Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Stalemate In Iraq’s Anbar Province

At the very end of December 2013 fighting started in Iraq’s Anbar province. The cause was Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s ill timed decision to shut down the Ramadi demonstration site and arrest parliamentarian Ahmed Alwani of the Iraqi Islamic Party who had been one of the protest leaders. Immediately afterward a variety of insurgent and tribal groups moved into Ramadi and Fallujah and the shooting started. Since then local officials and Baghdad have constantly claimed that the province outside of Fallujah is secure and announced initiative after initiative to end the conflict. Those offers have all failed and the fighting is in fact deadlocked.

The crisis in Anbar started with a miscalculation by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. On December 21 the leadership of the 7th Division were killed in an ambush set by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in Adham near the Ninewa border. The premier immediately ordered a massive military crackdown in Anbar that rallied most of the country behind the armed forces. By December 29, 2013 ground forces commander General Ali Ghidan claimed that ISIS had been cleared out of Anbar and were fleeing to Ninewa. (1) Sensing victory Maliki then made a huge mistake by deciding to take on his political opponents in the governorate. December 30 he ordered the Ramadi protest site be shut down. Fighting immediately broke out with 10 dead, 7 gunmen and 3 police, and 39 wounded, 25 militants and 14 soldiers in Ramadi, and 4 insurgents and 1 policeman being injured in Fallujah. The clashes carried over to the next day in Fallujah, and Ramadi where a police station was taken over by militants, and then spread to Haditha and Baghdadi where army bases were overrun. January 1, 2014 the police headquarters in Fallujah was raided, the weapons taken, and over 100 prisoners freed, along with two other police stations in the city. The mayor’s office was also bombed. In Ramadi, four stations were burned, and the security forces were said to have fled the city. There was also fighting in Garmah. In just three days the heart of Anbar province was in flames. Maliki completely misread the situation when he decided to turn a popular campaign against the Islamic State into a political move against the protest movement. Many people in Anbar were already angry with the government, which was shown in 12 months of demonstrations. When the government cracked down on them it gave the militants the perfect excuse to step in, and many tribes quickly joined them who were fed up with Baghdad.

Many press reports and the Iraqi government liked to blame all the fighting in Anbar on ISIS, but they were one of many groups involved in the conflict. The Islamic State did move into Fallujah and Ramadi at least by January 1. A journalist for Agence France Presse said that he heard ISIS songs being played in Ramadi on that day, while the New York Times reported that the Islamic State called for fighters to join it in Anbar and used mosques to make announcements in Fallujah. After Friday prayers on January 3, ISIS declared an Islamic state in Fallujah, and claimed they were there to protect the people from Maliki and the Iranians. At the same time, Radio Free Liberty said that ISIS distributed flyers in Fallujah threatening to bomb houses of those who opposed them. ISIS is by far the largest, most organized, and best armed group amongst the fighters in Anbar, and they have gotten the majority of the press, but there are many others involved in the fighting. Those include the Islamic Army, Hamas Iraq, the Mujahadeen Army, the Naqshibandi, Fallujah Battalions, the 1920 Revolution Brigades, Ansar al-Islam, and several tribes as well. By early January a Military Council was formed in Fallujah that tried to bring together all these various groups. This Council is responsible for setting up Islamic courts in the city, and basically acts as the de facto government there. When a new mayor and police chief were appointed in Fallujah in the middle of January for instance, the chief’s house was bombed and the mayor was temporarily kidnap leading both to flee to Kurdistan afterward. The majority of press reports continue to emphasize the role of ISIS in the fighting in Anbar, but they are one of many that are actually involved. Despite the differences between them they appear to be working together for the time being, and consider Anbar an uprising against the Iraqi government not just a battle for the province.

There have been several initiatives to try to end the conflict in Anbar, but they have gone nowhere. Maliki issued the first when he offered amnesty to anyone who could prove that they were fighting ISIS during the first week of January. This was aimed at gaining the support of tribes against the insurgency. Around the same time, sheikhs and clerics drew up a plan to have tribesmen and police form local patrols in Fallujah to secure the city. The next week the Anbar provincial council met with notables and came up with a withdrawal plan that would have militants pull out of Fallujah, while local police would return. January 15 it was reported that most of the militants agreed to pull out of the city, but ISIS refused. Two days later the provincial council stated that the deal had fallen apart because of the Islamic State. At the same time there were stories that talks were still underway with insurgents. The futility of those was shown on January 19 when four negotiators were temporarily kidnapped in Fallujah, which halted negotiations. January 22 the council tried again with a four-point program that included creating new security forces in Anbar, distributing development funds, and an amnesty for those with warrants out for them. There were more forceful attempts as well such as on February 1 when tribes gave ISIS two days to get out of Fallujah. That same day there was a conference in Ramadi that called for an end to fighting in 48 hours, letting local police back into the cities, helping displaced families, compensation for those that suffered losses, and the release of parliamentarian Alwani. February 7 Anbar Governor Ahmed Dulaimi Diab called for the withdrawal of fighters from the cities, the ending of warrants and legal proceedings against any protest members, 1 billion dinars in compensation for the province, the return of the displaced, and a seven day amnesty for insurgents. February 12 Prime Minister Maliki offered tribal fighters police jobs after the conflict was over, while the governor gave the militants in Fallujah one week to surrender. Finally, February 15 the premier went to Anbar and promised $83 million in reconstruction money. Local and central government officials continue to talk about their newest plans to end the fighting in the province, but the past few weeks should teach them that these are useless. While some militants may be open to talks ISIS does not believe in them. After so many failures in such a short period of time this should be obvious. The problem is that Baghdad is reluctant to send in the army into the major cities fearing the bloodbath and backlash that would create, and therefore has turned to locals to try to sort out the issue. Time is not on their side however as national elections are due in April and they can’t happen if insurgents are still in control of Anbar’s two major cities and several smaller towns as well. That means a military solution is just around the corner. 

Timeline Of Major Events In Anbar 2014
Ground Forces Commander Gen Ali Ghidan claimed ISIS bases in Anbar had been destroyed
Security forces take down Ramadi protest site

Fighting breaks out in Ramadi and Fallujah
ISIS said to be in Fallujah and Ramadi
ISIS declares Islamic state in Fallujah
Maliki offers amnesty to anyone who fights ISIS

Sheikhs and clerics issue peace plan to have tribesmen and police take over security in Fallujah and to keep army out of cities
Military Council of insurgents said to have been established in Fallujah
Anbar leaders call for insurgents to withdraw from Fallujah and local police to return to their jobs
Story that most insurgent groups had agreed to withdraw from Fallujah but ISIS refused
Provincial council said ISIS refused agreement to withdraw from Fallujah but talks still on going
4 negotiators temporarily kidnapped ending talks with insurgents
Provincial council issued four point peace plan for Fallujah including creation of new security forces, development funds, amnesty for those with warrants out for them
Local leaders called for ending of fighting in Fallujah in 2 days, withdrawing army from cities, letting police back into city, helping displaced families, compensation for those with losses, releasing MP Alwani, ending warrants and legal proceedings against protesters, 7 day amnesty for insurgents

Security official said talks with insurgents had failed
PM Maliki offered police jobs to tribal fighters after conflict

Anbar Governor gives insurgents in Fallujah one week to surrender
PM Maliki went to Anbar promising $83 mil in reconstruction funds

Of course, according to tribes and politicians most of Anbar is secure outside of Fallujah. February 2 the governing council said that 80% of the province was under control. January 6 the Anbar Operations Command claimed that the police and tribes were in complete control of central Ramadi. January 7 Sheikh Ahmed Abu Risha told the press that the police and tribes had Fallujah under hand, and the next day said that 90% of Ramadi was cleared. January 10 Abu Risha’s nephew Mohammed said the same thing, and specifically mentioned the Malab and Fursan areas, which had seen heavy fighting with ISIS, were now cleared. January 11 the National Iraqi News Agency reported that the Islamic State had withdrawn from most of Ramadi. January 16 the security forces and tribes were believed to be in command of Saqlawiya, which is in between Ramadi and Fallujah, while retaking the eastern side of Ramadi. Three days later the effort to retake Ramadi was still on with a new operation being launched in five neighborhoods, while the army seized Khalidiya from militants. January 25 government forces and tribes were supposedly in command of eastern Fallujah and Garmah. February 5 the Anbar police chief stated that 85% of Ramadi was peaceful. February 12 the military told the media that most of Ramadi was cleared, and then on February 15 the Anbar Operations Command said that it had taken Khalidiya again. These announcements are about as useful as the endless peace offerings. All promise success, but then nothing comes of them. The security forces and local leaders are trying to portray things as being under control in Anbar, but the press reports betray the reality that things are not as they claim.
(Institute for the Study of War)

Not only is the fighting in Ramadi and Fallujah deadlocked, but the insurgents have been able to expand into the surrounding areas as well. For example, Fallujah’s Nazal and Shuhada neighborhoods have been in the news since January 6 and 8 respectively. There was fighting in those two areas on January 12, 14, and 17. The battle then seemed to move outside the city to the International Highway on January 9, 11, 14, 16, 20, 23, 25, 31, and February 16. Ramadi’s Malab has been just as disputed. It first got mentioned on January 9. The next day the security forces claimed they had retaken it. That was proven false when there were clashes there on January 11, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, February 1, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16. Similarly fighting started in Saqlawiya on January 3, the security forces cleared it on January 16, but violence soon returned on January 20. Khalidiya was secured twice on January 19 and February 15, but there are still reports of clashes there to the present time. There have also been reports of two confrontations in Haditha starting on December 31, two in Baghdadi beginning on December 31, eight in Garmah since January 1, Sajer on January 2, Rawa on January 3, nine in Albu Faraj since January 4, two in Albu Fahd starting on January 6, eleven in Albu Bali beginning on January 7, Hit on January 10, three in Albu Obaid since January 10, three in Jazeera with the first on January 11, Zaidan and Khan Dhari on January 12, six in Naimiya starting on January 19, Ersan on January 22, Zawba on January 24, Shihabi on January 30, Amiriya Fallujah on January 31, four in Albu Jabar since February 1, Habaniya on February 9, Albu Diab, Malahma, and Qaim on February 13, and Albu Shihab on February 15. This list shows that the militants have not only been able to hold their own in Fallujah and Ramadi, but have been able to expand the conflict to several of the nearby towns and cities. Some of these operations might have just been to draw the security forces away from an area, or an attempt to gain more ground in the province. Whatever the case, the insurgents appear to be in a strong position, and is probably the major reason why none of the peace talks have worked. Why should the fighters withdraw if they feel like they have the advantage. It also shows that the official line that only small parts of Ramadi and Fallujah are in trouble is false.

Timeline of Fighting In Anbar 2014
Fighting starts in Ramadi and Fallujah
Fighting in Fallujah, Ramadi, Haditha, Baghdadi
Police headquarters along with 2 other stations in Fallujah taken by insurgents

Fallujah mayor’s office blown up

4 police stations in Ramadi burned as security forces said to have withdrawn from city

Fighting in Garmah
Fighting east of Ramadi and Sajer

Anbar provincial council claims 80% of governorate secured
Fighting in Fallujah, central Ramadi, International Highway outside of Ramadi, Saqlawiya, Rawa
Fighting in Bakr and Ishreen areas of Ramadi, attack upon Al Mazra army base east of Fallujah, fighting in Albu Faraj, Baghdadi, Garmah, Haditha
Insurgents forced out of Nazal, Resala, Jbeil areas of Fallujah and Albu Fahd

Fighting in Garmah

Attempt to retake southern Ramadi failed

Anbar Operations Command claims central Ramadi secured
Fighting in Albu Bali

Sheikh Abu Risha said that Fallujah was under control
Fighting in Shuhada, Nazal, Askari in Fallujah, Khalidiya

Sheikh Abu Risha said 90% of Ramadi secured
Fighting along International Highway outside of Fallujah, Malab in Ramadi, Albu Bali
Malab and Fursan areas of Ramadi retaken

Fighting in Albu Bali, Hit, Albu Obaid

Mohammed Khamis Abu Risha said Malab and Fursan areas of Ramadi cleared of ISIS
Fighting in Malab and Fursan areas of Ramadi, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Albu Faraj, Jazeera
Fighting in Shuhada and Jubail in Fallujah, Khalidiya, Zaidan, Khan Dhari
Fighting in 60 Street and Adil in Ramadi, outside of Haditha
Fighting in south and central Ramadi, Shuhada, Nazal, and Askari areas of Fallujah, Albu Bali, Albu Faraj, Jazeera, International Highway, Garmah, Saqlawiya
Fighting along International Highway outside of Fallujah, Khalidiya

Saqlawiya said to be secured

Report that tribes retaking Ramadi
Fighting in Shuhada, Jolan, and Jamhooriya areas of Fallujah, Albu Bali

Sheikh Hayes claims tribes and police in control of central Fallujah
Fighting in 60 Street, Dabit, and Malab in Ramadi, Saqlawiya, Niamiya, Jazeera, Albu Bali

Major operation to retake Ramadi launched

Army said it retook Khalidiya
Fighting in central Ramadi, south and northeast Fallujah, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Albu Faraj, Saqlawiya, Khalidiya
Fighting in Malab and Dabit areas in Ramadi, Khalidiya
Fighting in Ramadi and Ersan
Fighting in Malab, Zanqurah, and Zoya in Ramadi, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Albu Bali, Khalidiya
Fighting in Ramadi, Albu Faraj, and Zawba
Fighting in Malab area of Ramadi, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Jazeera, Khalidiya, Albu Bali, Albu Faraj

Security forces and tribes said to have retaken eastern Fallujah and Garmah
Fighting in Ramadi, Garmah, Niamiya, Albu Bali, Albu Obaid, Albu Faraj
Fighting in Fallujah, Malab and Zanqurah areas in Ramadi, Garmah, Niamiya
Fighting in Albu Obaid
Fighting in Fallujah, south Ramadi, Albu Faraj, Niamiya, Garmah
Fighting in Albu Faraj, Shihabi, Garmah
Fighting in Ramadi, northeast Fallujah, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Amiriya Fallujah
Fighting in Malab and Soura areas of Ramadi, Albu Jabar, Albu Faraj, attack on army base east of Ramadi, Saqlawiya, south of Fallujah
Fighting in Fallujah, Ramadi, Albu Jabar
Fighting east of Fallujah
Fighting in Albu Jabar

Anbar police chief said that 85% of Ramadi secured
Fighting in Albu Jabar, Garmah
Fighting in Albu Bali
Fighting in Malab area of Ramadi, Albu Bali, Saqlawiya, Habaniya
Fighting in Malab area of Ramadi and northwest
Army said most of Ramadi secured
Fighting in Malab, Tamim, and 20 Street in Ramadi, north of Fallujah, Albu Diab, Malahma, Niamiya, Khalidiya, Qaim
Fighting in Malab and Zanqurah in Ramadi

Deputy head of council said Ramadi secured
Fighting in Malab, Jazeera, and Dabit in Ramadi, Niamiya, Albu Shihab, Malahma, Khalidiya

Anbar Operations Command said that Khalidiya cleared
Fighting in Secher in Fallujah, Malab and Zanqurah in Ramadi, International Highway outside of Fallujah, Saqlawiya

Anbar is no closer to being pacified today than when the fighting started at the end of December. Prime Minister Maliki caused this conflict because he thought that he had the upper hand against ISIS and the public was behind him. He completely misinterpreted the situation when he went after the protesters. Insurgents were able to claim that one year of relatively peaceful protests had been for naught and armed conflict was the only way to achieve their goals. Since then the situation has gone from bad to worse for Baghdad. Not only have all the local efforts to secure Ramadi and Fallujah failed, but militants have been able to expand the conflict to the surrounding areas. They have been able to take and hold ground against the police and tribesmen. Maliki continues to talk about resolving this through local means, but there is a bigger timetable that the premier has to follow and that is national elections, which are scheduled for April. No voting can take place in much of Anbar given the current security situation. While there is some talk that the balloting may be delayed, it is much more likely that the premier will order an all out assault on Ramadi and Fallujah by the Iraqi army instead. If not, Maliki’s opponents will challenge him on the growing violence, especially since his party is called State of Law. At the same time, any such operation will play right into the hands of the insurgents as the military is a blunt force. It will likely level large sections of Anbar in the process of clearing it, and that in turn will be used by the insurgency to claim that Baghdad is not to be trusted and that the people should flock to their side instead. The premier then is caught between a rock and a hard place. He continues to support initiatives by Anbaris, but knows that he can only wait so long. This is the current stalemate in the province, which could quickly turn for the worse.


1. Al Rayy, “Ghaidan: operations in Anbar desert destroyed the majority of al-Qaeda camps and clans lifting tents,” 12/29/13


Abbas, Mushreq, “Iraqi army declares its control of Khalidiya,” Al-Monitor, 1/23/14

Abdul-Zahra, Qassim, "Iraqi troops clash with al-Qaida militants in west," Associated Press, 1/10/14

Abdul-Zahra, Qassim and Schreck, Adam, “A nervous calm grips Fallujah, but clashes nearby,” Associated Press, 1/10/14

Agence France Presse, "Attacks kill 13 as Iraq forces hit Anbar militants," 2/2/14
- "Gunmen win turf in Ramadi as Baghdad attacks kill 10," 1/14/14
- "Heavy clashes as Iraq fighting sparks rights worries," 1/9/14
- "Iraq army presses Anbar assault as unrest kills six," 1/17/14
- "Iraq delays Fallujah assault as 29 killed in Ramadi," 1/7/14
- “Iraq militants free prisoners, burn police stations,” 1/1/14
- “Iraq PM pledges jobs for Anbar allies,” 2/12/14
- "Iraq presses Qaeda offensive, UN warns on displaced," 1/21/14
- “Iraqi forces, tribesmen battle Qaeda-linked militants,” 1/2/14
- “Iraqis return to Fallujah as UN backs fight with extremists,” 1/10/14
- "Police, tribes retake territory as UN backs Iraq," 1/10/14
- "Qaeda-linked group urges Iraq Sunnis to keep fighting," 1/7/14
- "Tribes, police seize parts of Iraq city from militants," 1/10/14

AIN, "3 Terrorists killed in Ramadi," 1/13/14
- "13 ISIS elements killed in Ramadi," 2/9/14
- “Anbar tribes prepare to eliminate ISIS terrorists northern Ramadi,” 2/12/14
- "Armed clashes erupt in Anbar," 1/28/14
- "Clashes renewed in Al-bu Faraj area of northern Ramadi," 1/24/14
- “Gunmen control police station central Ramadi,” 12/31/13
- “Gunmen in Fallujah form Military Council, reject Anbar initiative,” 2/11/14
- "Joint Command announces killing big group of ISIL, freeing Khalidiya area in Anbar," 2/15/14
- "Security forces clash with gunmen in Ramadi," 2/15/14
- "Security forces clash with ISIL elements western Ramadi," 1/31/14
- "Security forces supported by tribes clash with ISIL elements in Ramadi," 1/13/14
- "Security operation result in killing 10 ISIS elements in Ramadi," 1/3/14
- “Urgent….4 tribes announce supporting ISF in Anbar,” 1/1/14
- “Urgent…ISF control 80% of Anbar,” 1/2/14
- "Urgent…ISF, Terrorists clash in Ramadi," 1/4/14
- "Urgent…Violent clashes erupt in Ramadi," 1/20/14

Ali, Ahmed, “Iraq Update 2014 #9: Anbar Standoff Continues With Clashes in Ramadi and Fallujah,” Institute for the Study of War, 1/17/14
- “Iraq Update #42: Al-Qaeda in Iraq Patrols Fallujah; Aims for Ramadi, Mosul, Baghdad,” Institute for the Study of War, 1/5/14

Al-Ani, Ammar, "Targeting a military airport in Habbaniyah rockets and mortar shells east of Ramadi," Alsumaria, 2/9/14

Associated Press, “Iraqi troops clash with al Qaeda militants in western Iraq,” 1/10/14

Buratha News, “Anbar governor reveals details of “peace initiative” and asserts that it aims to withdraw the army and re-displaced,” 2/7/14
- “Anbar provincial council: The terrorists refused to negotiate with the tribes of Fallujah,” 1/17/14
- “Hayes: Government and local Anbar tribes engaged in negotiations with the terrorists in Fallujah” 1/17/14
- "The killing of six Daash terrorists clash with special forces in southern Fallujah," 2/1/14
- "Violent clashes in Khan Dhari after the entry of terrorist groups and displacement of families to escape clashes," 1/12/14
- "Wounding a policeman was shot dead by a sniper during violent clashes in several areas in Ramadi," 1/19/14

Fahim, Kareem and Ghazijan, Yasir, “Failed Talks With Militants Prompt Many to Flee in Iraq,” New York Times, 1/20/14

Al Forat, "13 ISIL elements killed in Ramadi," 1/23/13
- "Armed clashes continue between security forces& ISIL elements," 1/26/14
- "Attack against police station foiled in Anbar," 1/3/14
- “Fallujah Police Headquarters, Mayor Office detonated by terrorists,” 1/1/14
- "Number of Sons of Iraq elements injured northern Ramadi," 1/11/14
- "Terrorists attack Baghdadi police station west Anbar," 1/4/14
- "Tribes kill 3 of ISIL in Anbar's Albu Bali," 1/7/14

Ghazi, Yasir and Arango, Tim, “Iraqis Make Gains Against Militants in Key City,” New York Times, 1/5/14
- “Parts of 2 Key Iraqi Cities Fall to Qaeda Group Active in Syria,” New York Times, 1/2/14
- “Qaeda-Aligned Militants Press Fight Over Key Iraqi Cities,” New York Times, 1/3/14

Habib, Mustafa, “inside Fallujah: military councils, medical crisis and extremists’ diplomacy,” Niqash, 2/13/14

Al Hayat, “Iraqi forces lose progressing in Fallujah and Ramadi,” 1/5/14
- “Tribal initiative to secure the withdrawal of insurgents from Fallujah,” 1/15/14

Human Rights Watch, “Iraq: Protect Anbar Residents From Abuses,” 1/9/14

Independent Press Agency, “Abu Risha: fight Daash as well as support from the state,” 1/12/14

Iraq Times, "civilians were among the dead and wounded following the 8 clashes in different parts of Ramadi," 1/12/14
- "The killing and the arrest of 51 armed military operations in Anbar," 2/7/14
- "soldiers among the dead and wounded in an armed attack during their withdrawal from Anbar," 1/3/14
- "Sons clans kill and injure 7 of the elements and capturing the injured Daash," 1/6/14

Al Jazeera, “Confusion prevails over clashes in Iraq,” 1/6/14
- “Fallujah pact in the making to keep army out,” 1/11/14
- “Iraqi army launches major assault on Ramadi,” 1/19/14
- “UN: Clashes in Iraq’s Anbar displaced 300,000,” 2/12/14

Jawad, Haider Ali, “Anbar..Maliki issued an amnesty for wanted..And half of the Albu Alwan tribe organized into Awakening..Al Qaeda seized money from banks,” Buratha News 1/5/14

Karim, Ammar, “Iraq PM announces training, funds in battlefield city,” Agence France Presse, 2/15/14

Al-Mada, “Anbar provincial council declares “collapse” of agreement by tribes and the government The Iraqi List calls for the evacuation of Fallujah before the attack,” 1/17/14
- "Anti-terrorism: Albu Faraj liberated from al Daash and the arrest of a number of its elements," 1/30/14
- “Army announces killed 57 militants, including the Minister of War for “Daash” after clashes in the center of Ramadi,” 2/4/14
- “Army enters Khalidiya and violent clashes east of Ramadi to coincide with the closure of Fallujah,” 1/20/14
- "Daash recruitment official for suicide bombers killed along with five of its elements in Khalidiya and news about the re-opening of police stations," 1/21/14
- "The death and injury of six elements of the army in clashes with Daash militants east of Falluja," 2/3/14
- "Gunmen storm a police station east of Fallujah and seize its equipment and its vehicles," 1/30/14
- "Killing and wounding 16 people in the fall of shells fired by the army in Fallujah," 1/29/14
- "Killing and wounding five soldiers in armed clashes north of Fallujah," 2/1/14
- "Killing and wounding four soldiers in armed clashes east of Falluja," 1/14/14
- "Killing and wounding six soldiers in armed attack south of Fallujah," 2/13/14

Al Masalah, "2 killed and 2 wounded in an armed attack targeting a checkpoint," 1/29/14
- "2 killed and 2 wounded in an armed attack targeted a checkpoint," 1/30/14
- "Killing two members of the Awakening in armed attack in Fallujah," 1/26/14
- "Violent clashes between the rapid reaction forces and "Daash" in different parts of Anbar," 1/16/14

Muzaffar, Bushra, “Anbar Provincial Council confirms the approval of al-Maliki on the peace initiative to end the fighting,” Al-Hayat, 2/14/14

National Iraqi News Agency, "2 Gunmen killed in clash with police, tribesmen in Ramadi," 1/3/14
- "3 Gunmen of Daash killed in Clashes East of Ramadi," 2/9/14
- "3 Members of Daash Killed in Ramadi," 2/1/14
- "5 Qaeda members killed, 3 vehicles on fire north of Ramadi," 1/10/14
- "13 Gunmen Killed and Others Wounded in Clashes on al-Anbar Borders with Baghdad," 1/22/14
- "35 Gunmen of Daash Killed in Anbar," 2/5/14
- "40 Terrorists Killed and 4 Headquarters Destructed for Daash in Amiriyat al-Fallujah," 1/31/14- “Abu Risha: Anbar tribes and police dominate on 90% of Ramadi,” 1/8/14
- “Abu Risha: Fallujah is under the control of police and tribes,” 1/7/14
- “Anbar Operations announces, police and tribes men entirely control Ramadi city,” 1/6/14
- “Anbar Police Chief: The Security Forces Controlled 85% of the City of Ramadi,” 2/5/14
- “Anbar Provincial Council Puts a Roadmap of Four Points to End the Crisis in Fallujah,” 1/22/14
- “al-Anbar: The Armed Groups Renew Their Rejection of the Return of Police and Mayor to Fallujah,” 1/21/14
- “Armed clashes erupt again in east of Fallujah,” 12/31/13
- "Armed clashes erupt in east and north of Ramadi," 1/23/14
- "Armed Clashes Erupted Northeast of Fallujah," 1/31/14
- "Armed Clashes Northeast of Fallujah," 2/16/14
- "Armed Clashes Renewed in Eastern Ramadi hed wT," 2/1/14
- "Armed Clashes Renewed in Ramadi," 1/27/14
- "Armed clashes resumed between army forces and armed groups in Fallujah outskirts," 1/20/14
- “Armed clashes resumed east of Fallujah,” 1/1/14
- "Armed clashes resumed, northern Fallujah," 1/17/14
- “Army Helicopters Bombed Areas in Ramadi and Fallujah,” 2/7/14
- "Army kills six elements of ISIS in Anbar province," 2/13/14
- “BREAKING NEWS. Gunmen dominate two police stations in Fallujah,” 1/1/14
- "BREAKING NEWS Heavy fight between SWAT, armed groups in Ramadi," 1/9/14
- "Breaking News…The military commander of ISIS killed, four of his aids arrested in Ramadi," 2/16/14
- “Breaking News..Security Forces Control the Areas East of Ramadi,” 1/16/14
- "BREAKING NEWS. A suicide attack on a gathering of military and police forces in Ramadi," 2/11/14
- "A cache of terrorists destroyed and seven terrorists killed northwest of Ramadi," 2/11/14
- "Clashes between armed groups and army, northern Fallujah," 1/3/14
- "Clashes between armed groups and the army east of Fallujah," 1/4/14
- "Clashes between army forces and armed groups resumed in Falluja," 1/23/14
- "Clashes between the military, armed groups in eastern Fallujah," 1/9/14
- "Clashes erupt in Fallujah at dawn today," 1/6/14
- "Clashes erupt in Ramadi and Fallujah between army and armed groups," 2/13/14
- "Clashes erupt in South and center Fallujah," 1/8/14
- "Clashes erupt in western Anbar," 1/13/14
- "Clashes in east Ramadi," 1/8/14
- "Clashes Renewed Between the Army and Armed Groups in Ramadi and Fallujah," 1/25/14
- "Clashes Renewed Between the Army and Elements of Daash with the Participation of Combat Helicopters in Fallujah," 1/16/14
- "Clashes resume in north of Ramadi," 1/14/14
- "Clashes resume north of Fallujah," 1/2/14
- "Clashes resumed between army and armed groups in Falluja," 1/11/14
- “Deployment of police and tribes in most of Fallujah intersections,” 1/3/14
- "A gunman killed and four others arrested near Syrian territory west of Anbar," 2/13/14
- "Gunmen attack military base east of Fallujah," 1/4/14
- "Gunmen burned a police station in Ramadi and preparations to storm Aljazeerah and Albu Bali areas," 2/14/14
- "Heavy Shelling and Armed Clashes in Fallujah," 1/20/14
- "killing and wounding of /5/ soldiers northwest Fallujah," 1/20/14
- "Killing of /32/ elements believed of being members of terrorist Daaish in Ramadi," 1/20/14
- "Killing of one of Islamic Army leaders, east of Fallujah," 2/14/14
- "Killing three Members of ISIL East of Ramadi," 1/12/14
- "Military patrol clashes with gunmen in western Anbar," 1/10/14
- "The Outbreak of Armed Clashes in Ramadi," 2/16/14
- "The outbreak of clashes between the army and armed groups in Ramadi,"2/14/14
- "Qaeda members attack a police station in Anbar province," 1/14/14
- “Security source: Armed groups overrun military compounds in Hadeetha,” 12/31/13
- “A security source: Army and Sahwa forces dominate the eastern areas of Fallujah,” 1/25/14
- “A security source: Army forces dominate on 85 percent of Ramadi,” 2/7/14
- "Setting Fire to a Police Station North of Ramadi," 1/20/14
- "Six People of /Daash/ Killed and Four Members of the Awakening Wounded East of Fallujah," 2/7/14
- "Six Soldiers Killed and Wounded in Armed Clash Southeast of Fallujah," 1/24/14
- “A Source in al- Anbar Provincial Council: The Military Option to Resolve the Situation in Fallujah is Near,” 1/19/14
- "Three civilians injured due to random artillery shellings by army in eastern Ramadi," 1/25/14
- "Three civilians killed and four others wounded in Fallujah," 2/15/14
- “Tribal chiefs, clergymen in Fallujah draw road map for ending armed manifestations in the city,” 1/5/14
- “Tribal Military Council formed in Falluja to fight terrorists,” 1/7/14
- "Two Gunmen Killed and Wounded in Clashes in Ramadi," 1/23/14
- “Urgent…Army and the tribes control Saqlawiyah north of Fallujah,” 1/16/14
- “Urgent….Elements of ISIL withdraw from Ramadi,” 1/11/14
- “Wide Security Campaign to Clear Fallujah of Gunmen,” 1/26/14

New Sabah, “Ending the armed manifestations Fallujah decided at a meeting today of Anbar,” 1/10/14
- “Failure “initiative Fallujah”..The Awakening: storming army became valid,” 2/1/14

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, "Iraqi Forces Kill Saudi Insurgent Commander In Anbar, As Residents Flee Fighting," 1/29/14
- “Iraqi Military Says Ramadi Largely Cleared Of Militants,” 2/12/14

Radio Free Iraq, “Anbar Residents Await Anxiously As ‘Clan Revolutionaries’ Take On Al-Qaeda,” 1/9/14

Rao, Prashant, "Clashes and shelling as 140,000 flee Iraq conflict," Agence France Presse, 1/24/14

Al Rayy, “Ghaidan: operations in Anbar desert destroyed the majority of al-Qaeda camps and clans lifting tents,” 12/29/13
- "A joint force of the army and the clans stormed the area of Albu Faraj north of Ramadi, killing three Daash," 1/26/14
- "The killing of four Daash and six others arrested during clashes with the joint forces in eastern Ramadi," 1/23/14
- "The killing of four members of the "Daash" and wounding a soldier in armed clashes east of Ramadi," 2/8/14
- "The killing of seven members of the military operation in Daash east of Fallujah," 1/27/14
- "Martyrdom and wounding 11 soldiers, the outcome of a suicide bombing in eastern Ramadi," 2/16/14
- "Wounding a number of the Sons of Iraq in clashes with terrorist Daash northern Ramadi," 1/11/14

Reuters, “Iraq Army Prepares to Storm Militant-Held Falluja,” 2/1/14
- "Iraq violence kills 24, militants stage big attacks near Falluja," 1/14/14

Salah, Amjad, "Violent clashes between government forces and gunmen in three areas Anbar," Alsumaria, 2/1/14

Salaheddin, Sinan, “Iraqi police dismantle Sunni protest in west,” Associated Press, 12/30/13

Al-Salhy, Suadad, “Islamist militants strengthen grip on Iraq’s Falluja,” Reuters, 1/18/14

Al Sayegh, Hadeel, “Iraqi troops clash with Al Qaeda in Anbar,” The National, 1/10/14

Shafaq News, “Hayes: Army has been granted authorization to enter Fallujah,” 2/1/14

Yacoub, Sameer, "Attacks kill 13 in Iraq, militants seize soldiers," Associated Press, 1/26/14
- "Clashes in Iraq's embattled Anbar province kill 5," Associated Press, 1/17/14
- “Iraq: At least 60 killed in 2 weeks Anbar violence,” Associated Press, 1/11/14

Xinhua, "11 killed in insurgent attacks in Iraq," 2/14/14
- "16 killed in Iraq's violence," 1/27/14
- "Iraqi forces hit militant positions in Anbar, 15 killed," 2/2/14
- "Journalist killed as Iraqi forces fight gunmen in Anbar," 1/20/14

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