Wednesday, December 17, 2008

International Organization for Migration’s Year End Report On Displaced Iraqis In Anbar, Baghdad & Diyala Provinces

In early December 2008, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) released its end of the year reports on Iraq’s displaced. The first was on Anbar, Baghdad and Diyala, the three provinces that have seen the largest number of refugees and returns in the country. The IOM’s report contained extensive polling data on the needs of this population, top among them being food and shelter. The IOM report also documented the flow of Iraqis returning to their homes. While still at a small percentage, more are coming back than before. The IOM also found that few displaced receive basic services or any type of assistance, governmental or other. Many live in squalid conditions, and their overall situation is getting no better.

State Of The Displaced In Iraq

There were displaced Iraqis before the U.S. invasion. Saddam Hussein carried out policies against Shiites and Kurds that forced many from their homes. The Iran-Iraq and Gulf wars also led to Iraqi refugees. After the 2003 U.S. invasion, Coalition and Iraqi military operations led to around 200,000 Iraqis being displaced. The real catastrophe started after the Samarra shrine was bombed in February 2006, which started the sectarian war between the Shiites and Sunnis. After that attack approximately 1.6 million fled.

Shiites are the majority in the country, and are a majority of the displaced. Most were forced out because of direct threats to their lives. Almost two-thirds of them want to go back to their homes. Until then, most are renting a place, while others have turned to squatting. Many are afraid of evictions.

Because of their status, access to jobs, services, food, electricity, fuel, and schools are difficult. In a survey conducted by the IOM, 11% said they had no access to health care, 65.2% had no one in their family working, 36.7% received no aid from any group or government agency, 48% said they didn’t receive a steady supply of rations from the government, and 42% only had access to 3 hour or less of electricity per day.

These troubling situations along with the improved security situation have led a small, but growing number of Iraqis to try to return to their homes. As of November 2008, the IOM had found that 38,404 families, approximately 230,424 people had returned. 93% of those were internally displaced, and only 7% international refugees. The vast majority went back to Baghdad, which was the source for most of the country’s displaced.

Statistics On Displaced In Iraq

Displaced By Sect:
57.0% Shiite Arab
30.8% Sunni Arab
3.7% Sunni Kurd
1.9% Christian Chaldean
1.2% Shiite Turkomen
1.0% Sunni Turkomen
0.6% Shiite Kurd

Reasons For Displacement:
49.7% Direct Threats On Life
44.7% General Violence
35.2% Left Out Of Fear
29.6% Forced Out
20.8% Armed Conflict

Reasons For Being Targeted:
84.8% Sect
10.9% Don’t Think Targeted
5.1% Political Opinion
4.8% Ethnic Group
1.3% Social Group

Intentions:
61.3% Want To Return To Their Original Home
Approx 15% Want To Resettle In Third Location
20% Want To Integrate Into Current Location

Security Questions:
25.9% Death Or Injury In Family
17.6% Checkpoints Near Home
8.8% Need Permission To Move
6.6% Missing Family Member
4.0% Other Restrictions On Movement

Type Of Housing:
63.7% Rent
14.8% Live With Relatives Or Friends
10.0% Other
6.0% Collective Settlement
4.2% Public Housing
0.4% Former Military Camp

Access To Food Rations:
20.1% Not At All
46.2% Sometimes
33.6% Always

Reasons For Non-Access To Food Rations:
32.5% Insecure Shipping Route
15.0% Delay Transferring To New Location
6.5% Lack Transportation To Food Supplies
2.5% Other
2.5% No Food To Distribute
1.9% No Documents Or Ration Cards
1.3% Don’t Know

Food Aid Sources:
56.2% None
19.8% Religious Group
19.4% Humanitarian Group
10.6% Other
9.4% Other Federal Government Agency
6.3% Regional Government Agency

Water Sources:
88.8% Municipal Water
26.1% Water Tanks/Trucks
12.5% Rivers and Lakes
12.1% Open/Broken Pipe
11.3% Wells
3.4% Other

Electricity Supply:
4.8% None
31.2% 1-3 Hours Per Day
63.2% Four Or More Hours Per Day

Fuel Access:
61.0% Propane
43.8% Benzene
32.7% No Access
21.3% Kerosene
13.5% Diesel
2.6% Other

Visited By Health Worker In Past 30 Days?
56.2% Yes
41.3% No

Employment:
34.8% At Least One Family Member Working
65.2% No One Working

Status Of Property Left Behind:
27.67% Occupied By Others
17.93% Destroyed
16.46% Accessible
40.95% Don’t Know
1.11% Used By Military
0.44% Controlled By Government

Sources Of Assistance:

36.7% None
26.5% Relatives
26.5% Host Community
26.3% Ministry of Displacement and Migration
24.1% Religious Group
23.4% Iraqi Red Crescent
20.6% Humanitarian Group
4.2% Other Government Agency
1.8% Other

Numbers Of Returnees:
38,404 Families
Approximately 230,424 people
93% Internally Displaced
7% International Refugees

State Of The Displaced In Anbar, Baghdad and Diyala

The majority of those displaced in Anbar, Baghdad and Diyala provinces fled because of the sectarian war of 2006. Because of the fighting, there are a high number of female-headed households, which causes problems with jobs, poverty, and acquiring food and housing. These three provinces are also seeing evictions over squatting or not paying rent. Anbar was the highest at 8%, followed by Diyala at 5%. Access to services and schooling were also difficult. In the three provinces for example, only 17% of families interviewed had female children going to school compared to the national average of 22.5%, and only 29.5% had their male kids attending compared to the national average of 32%.

The Displaced In Anbar


Anbar is Iraq’s largest province, but it lacks resources. On September 1, 2008 it was turned over to Iraqi control. That was a positive step, but there are still attacks in the province. IEDs and suicide bombings continue with the cities of Ramadi and Fallujah still being the most violent. There are also extensive checkpoints throughout the province.

The governorate is also almost entirely Sunni, which has led many of that sect to flee there from other parts of the country. 77% of the displaced there came from Baghdad. There were also a large number of internally displaced Anbaris, because of the military operations there in 2004 and 2005 in places like Ramadi and Fallujah. More than 12,000 left for Baghdad. In the last year many of these have gone back to their homes. In the northern section of the province there are also about 600 Kurdish families that are displaced, but intend to stay in Anbar.

Anbar has been generally open to the displaced. It has no restrictions on their movement. In order to receive food rations they need to register and have their IDs. Many that went there came from the same tribes and families, and were given aid by locals. Now that is beginning to change as prices, especially rents, are going up.

Access to housing and services varies across the province for the displaced. They are three times as likely to live in public housing as the national average. Water supply differs from district to district. Tamem, Jughyfi, Askari, Thubbat, and Shurate sub-districts don’t have enough water, while Rawa, Rutba, Saqlawiya, and Khalidiya sub-districts have no sewage system. The Rutba desert area is also suffering from drought, which has forced some displaced to leave there for Fallujah. Overall, Anbar is known for having the worst water network in the country. Many pipes are damaged or breaking down. The water system usually runs on electricity, which is also spotty in the province. Fallujah and Ramadi average 2-3 hours of power a day, Heet and Karma 3-4 hours per day, and Rutba, Qaim and Hadith 5-6 hours per day. The improved security in Anbar has allowed the health sector to be rebuilt, but the centers usually lack supplies and staff. 50.5% of the displaced there say they have no access to medications. The schools in the province also need to be fixed, with some made out of mud. There is also extensive unemployment throughout the governorate.

After Baghdad, Anbar has seen the most returns. The IOM counted 3,101 families, or approximately 18,606 people have come back. Many of those said they did so because they felt pressured to leave by the provinces they were in or because they were running out of money.

Statistics On Displaced In Anbar

Overall
Population: 1,485,985
Displaced Before Feb. 06: 1,025 families, approximately 6,150 people
Displaced After Feb. 06: 9,179 families, approximately 55,716 people
Number Of Displaced Surveyed By IOM: 9,431 families, approximately 56,586 people
Number Of Returns: 3,101 families, approximately 18,606 people
Sect Of Displaced: 0.9% Shiite Arab, 98.6% Sunni Arab
Origin Of Displaced: 77.64% Baghdad, 14.59% Anbar, 6.18% Basra, 0.71% Ninewa,
0.66% Diyala, 0.12% Babil, 0.06% Salahaddin, 0.03% Wasit, 0.01% Dhi Qar

Reasons For Displacement:
46.6% General Violence
40.5% Direct Threat On Life
28.1% Forced Out
14.2% Armed Conflict
8.5% Left Out Of Fear

Reasons For Being Targeted:
80.1% Sect
19.7% Don’t Think Targeted
5.9% Ethnic Group
0.6% Political Opinion
0.2% Social Group

Displacement Rate

February 2006 began increasing to 500 a month
July 2006 dropped
Rose to peak at October 2006 at 1,500 that month
Declined to nearly 0 since then

Intentions:
83.4% Return To Original Home
15% Resettle In Current Location

Returns:
3,101 families, approximately 18,606 people to 99 locations

Internally Displaced vs. Refugees Amongst Returns:

2,123 displaced families, 888 refugee families

Security Situation:
61.1% Checkpoints Near Home
21.1% Other Restrictions
17.0% Death Or Injury In Family
7.3% Need Permission To Move
0.8% Missing Family Member

Type Of Housing:

61.5% Rent
18.8% Live With Relatives Or Friends
11.8% Public Housing
7.6% Collective Settlement
3.0% Other
0.9% Former Military Camp

Access To Food Rations:

61.7% Sometimes
22.5% Always
15.6% Not At All

Reasons For Non-Access To Food Rations:

20.1% Delay Transferring To new Location
14.5% Insecure Shipping Route
8.1% Lack Transportation For Food
5.4% Other
1.4% Families Lack Documentation Or Ration Cards
0.5% Don’t Know
0.1% No Food To Distribute

Food Aid Sources:

53.6% Humanitarian Group
45.3% Religious Group
27.6% None
8.9% Other
8.6% Other Federal Government Agency
2.6% regional Government Agency

Water Sources:

96.8% Municipal Water
56.7% Water Tanks/Trucks
36.1% Public Wells
19.0% Rivers And Lakes
2.2% Other
0.2% Open/Broken Pipes

Electricity Supply

11.9% None
39.8% 1-3 Hours Per Day
41.8% Four Or More Hours Per Day

Fuel Access:

55.1% No Access
29.5% Benzene
28.6% Propane
13.1% Other
12.3% Diesel
11.5% Kerosene

Visited By Health Workers In Past 30 Days?

33.7% Yes
62.5% No

Employment:

77.9% None Working
22.1% At Least One Family Member Working

Status Of Property Left Behind:

41.88% Don’t Know
20.71% Accessible
17.63% Occupied By Others
4.07% Destroyed
1.25% Used By Military
0.22% Controlled By Government

Source Of Assistance:

55.6% Humanitarian Group
49.0% Host Community
41.4% Religious Group
26.9% Iraqi Red Crescent
17.1% Relatives
8.6% Ministry Of Displacement and Migration
7.8% None
0.8% Other
0.4% Other Government Agency

Needs:

94% Food
71% Shelter
63% Work
40% Water
17% School
11% Health
3% Other
1% Hygiene
0% No Answer
0% Sanitation
0% Legal Help

The Displaced In Baghdad


Baghdad was the scene of the greatest displacement in Iraq. When the sectarian war began, the capital was ground zero. 90,731 families, approximately 550,099 fled the fighting. 48.7% said they were forced out, with 39.6% saying they faced direct threats on their life. 65% of the country’s displaced come from there as a result. Most usually simply moved to a different section of the city with 82.54% of the displaced within the city coming from Baghdad itself. As a result the capital has been largely segregated into a Shiite east and Sunni west. Many also fled to Baghdad from neighboring Anbar, 1.56% of the displaced in the city, and Diyala, 14.32%.

Before 2006, the city had very few internal refugees. During the U.S. invasion, some residents were forced out, but they moved south to where the fighting was already over. The October 2004 offensive in Fallujah led to 12,000 Anbaris moving to Baghdad, but most have moved back since then. Many of these new arrivals were not welcomed in the capital. Lots of them were from the country and were not familiar with city life. The displaced during the sectarian war were treated much differently. Many settled in areas with their own sect and/or family, and usually received local aid.

With security improving, Baghdad has seen the largest number of returns in the country. The IOM counted 26,347 families coming back, equaling about 158,082 people. The vast majority, 25,178 families were internally displaced. A major reason for them coming back was the lack of services in their current locations. Refugees from other countries also cited a lack of money and visa restrictions.

The local and federal government have been promoting these returns. The city council has given out cash to help. Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki also issued Order 101 in August 2008 ordering all squatters in Baghdad to leave their residences in one month. This was meant to help returns to the capital where many displaced said their houses were occupied. The Council of Ministers also announced Order 262, which offered all squatters evicted 300,000 dinars per family for six months as compensation. Evictions are happening as a result, but no squatters have received any money yet. The IOM doesn’t believe the government has any real plan to help the squatters they are kicking out. That means their situation is worsening. In the Al Batool Complex of Khadamiya 659 families got eviction notices, but had nowhere to go, and security forces bulldozed part of their community. The displaced in the Al Imam al-Hassan complex in Hurriya in Khadimiya are also facing evictions since they live in an ex-Army base.

For those that have gone back, some of their experiences have not been positive either. 59.39% of displaced families polled said their houses were occupied and 32.43% said their places had been destroyed. Iraqis that returned to the Al Salam sub-district for example, found their houses wrecked and looted by local militias.

The situation of those still displaced is very difficult as well. 60.1% of families polled had no one in their group working. In the Al Yousifiya sub-district of Mahmoudiy and Al Sikillat of Husseiniya in the Istiqlal district there are large numbers of widows and orphans amongst the displaced and returning families. The area also lacks any water supply or sewage system. In the Karkh district, many displaced children do not go to school because they are working to help with their families. There are 206 families in the Beer Alewi complex in Karkh that live in mud houses, and acquire their power illegally. Food rations also differ from neighborhood to neighborhood. In Al Yousifiya sub-district the displaced receive their rations, but with their usual shortcomings of late delivery and missing items. In contrast, families in Al Ma’amil of Rusafa do not receive any government food and suffer from malnutrition as a result. The displaced in Mariam al-Adhra complex have not transferred their rations because they are afraid of being tracked down by the government and being evicted as a result. There is little to no help for these families. 49.6% say they have received no assistance.

Statistics On Displaced In Baghdad


Overall

Population: 7,145,470
Displaced Before Feb. 06: 3,867 families, approximately 23,202 people
Displaced After Feb. 06: 90,731 families, approximately 550,099 people
Number Of Displaced Surveyed By IOM: 60,724 families, approximately 364,344 people
Number Of Returns: 26,347 families, approximately 158,082 people
Sect Of Displaced: 70.6% Shiite Arab, 29.2% Sunni Arab, 0.1% Christian Chaldean
Origin Of Displaced: 82.54% Baghdad, 14.32% Diyala, 1.56% Anbar, 0.82% Salahaddin,
0.28% Tamim, 0.22% Ninewa, 0.14% Babil, 0.04% Wasit, 0.03% Basra, 0.01% Karbala, 0.01% Maysan

Reasons For Displacement:

48.7% Forced Out
39.6% Direct Threat On Life
37.6% Armed Conflict
30.1% General Violence
29.2% Left Out Of Fear

Reasons For Being Targeted:

94.4% Sect
6.5% Don’t Think Targeted
1.8% Political Opinion
0.3% Social Group
0.1% Ethnic Group

Displacement Rate

February 2006 only 50 displaced
March 2006 had increased to 3,600
April 2006 up to almost 4,000
Dropped in May 2006 to 2,500
Increased again in June 06
Highest point was December 2006 at 7,000
Declined since then to almost 0 by June 2007

Intentions:

80.3% Return To Original Home
Approximately 10% Resettle In 3rd Location
5% Integrate Into Current Location

Returns:

26,347 families, approximately 158,082 people to 144 locations

Internally Displaced vs. Refugees Amongst Returns:

25,178 displaced families, 1,169 refugee families

Security Situation:

43.5% Death Or Injury In Family
3.4% Need Permission To Move
2.6% Missing Family Member
1.1% Other Restrictions
0.1% Checkpoints Near Home

Type Of Housing:

72.8% Rent
12.5% Live With Relatives Or Friends
8.2% Other
4.6% Collective Settlement
1.5% Public Housing
0.0% Former Military Camp

Access To Food Rations:

51.7% Sometimes
42.9% Always
5.4% Not At All

Reasons For Non-Access To Food Rations:

17.3% Delay Transferring To new Location
12.4% Insecure Shipping Route
3.3% Other
2.4% Families Lack Documentation Or Ration Cards
1.9% Don’t Know
0.2% Lack Transportation For Food
0.2% No Food To Distribute

Food Aid Sources:

60.3% None
25.3% Religious Group
11.5% Other
10.0% Humanitarian Group
8.9% Other Federal Government Agency
2.7% regional Government Agency

Water Sources:

96.2% Municipal Water
7.5% Water Tanks/Trucks
7.6% Open/Broken Pipes
1.8% Rivers And Lakes
1.1% Public Wells
0.0% Other

Electricity Supply

0.9% None
40.7% 1-3 Hours Per Day
58.3% Four Or More Hours Per Day

Fuel Access:

82.8% Propane
72.3% Benzene
33.5% Kerosene
13.3% No Access
7.1% Diesel
0.2% Other

Visited By Health Workers In Past 30 Days?

82.8% Yes
13.4% No

Employment:

60.1% None Working
39.9% At Least One Family Member Working

Status Of Property Left Behind:

7.66% Don’t Know
59.39% Occupied By Others
32.43% Destroyed
26.72% Accessible
1.15% Used By Military
0.41% Controlled By Government

Source Of Assistance:

49.6% None
28.9% Religious Group
36.2% Relatives
17.2% Humanitarian Group
16.0% Host Community
10.9% Iraqi Red Crescent
7.3% Ministry Of Displacement and Migration
1.8% Other Government Agency
0.2% Other

Needs:

97.4% Food
55.4% Legal Help
41.5% Shelter
34.7% Work
30.6% Water
19.4% Other
17.4% Health
0.6% Hygiene
0.4% School
0.2% No Answer
0% Sanitation

The Displaced In Diyala


Security is still an issue in Diyala. In July 2008 Iraqi forces launched their latest offensive in the province. That improved things a little, but there are still attacks, especially from female suicide bombers. Baquba is the most volatile area. Conflict between Baghdad and the Kurds over the disputed territory of Khanaqin has also increased tensions. Overall, the security situation is worse according to the IOM. The Ministry of Displacement and Migration however, recently claimed that things were going so well that the government will no longer register internal refugees in Diyala anymore.

Diyala has no restrictions on the movement or the entrance of the displaced. The province has the second most refugees after Baghdad. 80% of them come from the province itself, with 16% coming from the capital. Before 2006 most of the displaced were fleeing the U.S. invasion. They consisted of both Arabs and Kurds. Many lived in squalid conditions, squatting, or living in mud or wooden huts. In 2005 many families returned to their homes. Displaced from other provinces also began leaving Diyala as violence increased there. Overall, refugee families were generally welcomed because they came from the same sect or family.

After the July 2008 military offensive, almost 3,000 displaced families returned to their homes. Some have been attacked however. The security forces have responded, and are trying to ensure their safety.

Life continues to be difficult for those still displaced in Diyala. Many are led by women as their husbands have been killed during the sectarian fighting. In Baquba, there are many displaced women doing hard labor, others have no jobs in the area. There are 100 displaced families in the Khan Beni Sa’ad sub-district, and 89 families in Salam sub-district of Khalis living in tents. In Hatim al-Jamil there is no sewage, and the displaced drink from rivers.

Statistics On Displaced In Baghdad


Overall

Population: 1,560,621
Displaced Before Feb. 06: 9,100 families, approximately 54,600 people
Displaced After Feb. 06: 22.784 families, approximately 136,891 people
Number Of Returns: 6,216 families, approximately 37,296 people
Sect Of Displaced: 57.6% Sunni Arab, 33.3% Shiite Arab, 6.3% Shiite Kurd, 1.8% Sunni
Kurd, 0.6% Shiite Turkomen, 0.5% Sunni Turkomen
Origin Of Displaced: 82.8% Diyala, 16.51% Baghdad, 0.24% Anbar, 0.16% Tamim,
0.12% Babil, 0.12% Salahaddin, 0.04% Basra, 0.01% Ninewa

Reasons For Displacement:

60.3% General Violence
45.5% Forced Out
44.2% Direct Threat On Life
32.2% Left Out Of Fear
22.8% Armed Conflict

Reasons For Being Targeted:

80.1% Sect
10.3% Don’t Think Targeted
30.0% Political Opinion
5.5% Social Group
1.4% Ethnic Group

Displacement Rate

Peaked in July 2006 at 1,750
Slow decline until November 2007 to almost 0
Has been flat since then

Intentions:

87.8% Return To Original Home
Approximately 5% Resettle In 3rd Location
Approximately 3% Integrate Into Current Location

Returns:

6,216 families, approximately 37,296 people to 63 locations

Internally Displaced vs. Refugees Amongst Returns:

6,168 displaced families, 48 refugee families

Security Situation:

60.2% Checkpoints Near Home
49.3% Death Or Injury In Family
17.9% Missing Family Member
9.2% Other Restrictions
7.0% Need Permission To Move

Type Of Housing:

50.1% Rent
21.7% Live With Relatives Or Friends
12.0% Other
8.1% Public Housing
3.2% Collective Settlement
2.9% Former Military Camp

Access To Food Rations:

60.6% Sometimes
23.1% Always
16.4% Not At All

Reasons For Non-Access To Food Rations:

4.6% Delay Transferring To new Location
39.7% Insecure Shipping Route
24.7% Lack Transportation For Food
14.8% No Food To Distribute
1.3% Families Lack Documentation Or Ration Cards
1.2% Don’t Know
1.0% Other

Food Aid Sources:

56.3% None
24.1% Humanitarian Group
13.1% Other Federal Government Agency
11.5% Other
6.4% Religious Group
0.9% regional Government Agency

Water Sources:

86.3% Municipal Water
71.8% Water Tanks/Trucks
45.7% Rivers And Lakes
42.0% Public Wells
20.2% Open/Broken Pipes
1.6% Other

Fuel Access:

51.6% No Access
44.2% Propane
20.7% Kerosene
13.4% Benzene
8.3% Other
3.9% Diesel

Visited By Health Workers In Past 30 Days?

39.7% Yes
59.4% No

Employment:

59.4% None Working
40.6% At Least One Family Member Working

Status Of Property Left Behind:

51.08% Don’t Know
26.62% Destroyed
19.30% Accessible
17.77% Occupied By Others
3.98% Used By Military
2.54% Controlled By Government

Source Of Assistance:

53.2% Host Community
32.7% Iraqi Red Crescent
39.3% Relatives
26.8% Humanitarian Group
20.8% Ministry Of Displacement and Migration
18.9% None
12.8% Religious Group
2.6% Other
1.8% Other Government Agency

Needs:

86.4% Shelter
78.0% Food
76.1% Work
24.4% Other
11.7% Sanitation
4.2% Water
2.8% Legal Help
1.2% Health
1.2% School
0.7% No Answer
0.6% Hygiene

SOURCES


International Organization for Migration, “Anbar, Baghdad & Diyala, Governorate Profiles,” December 2008

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