10 New Kurdish rebellion led by PUK started Backed by Soviet Union, Syria, Iran,

            Libya

 

Aug 12 Soviet-Iraq arms deal announced worth over $1 bil included 600 T-62s and T-64

tanks, 100 Mig-23s, SAM-6 and SCUD missiles and more Also included giving Russia secret access to Iraqi air bases

 

1977

Feb 5 Dawa party turned pilgrimage to Karbala into anti-Baath protests Army called out

            Pres Bakr blamed Syria

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’ite Movement in Iraq)

 

Feb 6 Bak govt put down Shiite protests killing 16 and arresting around 2000 Ayatollah

            Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim and others arrested

 

Mar 22 Baath Regional Command kicked out members who wanted leniency after

            anti-govt riots during Karbala pilgrimage

 

May 16 Saddam interview with US News & World Report said Iraq would never accept

            Israel’s right to exist

 

Jul 3 Iraq signed deal to buy 34 Mirage fighters from France Iraq believed Mirages were key to defeating Israel in next war

(Musings On Iraq review Iraqi Mirages, The Dassault Mirage Family In Service With The Iraqi Air Force, 1981-1988)

 

Oct 23 Ayatollah Khomeini’s son Mustafa died in exile in Najaf Iranian secret police believed

to be behind it

 

1978

Jul 9 Former Prime Minister after 1968 Baath coup Naif shot in London by Iraqi agents on

            orders from Saddam

 

Jul 10 Former Prime Minister Naif died from gunshot wounds from assassination attempt

by Iraqi agents in London England would expel Iraqi diplomats and intel officers for Naif assassination Iraq retaliated by expelling British diplomats arresting British businessmen Embargo on UK

 

Jul 17 Saddam interview with Newsweek said Palestinians could come to Iraq to plan

            terrorist attacks

 

Sep 24 In Iran-Iraq deal Iraqi troops surround Imam Khomeini’s house in Najaf Told he

            could only stay in Iraq if abandoned politics

 

Oct 1 Revolutionary Command Council directive said it would work to get Arab League

            to reject Camp David Accord peace deal between Egypt and Israel

 

Oct 3 Ayatollah Khomeini left Najaf for Paris after Baghdad demanded he reject politics

            in deal made with Shah of Iran

 

Oct 5 Foreign Minister went to Damascus to discuss uniting Iraq and Syria

 

Oct 24 Pres Assad visited Baghdad 1st time to talk about unification Issued Declaration of a

            National Pact

 

Oct 26 Pres Assad signed National Charter of Joint Action to counter Israel-Egypt peace treaty while

visiting Baghdad

 

Nov 1 Iraq hosted anti-Sadat conference to oppose Egypt-Israel peace treaty

 

Nov 2 Arab summit held in Baghdad VP Saddam worked to expel Egypt for Camp David

Accord with Israel Move was supported by Syria Pres Bakr said Iraq and Syria had to deal with Egypt-Israeli peace deal as one country causing controversy in Syria

 

Nov 5 Arab League condemned Camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel

            At Baghdad summit

 

Nov 7 Iraq and Syria announced they were working to unify their two states

 

1979

Jan 28 Saddam visited Syria for Higher Political Committee meeting to unify 2 countries

            Agreed to meet in Baghdad to discuss constitutional changes to allow merger

 

Feb 4 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr began Islam Guides to Life series that outlined

            his ideas on Islamic political system

 

Feb 11 Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr declared 3 day holiday for Najaf hawza after

            Iranian Revolution

 

Feb 12 Iraq recognized the new revolutionary government in Iran

 

Feb 13 Iraq sent memo to new provisional govt in Iran after revolution asking for

            Friendly relations

 

Feb 16 Saddam said unifying Iraq and Syria was part of the Arab revolution

Feb 16 Saddam said Iraq would respect choice of the Iranian people with their revolution

 

Feb 28 Ayatollah Baqir al-Sadr congratulated Ayatollah Khomeini for the Iranian revolution

and said some tyrants hadn’t seen their day of reckoning yet

 

Mar 1 KDP leader Mustafa Barzani died in US where he went for medical treatment for

            lung cancer

 

Mar 12 At National Security Council Saddam decided that govt would take control of

            religious sphere to protect country from ideas that could threaten the regime

 

Mar 26 Iraq hosted anti-Sadat meeting to oppose new Egypt-Israel peace treaty

 

Mar 27 Saddam told Baath meeting that Iraq was going to get a nuclear weapon with help

of Soviets to deter Israel Said having an atomic bomb would be a trump card in next Arab-Israeli war

(Musings On Iraq Origins Of Iraq’s WMD Programs)

Mar 27 Saddam discussed with advisers how to punish countries that backed Sadat’s

            peace treaty with Israel

 

Apr 6 Israeli agents sabotaged Osirak nuclear reactor while it was in France waiting to

            be shipped to Iraq

 

Apr 15 Pres Bakr welcomed announcement of Islamic Republic in Iran and again

            Asked for good relations Invited PM Bazargan to Baghdad

 

May 22 Start of 9 days of protests against Bakr govt led by Dawa

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’ite Movement in Iraq)

 

Jun 10 Saddam gave Pres Bakr list of notables to be executed including army officers

Bakr said no and was put under house arrest by Saddam Saddam would use incident to push Bakr out of office

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

Jun 12 Govt put down 9 days of Dawa led protests capped off by arresting Ayatollah

            Baqir al-Sadr leading to more protests in Iraq  plus Lebanon UAE Britain France

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’ite Movement in Iraq)

 

Jun 16 Pres Assad arrived in Baghdad for more talks on unifying Iraq and Syria Came

up with United Arab Republic Disagreed about details leading Assad to depart and no further talks held Saddam was key in undermining talks Was afraid of a lesser position within unified govt

 

Jun 24 After army killed scores and arrested 3,000 protesting house arrest of Ayatollah Sadiq

al-Sadr Iran’s Arabic radio service called Sadr the Khomeini of Iraq and called on Shiites to replace the tyrants in Baghdad

 

Jul 11 Pres Bakr resigned from the Revolutionary Command Council citing health

            Saddam took over chairmanship of council

(Musings On Iraq review Saddam His Rise and Fall)

 

 

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This Day In Iraqi History - Jan 17

  1974 Bakr govt held talks with Mustafa Barzani and KDP ( Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History ) ( Mus...