Tuesday, December 30, 2008

International Organization for Migration Report on Internally Displaced In Tamim, Ninewa and Salahaddin

In December 2008 the International Organization for Migration (IOM) released its year-end reports on the displaced in Iraq’s eighteen provinces. One report covered Tamim, Ninewa and Salahaddin. Outside of Baghdad these are the most violent governorates in the country, and have deep seated ethnic tensions in two major cities, Mosul and Kirkuk, between Arabs and Kurds that are nowhere near being reconciled. This means there were will continue to be conflict there and displacement as was recently seen when thousands of Christians fled Mosul in October 2008. Because of these on-going disputes only a few thousand families have returned to the region. Those still displaced face a variety of problems from lack of basic services and food to jobs. As long as the three provinces remain unstable it is unlikely that the displaced will be coming back in large numbers any time soon.

The Displaced In Ninewa

Ninewa is one of Iraq’s northern most provinces located next to Anbar, Salahaddin, Dohuk and Irbil. It is rich in oil, and contains the third largest city in the country, Mosul, behind Baghdad and Basra. The city has a mix of Arabs, Kurds, Shabaks, Assyrians, Turkomen and Armenians. Security got worse in the second half of 2008 with an increase in kidnappings, assassinations, militia attacks, and general violence. Ethnic tensions also heated up when Christians were attacked in Mosul leading to almost 2,000 families fleeing. While some have come back, the majority have not and are still afraid of what might happen to them if they do. There are still military operations going on in Ninewa, specifically in Mosul. Until this situation is settled, the displaced problem will not be resolved.

Ninewa received two waves of displaced. The first came after the invasion, and consisted mostly of former Baathists and government officials from Baghdad and the south who were afraid of retribution. That would account for the large number of Iraqis from Basra 6.33% who now reside in Ninewa. There were also another group that fled military operations in the province such as a large number of Turkomen who left Telafar because of the fighting there. The second wave came in 2006 during the sectarian war. That’s shown by the fact that major reason why families fled was violence, 79.6% and fear 65.5%.

In the beginning of 2006 there were only about 100 displaced a month entering the province. After April however, it took off to around 1,400 coming in June. Displacement slowed afterwards, only to spike to its highest level of 2,000 in September. It then dropped to 250 in October, then went up against to 1,600 in November. Since then the number of refugees in the province has dropped consistently to 100 in April 2007. It has gone down to almost 0 since then with slight increases in January and October 2008.

Overall, 50% of the internal refugees in Ninewa came from Baghdad, but there were others that fled because of the Arab-Kurdish conflict. There are also a large number of displaced from within the province itself. Unlike the rest of the country, the largest displaced group is not Arab Muslims, but Assyrian Christians.

The province has no restrictions on the entry of displaced. To get food rations, families have to have their IDs, rations cards and documents, and register with the local office of the Ministry of Displacement and Migration. While the displaced have been generally welcomed in the province, resentment is growing against them as they are blamed for rising costs, especially rents, while some have joined armed groups. 59.8% say they want to go back to the original homes, while 6.4% said they want to be integrated into Ninewa.

Like the displaced in the rest of the country, those in Ninewa face a whole series of problems receiving basic services, along with finding housing and jobs. Next to legal help for retrieving their lost property, jobs was the second most important issue to displaced at 88%. In the Makhmoor and Hawiga districts there is high unemployment. Out of those surveyed by the IOM 81.1% said they had no family members working. Arabs and Turkomen especially find it hard to find work. The government is suppose to provide food rations to every Iraqi, but 56.6% of those polled said they received no rations at all. The water system in Ninewa is also in great disrepair. In the Mosul district there are villages that have no sewage system and the pipe system has been damaged by constant traffic by military vehicles. There was also maintenance done on the district’s electrical system, which reduced the number of hours per day with power to 4-6. 41.8% of displaced polled said they only got 1-3 ours of power per day on average.

A majority of the displaced said that they had received some type of aid to assist them with their predicament. 75% said they had received help. The largest provider was the Ministry of Displacement and Migration that served 43.2%. All government agencies combined provided for 45.1% of the displaced. Humanitarian groups in total helped 50.1%. That still left out a large number of people. 30.0% for example said they had no food aid. This is common throughout most of the country, and is made worse by the lack of security in the province.

Statistics On Displaced In Ninewa

Overall:
Population: 2,811,091
Total pre-February 2006 internally displaced: 6,572 families, approx. 39,432 people
Total post-February 2006 internally displaced: 12,546 families, approx. 75,276 people
Number of returnees: 605 families, approx 3,630 people
Internally Displaced vs Refugees Amongst Returns: All 605 were internally displaced
Sect Of Displaced: Christian Assyrian 39.0%, Sunni Arab 26.0%, Sunni Turkomen 12.4%, Sunni Kurd 12.4%, Other 3.3%, Sunni Kurd 3.2%, Shiite Turkomen 2.2%, Shiite Arab 0.8%, Yazidi Arab 0.3%, Christian Armenian 0.2%
Origin Of Displaced: Baghdad 49.63%, Basra 6.33%, Diyala 1.12%, Tamim 0.90%, Salahaddin 0.59%, Anbar 0.55%, Babil 0.45%, Wasit 0.18%, Qadisiyah 0.12%, Dhi Qar 0.06%, Irbil 0.03%, Karbala 0.01%

Reason for Displacement:
General violence 79.6%
Fear 65.5%
Direct threat to life 42.8%
Armed conflict 4.2%
Other 2.5%
Forced from home 1.7%

Reasons for Being Targeted:
Sect 85.7%
Don’t think targeted 12.7%
Ethnic group 1.9%
Social group 1.7%
Political views 0.5%

Security Situation
:
Checkpoints 24.8%
Death or injury in family 21.9%
Missing family member 7.0%
Need authorization to move 5.4%
Other restrictions on movement 0.0%

Type of Housing:
Renting 78.2%
Living with host family or relatives 14.7%
Other 4.7%
Collective settlement 1.1%
Public building 0.8%
Tent near house of host family 0.6%
Former military base 0.1%
Tent in camp 0.0%

Access To Food Rations:
Sometimes 79.1%
Not at all 8.4%
Always 12.4%

Water Sources:
Municipal water 92.0%
Water tanks/trucks 51.5%
Wells 11.4%
Broken pipes 9.3%
Rivers 7.8%
Others 1.5%

Electricity Supply:
No power 4.9%
1-3 hours per day 41.8%
Four or more hours per day 51.8%

Fuel Access:
No access 75.2%
Propane 13.3%
Benzene 21.5%
Kerosene 12.7%
Diesel 9.9%
Other 0.0%

Employment:
At least one member in family works 18.9%
No one works 81.1%

Type Of Property Left Behind:
Other 64.9%
Land for farming 17.3%
Land for housing 5.3%
House 11.9%
Shop/business 0.0%
Apartment or room 0.5%

Status of Property Left Behind:
Don’t know 61.5%
Accessible 12.9%
Occupied 4.6%
Destroyed 3.7%
Used by military 0.8%
Taken over by Government 0.4%

Source of Assistance:
Ministry of Displacement and Migration 43.2%
Iraqi Red Crescent 31.6%
Religious group 29.8%
Host community 29.5%
Relatives 26.6%
No aid received 24.3%
Humanitarian group 18.5%
Other 6.8%
Other government agency 1.9%

Type of Aid Received:
Food 67.8%
Non-food items 60.2%
Other 15.5%
Health 8.5%

Food Aid Source:
Humanitarian group 34.8%
Religious charity 30.3%
No aid 30.0%
Others 21.6%
Federal government 10.5%
Provincial government 6.0%

Needs:
Legal Help 89%
Jobs 88%
Shelter 63%
Food 28%
Other 12%
Health 7%
Water 5%
Hygiene 4%
School 2%
Sanitation 1%

The Displaced In Salahaddin Ninewa

Salahaddin province is just north of Baghdad. It is mostly Arab with some Turkomen and Kurds. The city of Tikrit was a Baathist stronghold and the birthplace of Saddam Hussein. Because of this there was a lot of fighting between the Coalition and insurgents there. Although there is still violence in Salahaddin, the security situation is relatively stable. Militias and insurgents are losing influence.

Many people in Salahaddin were displaced because of the intense fighting there. The majority however, came during the sectarian war. 49.5% come from Baghdad, then Tamim 15% and Basra 12%. Most of those from the south fled to Salahaddin because they were Baathist and government officials, and were afraid of reprisals. 60.6% left their homes because of direct threats on their lives, while 47.5% gave their reason as general violence. The increase in displaced began in January 2006, with a big spike in June to 2,000. The rate declined until September 2006, and then took off again to 1,500 by December. The rate of displacement then steadily dropped until it was almost at zero by August 2007 with a few bumps up since then.

The province has no restrictions on displaced. Most have been welcomed, and received aid from the local communities. The Ministry of Interior is now telling families from Anbar and Diyala to go home because security has been established there, but the order is not being enforced. 50.1% of the displaced said they want to return to their homes, while 12.7% prefer to stay in Salahddin and resettle there. Because of the continued instability in the province, only 96 families have come back. 56 were internally displaced, while 40 came back from other countries. All of the latter are former Baathists and government officials, and are keeping low because they don’t want to face persecution for their past lives.

The displaced in Salahaddin face problems with food, jobs, and shelter. 88% said they needed food, followed by jobs 75%, and shelter 66%. Children of the displaced often have to work to support their families. Even then, only 71.7% of the displaced said they had anyone in their family working. Most displaced there have registered with the local authorities and receive their food rations, although 23.0% said they hadn’t received any yet. Salahaddin also suffered from the country’s drought during the summer. Water is still scarce in some sections of the province. In Tikrit the displaced have access to water 20 hours per day. In Samarra its 18 hours, but in other areas it goes down to only 5-6 hours. In parts of the Al-Daur district it gets as low as only 1-3 hours of water a day. Salahaddin is home to one of the country’s major power stations at Beiji. Despite this electricity is extremely scare for the displaced. 45% said they only get 1-3 hours of electricity per day. There are parts of Tikrit that receive no power at all. The province also lacks hospital staff. Only 34% of the displaced that were surveyed said they had access to the medications they need, while only 29% had been visited by a health worker in the last 30 days. The education system is also poor with many schools made out of mud, and others that need repairs.

A little under half of Salahaddin’s displaced are not being served by any organization. 47.6% said they had received no aid at all. Of those that had, local communities was the largest provider. The government on the other hand had only helped 5.8%. Humanitarian groups did a much better job reaching 50.1%. With food being their greatest need, 57.3% said they had received no food assistance. Government agencies only provided food to 1.7% of those surveyed. Even with security improving in Salahaddin, things have not improved much for the displaced there.

Statistics On Displaced In Salahaddin

Overall:
Population: 1,191,403
Total pre-February 2006 internally displaced: 7,790 families, approx. 45, 614people
Total post-February 2006 internally displaced: 15,795 families, approx. 94,770people
Number of returnees: 96 families, approx. 576 people
Internally Displaced vs Refugees Amongst Returns: 56 internally displaced, 40 international refugees
Sect of Displaced: Sunni Arab 95.8%, Shiite Arab 2.5%, Sunni Kurd 0.5%, Shiite Turkomen 1.0%, Sunni Turkomen 0.1%, Other 0.1%
Origin of Displaced: Baghdad 49.5%, Tamim 14.94%, Basra 12.22%, Diyala 10.36%, Anbar 1.90%, Ninewa 1.89%, Irbil 1.72%, Wasit 0.7%, Babil 0.68%, Dhi Qar 0.65%, Qadisiyah 0.10%, Karbala 0.04%

Reason for Displacement:
Direct threat to life 60.6%
General violence 47.5%
Fear 29.5%
Forced from home 15.4%
Armed conflict 2.2%
Other 0.8%

Reasons for Being Targeted:
Sect 55.0%
Ethnic group 21.3%
Social group 22.2%
Political views 5.1%
Don’t think targeted 0.7%

Security Situation:
Checkpoints 9.9%
Death or injury in family 8.3%
Need authorization to move 6.3%
Missing family member 3.5%
Other restrictions on movement 1.0%

Type of Housing:
Renting 67.9%
Living with host family or relatives 11.9%
Other 7.9%
Public building 6.8%
Collective settlement 3.9%
Former military base 1.0%
Tent near house of host family 0.4%
Tent in camp 0.1%

Access To Food Rations:
Sometimes 41.2%
Not at all 23.0%
Always 34.6%

Water Sources:
Municipal water 85.9%
Water tanks/trucks 28.0%
Wells 22.6%
Broken pipes 1.3%
Rivers 10.3%
Others 2.0%

Electricity Supply:
No power 2.1%
1-3 hours per day 45.0%
Four or more hours per day 52.3%

Fuel Access:
Propane 56.7%
No access 40.8%
Benzene 22.8%
Other 8.8%
Kerosene 4.1%
Diesel 1.1%

Employment:
At least one member in family works 28.3%
No one works 71.7%

Types of Property Left Behind:
Other 93.7%
Shop/business 4.0%
Land for housing 1.3%
Apartment or room 0.4%
House 0.4%
Land for farming 0.0%

Status of Property Left Behind:
Don’t know 61.6%
Occupied 13.8%
Accessible 7.2%
Destroyed 2.9%
Used by military 1.1%
Taken over by Government 0.0%

Source of Assistance:
No aid received 47.6%
Host community 33.4%
Iraqi Red Crescent 23.0%
Relatives 11.1%
Religious group 9.7%
Ministry of Displacement and Migration 4.4%
Other government agency 1.4%
Other 0.8%
Humanitarian group 0.3%

Type of Aid Received:
Food 52.1%
Non-food items 30.8%
Health 16.8%
Other 2.5%

Food Aid Source:
No aid 57.3%
Others 21.7%
Humanitarian group 12.4%
Religious charity 11.0%
Federal government 1.3%
Provincial government 0.4%

Needs:
Food 88%
Jobs 75%
Shelter 66%
Other 25%
Health 18%
Water 12%
Hygiene 7%
School 4%
Legal Help 2%
Sanitation 2%

The Displaced In Tamim

Tamim was once known as Kirkuk province. Its name was changed in 1972. It is home to large oil reserves and ethnic tensions. The city of Kirkuk is one of the most contested pieces of territory in the country. Because of these divisions security worsened in the second half of 2008. Assassinations, kidnappings, attacks and explosions were al up. Violence and sexual assault against the displaced is also common.

Like Ninewa and Salahaddin, Tamim saw two waves of displacement. The first came during the Saddam years when he carried out his Arabization policy forcing out Kurds. Many of these families have since returned, but that has led to Arabs being pushed out. Then the sectarian war began, and vast more lost their homes or moved to Tamim as a result. 75% said they fled because of direct threats to their lives. Unlike other provinces in Iraq, most of the displaced in Tamim come from Diyala rather than Baghdad. The number of displaced saw a slow increase with a few ups and down until it hit its highest point in May 2007 at 1,700. It then dropped to almost zero, but with a few increases in October 2007, February 2008, and May 2008.

Tamim does have restriction on displaced entering the country. In order to register and receive food rations, families need to go to the local city council and the local branch of the Ministry of Displacement and Migration, and then go to Kirkuk for more paperwork. Many times families get rejected because of their ethnicity. There are many unregistered families living on the outskirts of Kirkuk as a result. If families don’t register they can be evicted as well. These strict rules have led many displaced to live with relatives because they can’t legally rent a place. If a family has had a member killed, kidnapped, or an orphaned child however, they can receive an exception from the Ministry of Displacement and Migration. The displaced are also treated differently depending upon whom they live with. If they are not of the same sect than they are often discriminated against. There are even reports of threats and harassment that have led some to move away.

79.0% of the displaced in Tamim say they want to return to their original homes, while 17.0% said they want to stay in their new communities. Families have begun to return to Al-Jamasa and Al-Shaheria villages in Al-Hawiga district after a Sons of Iraq unit was set up there and stabilized the area. Families that came back to Gareeb Sofla nearby found their homes destroyed, and are living without electricity, water, medical services, schools, and jobs. Some are living in mud huts. The rate of return has been limited with under 1000 individuals coming back so far. Unlike the rest of the country, they are split evenly between internally displaced and refugees who came back from other countries. The latter have been concentrated in the Daqduq district.

Displaced women are facing a number of difficulties in Tamim. Prostitution has grown in the province because of lack of jobs and poverty faced by the displaced. Families sometimes force their wives and children into the industry. In the Abo Al Shees village in Hawiga district there are pregnant women doing hard labor with little health care. Girls don’t go to school their either because they have to work, and there is a high level of child labor.

Besides jobs the major needs of displaced in Tamim are food, 96% and shelter 93%, along with a number of other issues. A whopping 98.8% of the displaced in the IOM survey said they had no one in their family working. In Kirkuk and Hawiga districts there are over 50 families facing evictions for squatting or because they can’t afford to pay their rents. In total, about 12% of the displaced said they were facing the los of their residences. Over 80% of the displaced have no to limited access to government food rations. Families in Daqduq and Dibis districts say they are regularly missing items in their packages. The major reason why the province is having such trouble delivering these goods is because of lack of security. Only 49% of the displaced in the province have access to water. In Daquq distrit there is a village with no access to water, which leads them to use a local river that increases the risk of disease. 41% say they use a broken pipe for this need. 71.6% of the displaced have access to four or more hours of electricity per day, but 16.5% had no power at all, and 11.3% said they only got it for 1 to 3 hours per day. Only 31% had access to health care, and 70% said they couldn’t get the medications they need. Just 9% were visited by a health worker in 30 days.

Government and humanitarian groups are largely failing the displaced in the province. 77% said they received no aid at all. The largest provider were unnamed groups at 16.9%. The government only helped 17.9%, while non-government organizations did worse at 11.5%. 77% received no food aid, with the government only assisting 9.8%. Like Ninewa, the lack of security there and continued instability will hamper efforts to help the displaced in this part of Iraq.

Statistics On Displaced In Tamim

Overall:
Population: 902,019
Total pre-February 2006 internally displaced: 1,252 families, approx. 7,512 people
Total post-February 2006 internally displaced: 7,911 families, approx. 43,623 people
Number of returnees: 165 families, approx. 990 people
Internally Displaced vs Refugees Amongst Returns: 82 internally displaced, 83 international refugees
Sect of Displaced: Sunni Arab 51.5%, Sunni Kurd 18.8%, Shiite Turkomen 18.0%, Sunni Turkomen 3.2%, Shiite Arab 3.0%, Christian Assyrian 2.0%, Sunni Kurd 0.9%, Other 0.3%, Christian Aremnian 0.2%, Yazidi Arab 0.1%
Origin of Displaced: Diyala 26.11%, Baghdad 16.27%, Ninewa 15.94%, Salahaddin 15.35%, Anbar 3.99%, Irbil 1.28%, Sulaymaniyah 0.15%, Basra 0.34%, Babil 0.12%
Dhi Qar 0.04%, Najaf 0.03%

Reason for Displacement:
Direct threat to life 75.0%%
General violence 17.9%
Forced from home 16.0%
Fear 13.5%
Armed conflict 11.4%
Other 1.6%

Reasons for Being Targeted:
Sect 59.4%
Don’t think targeted 38.3%
Ethnic group 2.0%
Political views 1.1%
Social group 0.6%

Security Situation:
Death or injury in family 57.9%
Checkpoints 30.3%
Other restrictions on movement 25.3%
Missing family member 24.1%
Need authorization to move 21.4%

Type of Housing:
Living with host family or relatives 28.1%
Other 27.2%
Renting 22.7%
Public building 9.5%
Tent near house of host family 8.3%
Collective settlement 3.8%
Former military base 0.3%
Tent in camp 0.1%

Access To Food Rations:
Sometimes 24.9%
Not at all 56.6%
Always 18.1%

Water Sources:
Municipal water 55.8%
Water tanks/trucks 51.8%
Wells 43.4%
Broken pipes 41.9%
Rivers 17.4%
Others 0.6%

Electricity Supply:
No power 16.5%
1-3 hours per day 11.3%
Four or more hours per day 71.6%

Fuel Access:
No access 78.5%
Benzene 18.8%
Propane 12.6%
Diesel 11.9%
Kerosene 6.1%
Other 0.1%

Employment:
At least one member in family works 1.2%
No one works 98.8%

Type Of Property Left Behind:
Other 68.3%
Land for housing 16.6%
Shop/business 9.7%
Apartment or room 2.5%
House 1.6%
Land for farming 1.3%

Status of Property Left Behind:
Don’t know 76.1%
Accessible 8.1%
Occupied 6.8%
Destroyed 3.8%
Used by military 0.4%
Taken over by Government 0.2%

Source of Assistance:
No aid received 60.0%
Other 16.9%
Ministry of Displacement and Migration 16.4%
Relatives 13.2%
Humanitarian group 7.9%
Host community 5.7%
Religious group 5.1%
Iraqi Red Crescent 3.6%
Other government agency 1.5%

Type of Aid Received:
Food 33.6%
Non-food items 28.8%
Health 8.6%
Other 5.2%

Food Aid Source:
No aid 77.0%
Others 8.4%
Provincial government 7.2%
Humanitarian group 4.7%
Federal government 2.6%
Religious charity 1.4%

Needs:
Food 96%
Shelter 93%
Jobs 51%
Legal Help 24%
Water 11%
Health 9%
Other 5%
Sanitation 5%
School 3%
Hygiene 0%

SOURCES

International Organization for Migration, “Kirkuk, Ninewa & Salah al-Din, Governorate Profiles,” December 2008

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