Thursday, June 30, 2022

This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 30 Gen Razzaq launched attempted coup vs Pres Arif

(Wikipedia)

 

1915 UK committee wrote paper advocating for break up of Ottoman Empire and creation of Iraq to

control its oil and agriculture Cabinet didn’t agree

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

1920 British arrested sheikh for defaulted loan leading revolt in Rumaitha His tribe attacked British and

freed him Considered start of 1920 Revolt against Mandate

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq book review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review A Short History of Iraq)

1930 Anglo-Iraq Treaty agreed on independence in Oct 1932 Allowed British to keep military in Iraq and

use Iraqi territory for 25 years PM Said didn’t tell govt Minister Ayubi resigned in protest

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

1961 Kuwait asked British for military aid to protect it from Iraq after Qasim claimed Kuwait part of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

1963 Barzani said 167 villages had been destroyed and 643 civilians killed by Iraqi air force

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Journey Among Brave Men, Travels in Kurdistan)

1963 Report that Syrian Air Force flying bombing missions with Iraqi Air Force against

Kurds

1965 Arif govt claimed plot by Communists and Kurds in Mosul had been discovered

1966 Planes bombed Baghdad in support of ex-Gen Razzaq’s coup Razzaq’s group took

control of Baghdad Radio Pres Arif called on Mosul Command for aid that sent commando brigade that took control of Baghdad Razzaq sent into exile in England

1973 Police Chief Kazzar launched failed coup against Bakr Arrested Defense Minister Shihab and

Interior Minister Ghaydan Failed to assassinate Bakr and Saddam

1973 Coup plotter Police Chief Kazzar was captured trying to flee to Iran but not before he killed Def

Min Shihab and seriously wounded Inter Min Ghaydan

1980 Newly elected parliament took office Naim Haddad of Revolutionary Command Council elected

speaker 

1986 Iraq abandoned Mehran Iraq after took it in May Hoped to swap Mehran for Iraqi territory

Tehran said no

1988 Iraq recaptured Mawet, Kurdistan from Iran

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1991 Saddam created special committee headed by Tariq Aziz to conceal weapons programs from UN

inspectors

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)

(Musings On Iraq Chilcot Report Sec 1.1 UK Iraq Strategy 1990 To 2000)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

(Musings On Iraq review The Saddam Tapes)

1993 Barzani and Talabani presented their differences to Kurdish parliament Was mostly about

grievances over taxes collected from trade with Iran and Turkey

2003 Def Sec Rumsfeld said no guerrilla war or organized resistance in Iraq

2003 Report IAEA had US British German experts look at aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy All said they

were for rockets not centrifuges

2003 New Republic article quoted intel officials that Bush admin exaggerated Iraq aluminum tubes story

Part of CIA trying to blame White House for WMD claims

(Musings On Iraq How A Contested Aluminum Tubes Story Became The Basis For War With Iraq)

2003 UK Under Sec Def Tebbit wrote to Def Min Hoon on his trip to Iraq Said no integrated plan for

rebuilding Iraq Didn’t know whether US would give Bremer authority to manage task Said Bremer wanted UK help with police training

2007 Battle of Donkey Island US destroyed ISI force planning to attack Ramadi Was first major attack

upon city since district secured by Awakening

2008 IEDs targeted 5 judges in Baghdad 1 chief justice killed 3 wounded

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Judiciary Under Attack)

2008 Iraq offered 8 oil fields and 2 gas fields for foreign investment Wanted to sign deals in one month

Pre-approved 41 companies to bid on fields Before said would have no bid contracts Wouldn’t happen until 2009

2008 Report during ISF fighting Mahdi Army in Baghdad in Mar-Apr Mahdi Army  expelled Sunnis

from 5 east Baghdad neighborhoods

2008 PM Maliki and VP Hashemi made deal to allow Iraqi Accordance Front to return to govt

Accordance Front got nothing in return Boycotted govt in Aug 07 to protest being excluded by Maliki

2008 UN got Article 140 extended to this date Nothing happened Supposed to determine future of

disputed areas Original deadline Dec 07

2009 US withdrew forces from Iraqi cities

(Musings On Iraq Iraq After The U.S. Withdrawal)

2009 Asaib Ahl Al-Haq said 2 UK hostages it kidnapped and turned over died from natural causes

Autopsy showed they were shot Were killed in Iran

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Iranians Planned Kidnapping And Held British Captives Taken In Iraq) 

2010 Sadr called on followers of Asaib Ahl Al-Haq to give up on their leader Khazali and rejoin

Sadrist movement

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

2010 Govt only paid 85% of sahwa Half of Baghdad sahwa not paid in Apr and May Police stopped

protests by Sahwa in Ninewa over not getting paid

2010 Report Lancet study authors that est 655,000 Iraqis killed due to US invasion refused to

answer questions Amer Assoc for Public Opinion Research censured authors for ethical violations for refusing to release their survey data 1 author Burnham admitted that sampling methodology was different from how explained in report Johns Hopkins investigated and suspended Burnham for violating protocol

(Musings On Iraq Major Flaws With The Lancet Reports On Iraqi Deaths Part I)

(Musings On Iraq Major Flaws With The Lancet Reports On Iraqi Deaths Part II)

(Musings On Iraq New Survey On Estimated Deaths In Iraq Refutes Lancet Reports)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Mark Van Der Laan on Lancet Reports)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Michael Spagat on Lancet reports)

2011 MP on integrity committee said court issued warrant for fmr Trade Min Sudani for stealing $55 mil

Was arrested in 2009 Acquitted 2010 MP said there was political pressure on case PM Maliki interfered in 2009 case Sudani from Maliki’s Dawa Part of stolen money paid for his 2009 and 2010 election campaigns

2011 Report Feb new tariffs started to cut cheap imports which flooded Iraq Hurt businesses Mar

tariffs suspended

2011 Report 15 US soldiers killed in Jun Kataib Hezbollah and Sadr’s Promised Day Brigades blamed

Most US combat deaths since Jun 08 New wave of attacks by Special Groups began Mar 11 when Obama admin said it wanted a troop extension past 2011 withdrawal

2011 Report Democracy and Human Rights Development Center said 100s of human rights violations in

KRG in 2010 416 lawsuits for arrests without investigations 220 court violations like no lawyer or not allowing suspect to testify Police Asayesh judges ignore laws

2011 Human Rights Watch Demanded investigation into police clash with protesters in Baghdad in Jun

Men with pipes knives and sticks attacked protesters Police did nothing and supported attack 2 Defense Min officials said 150 plain clothes police and soldiers to infiltrate protests and then attack them Called protesters Baathists Chanted pro-PM Maliki slogans

2012 Spokesman for Investors Union in KRG said investments a mess Some projects useless just started

to make money not produce anything Fake companies set up projects to steal money Lax regulations meant little done about them

2012 Parliament’s integrity comm accused Electricity Min Hassan of wasting $7 bil Neglected equipment

that arrived at Basra port Left out in open where hot weather damaged it Some equipment stolen

2013 KRG parliament voted to postpone presidential elections so Pres Barzani could stay in office for 2

more years Led to fight in parliament between PUK and Gorran  MPs Gorran called Barzani a dictator

2014 ISIS killed Mohammed Khamis head of Ramadi Awakening Council

(Musings On Iraq review The ISIS Reader, Milestone Texts of the Islamic State Movement)

2014 Report Naqshibandi cmdrs in Diyala said would not join IS Said ideological differences between 2

2014 23 bodies found in Muqdadiya Diyala Mostly sheikhs Hashd blamed

2016 Abadi govt suppressing losses in war vs IS Sources said 394 ISF killed 3308 wounded in

Fallujah op Others said up to 900 deaths Didn’t include Hashd or civilians

2017 People in Hillah Babil blocked Baghdad-Babil highway protesting lack of drinking water

2017 Sheikh Saghir left ISCI Abdul Mahdi and Baqir Zubaidi also left Complained about

leadership

2017 UN called on Abadi govt to stop forcing out IS families from Mosul and other areas Said

100s of families threatened in Salahaddin Anbar Ninewa

2017 Human Rights Watch IS killed people fleeing Mosul ISF executed people they thought were

IS members in Mosul

2019 PM Abdul Mahdi met with UN delegation Called on intl community to help with

reconstruction more Govt had no rebuilding plan or money

2019 Ninewa Gov Marid called on intl community to do more rebuilding province Said

Mosul needed $5 bil

2019 Report 1000s of tribal fighters fought for 5 yrs vs IS with no salaries and few

weapons Never accepted into Hashd Groups were restricted in what could do because feared by Shiite parties

2019 Protesters clashed with police in Dhi Qar Demanded governor resign Basra governor

said he would implement demands of protesters Didn’t Protest at Rumaila oil field demanding jobs Protests in 2 other parts of Basra

2020 Report Kataib Hezbollah threatened to sue PM Kazemi for raid on its office Said Kazemi

pro-US Hezbollah al-Nujaba said US didn’t want to leave Iraq Tried to humiliate the Resistance Protest by pro-Iran Hashd burned US flags Steppled on pictures of PM

2020 Fmr Finance Min Issawi released for insufficient evidence on terrorism charges

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Review Volatile Landscape, Iraq and Its Insurgent Movements

Mardini, Ramzy, Editor, Volatile Landscape, Iraq and Its Insurgent Movements, Washington D.C.: Jamestown Foundation, 2010


 

Full disclosure, I wrote a chapter for this book

 

Volatile Landscape, Iraq and Its Insurgent Movements is a collection of reports from the Jamestown Foundation’s Terrorism Monitor written by various authors. Like any anthology it is very inconsistent. The first half is about the Iraqi insurgency and has the most problems. The second part is much better about Iraqi politics.

This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 29 Nouri mosque in Mosul liberated where IS’s Baghdadi declared the caliphate Iraqi forces claimed Mosul freed but fighting continued

(AP)

 

1915 US consulate report on anti-Turk riot in Karbala

1921 Faisal arrived in Baghdad 1st time in preparation to be crowned king

(Musings On Iraq review Empires of the Sand, The Struggle For Mastery In The Middle East 1789-1923)

1923 Clerics Isfahani and Nayini arrived in Karbala in protest march against deportation of cleric

Khalisi for opposing parliamentary elections but only two other clerics joined them

1932 Assyrian leader Mar Shimun issued letter telling Assyrian Levies to stop resigning Not all listened

Over 400 still resigned

(Musings On Iraq review The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

1947 Baghdad hung four of Barzani's lieutenants and arrested Sheikh Ahmed Barzani

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

1948 PM Pachachi govt formed Maintained martial law using excuse of Arab-Israeli War Went after

opposition

1966 PM Bazzaz announced new deal with Kurds with decentralization instead of

autonomy Recognized Kurdish rights Ceasefire began Made against wishes of military

(Musings On Iraq review Journey Among Brave Men, Travels in Kurdistan)

1966 Some 10,000 killed and 80,000 displaced during fighting between Kurds and govt from 1961-1966

1966 Ex-Gen Razzaq attempted coup Seized air base and had 4th Division march on

Baghdad

1982 Iraq claimed it had withdrawn all its troops from Iranian territory Iraq still held border areas

between Qasr e-Shriin and Fakkeh in center across from Diyala

1988 Iraq continued push into Mawat Valley Sulaymaniya and then towards Iranian border

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1991 Inspectors told Iraq it was obliged to divulge all info about its nuclear program

1992 Attempted coup by 4 officers in Republican Guard put down by Saddam 150 Republican Guard

officers executed and dismissed in aftermath

2003 Report Sec State Powell misrepresented recording of Republican Guard in Feb 03 UN speech to

make it seem like they were trying to hide WMD

2003 FmrAmb Wilson claimed it unlikely British intel didn’t receive CIA reporting that Iraq-Niger

uranium papers were fake Claimed he saw fake Iraq-Niger docs He didn’t Also had no knowledge of CIA-British intel sharing

(Musings On Iraq How US Intelligence Failed The Iraq-Niger Uranium Story)

(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)

2003 1st UN inspector chief Ekeus OpEd said Iraq’s strategic rationale for WMD was Iran not the US or west

Said Iraq learned from Iran-Iraq War its chemical weapons quickly deteriorated Iraq changed its WMD policy after Gulf War to stop producing and focus upon design and engineering Iraq started just in time WMD program to work on infrastructure and then produce chemical weapons right before war Said Iraq’s WMD threat was in its research know how and production facilities Said letting Saddam stay in power with WMD know how was a threat

2004 New PM Allawi announced Saddam and 11 others would face trial for their crimes under Saddam’s

govt

2006 VP Cheney stood by his claim that the insurgency was in its “last throes” in 2005 Said people

would look back at 2005 as a turning point in Iraq Said US underestimated the insurgency and damage Saddam’s rule did to Iraq

2006 US military said most captured foreign fighters in Iraq came from Egypt, Syria, Sudan, Saudi Arabia

in that order

(Musings On Iraq The Saudi Role In The Iraqi Insurgency)

2007 Bush speech mentioned Al Qaeda 27 times Said Al Qaed attacked US on 9/11 and was now in Iraq

Part of White House media campaign to gain support for Surge US military press releases on Iraq mentioned Al Qaeda 33 times in a week

2007 Iraqi Accordance Front ministers boycotted cabinet Demanded investigation into

Culture Min who had warrant for attempted assassination of a politician

2008 PM Maliki promised Jabouri tribe limited autonomy in return for their support and joining Tribal

            Support Council

2008 Female suicide bomber hit Sahwa council in Baquba Part of ISI campaign vs sahwa

(Musings On Iraq The Rise of Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq Motivations Behind Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq Behind The Revival Of The Islamic State in Iraq, Interview With Naval War College Prof Craig Whiteside)

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2008 US Army released history of 2003-05 occupation of Iraq Criticized Gen Franks for withdrawing

from Iraq right after invasion and turning over control to Gen Sanchez who didn’t have staff to manage war Army should’ve demanded better postwar planning but didn’t because made best case planning US didn’t have enough troops for occupation

2009 Iraq auctioned 8 oil and gas fields to international energy companies Rumaila only field

successfully auctioned Was considered a failure at 1st further hurting standing of Oil Min Shahristani that parliament was trying to remove

(Musings On Iraq 1st Oil Bidding Round Flops In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Continued Attempts To Develop its Oil Industry)

(Musings On Iraq Was The Iraq War About Oil?)

2009 Report ISF kidnapping Sahwa Holding them for ransom Baghdad Sahwa leader taken by ISF Held in

secret jail and told he had to pay $50,000 to be released Another Sahwa leader in Baghdad told by Def Min he would be arrested unless paid $15,000

2010 Fmr adv to Iraqi police in 2003 Brand testified to Chilcot Comm Said postwar plans for

Iraq’s police were unrealistic and lacked resources DeBaathification hurt rebuilding police US and UK didn’t prioritize effort

2010 Iraq approved $17 bil deal with Shell and Mitsubishi to exploit natural gas in Basra

2010 Report Foreign official said Um Qasr port worst in Mideast Ships lined up and waited No machinery

No service No system at work at port Oil companies struggled to get equipment to Iraq due to port Foreign companies complained about lack of capacity bad roads lack of infrastructure Govt had $6 bil plan for new port at Faw Never finished

2011 Report Def Sec Gates accused Special Groups of attacking US forces backed by Iran Said 40% of

US deaths since 2010 happened in last few months Said Iran and militias wanted to take credit for US withdrawal

2013 Report KRG 5 yr agricultural plan started in 09 failed Supposed to make KRG self-sufficient in

crops Fmr Agricultural Min said unqualified officials put in charge of planning Cabinet adv said KRG hadn’t funded program KRG remained oil dependent

2014 ISIS spokesman Adnani Promise of Allah statement said would form the caliphate under Caliph

Ibrahim/Abu Omar al-Baghdad Said that all Muslims had to give allegiance to the caliphate

(Musings On Iraq review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)

2014 ISF attacked Saqlawiya in Anbar Hashd attacked Bashir in Kirkuk ISF withdrew from Tikrit Attack

failed PM Maliki ordered op trying to retake Tikrit before parliament met to form new govt

2015 Report Anbar council accused Hashd of burning homes in Nukhaib Demanded Hashd

brigade removed from province

2016 US gave Iraq $2.7 bil line of credit to buy military equipment

2016 ISF aviation intercepted convoy of several hundred IS vehicles fleeing Fallujah US joined in

Destroyed most of the vehicles

2017 Nouri Mosque Mosul liberated by Iraqi forces where IS’s Baghdadi declared the caliphate in 2014

(Musings On Iraq Mosul Campaign Day 256 Jun 29 2017)

2017 Golden Div claimed 60 IS fighters killed taking Nuri Mosque in Mosul Golden Div cmdr Gen

Asadi then claimed 600 IS fighters killed Before ISF claimed only 300-400 IS fighters left in city Golden Div spokesman claimed all of Mosul freed with only sporadic fighting Battle for city would continue for few more weeks

2017 Doctor working with ISF said over 200 civilians killed in last weeks of fighting for Old City

in Mosul

2017 1st protest of summer over services led by Sadrists in Najaf Burned building Led to police shooting

at crowd 4 dead 20 wounded

2017 Report IS lost 80% of its revenue over last 2 yrs Went from $81 mil/mo in 2015 to $16

mil/mo in 2017 Lost oil fields in Syria Lost cities and populations

2017 Canadian court issued warrant to seize tanker with KRG oil after lawsuit by Iraq

2019 Dir Sunni Endowment in Ninewa said demographic change being forced upon city Said Shiite

Endowment taking over Sunni mosques

2019 Asaib Ahl Al-Haq’s Khazali claimed US using Basra protests to try to overthrow govt

and turn Iraq into next Libya

2019 Report activists calling for protests every Friday Sadr talking about protests in

Baghdad along with Communists

2019 Report Protest in Basra broken up by ISF Then went to homes of protesters and

arrested them

2020 Kataib Hezbollah members arrested for rocket attacks in Baghdad by Counter Terror

Service released by Hashd Security Directorate for lack of evidence

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s PM Gives Warning to Kataib Hezbollah To Stop Rocket Attacks In Baghdad)

2020 Activists house in Dhi Qar bombed

2021 Report Sadrists got control of secretary gen of PM’s office May 2019 sec gen said all acting

officials would be replaced by permanent ones Replaced by Sadrists that gained deputy ministers senior officials heads of state bodies that control contracts budgets appointments

2021 Secretary of KRG’s cabinet said debt rose to $31 bil due to advances by oil traders and

unpaid govt salaries Oct 2021 debt was $28 bil

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Tuesday, June 28, 2022

Political Violence By Pro-Iran Groups Continues In Iraq

(Iraq Oil Report)

Political violence is an ongoing issue in Iraq. Instead of the Islamic State it’s pro-Iran groups connected with the Coordination Framework list that are responsible. In June they have attacked both the Iraqi intelligence agency as well as a Kurdish gas field.

This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 28 CPA disbanded and sovereignty returned to Iraq

(USAF)

 

1914 Ottomans agreed to oil concessions for British and Germans in Mosul and Baghdad provinces Never

happened because WWI

1920 Was meeting in Mishkhab Najaf to plan for revolt against British

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

1940 Italian Amb told Iraq it wanted an independent Syria Lebanon and Iraq as well Ambassador

didn’t check with foreign office beforehand

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

1946 Communist Anti-Zionist League organized march in Baghdad for Palestine Demanded UK troops

withdraw from Iraq Police fired into crowd Killed 5 PM Umari suspended opposition papers

1961 Kuwait brought up Iraq claims to Kuwait with UN Security Council

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

1961 British intel concluded that Iraq was going to invade Kuwait after Qasim claimed Kuwait part of

Iraq

1969 Baath created Dohuk province as part of 1966 June Declaration on Kurdish rights

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Since 1958, From Revolution To Dictatorship)

1973 Kurdish villages in Sheikhan forced to cede land to Arabs and population expelled

1981 Iraq offered Ramadan ceasefire but rejected by Iran

1982 Saddam dismissed all the members of the Revolutionary Command Council

1986 Iraqi planes attacked Sardasht Iran using mustard gas 1st civilian town attacked by WMD 133 killed

1987 Iran accused Iraq of killing and wounding 650 Kurdish civilians in mustard gas attack in northwest

Iran

1988 Iraq gained bridgehead in Iranian territory for 2nd time that year 3,000 Iranians dead 8,000

wounded 4,000 captured Defeat at Faw and Majnoon led to collapse of morale in Iran Revolutionary Guard asked govt to end war

(Musings On Iraq interview with Naval Postgraduate School’s Ostovar on history of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard)

(Musings On Iraq review Vanguard of the Imam, Religion, Politics, and Iran’s Revolutionary Guard)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1991 UN inspectors denied access to Fallujah nuclear site while trucks took equipment out

(Musings On Iraq UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)

(Musings On Iraq review The Saddam Tapes)

1992 Report 2 yrs before Gulf War US intel was warning about Iraq’s WMD nuclear/missile programs Jan

89 Congress got briefing on Iraq’s weapons procurement programs Spring/summer 89 intel reports warned about Iraq’s networks Nov 89 CIA told Bush White House Iraq using front companies to buy tech for nuke program Had no effect on Bush’s policy to improve relations with Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Outlaw State, Saddam Hussein’s Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis)

2004 CPA disbanded Iraqi sovereignty returned to interim govt led by Premier Allawi

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Dysfunctional Democracy)

(Musings On Iraq review The Endgame, The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from

George W. Bush to Barack Obama)

2004 Bremer said CPA accomplished almost everything it set out to do including a peaceful democratic

and pluralistic society

(Musings On Iraq review Overreach, Delusions of Regime Change In Iraq)

2004 US created Multi National Security Transition Command Iraq to train Iraqi forces

(Musings On Iraq Did the US Ever Have A Strategy To Win In Iraq Before the Surge?)

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 13 The Changing Of The Guard, Again Spring-Summer 2004)

(Musings On Iraq review The Endgame, The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from

George W. Bush to Barack Obama)

(Musings On Iraq review The U.S. Army In The Iraq War: Volume 1, Invasion, Insurgency, Civil

War, 2003-2006)

2004 Ayatollah Sistani fatwa said no guarantee US process would create constitutional convention that

represented the Iraqi people

(Musings On Iraq review The Occupation of Iraq, Winning The War, Losing The Peace)

(Musings On Iraq review Patriotic Ayatollahs, Nationalism In Post-Saddam Iraq)

2005 Bush speech War in Iraq about fighting terrorism creating democracy advancing freedom in Mid

East Rejected timetable for withdrawal Said when Iraqi forces stood up US forces would stand down which was a withdrawal plan

(Musings On Iraq Did the US Ever Have A Strategy To Win In Iraq Before the Surge?)

(Musings On Iraq Overview of America’s Policy Towards Iraq: From The Clinton Years To The

Sectarian War of 2006)

(Musings On Iraq review Overreach, Delusions of Regime Change In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review What Happened, Inside the Bush White House and Washington’s Culture of Deception)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Dysfunctional Democracy)

(Musings On Iraq review The War Within, A Secret White House History 2006-2008)

(Musings On Iraq review The Endgame, The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from

George W. Bush to Barack Obama)

(Musings On Iraq review The U.S. Army In The Iraq War: Volume 1, Invasion, Insurgency, Civil

War, 2003-2006)

2008 Accountability and Justice law amended to stop former ISF officers from being fired for Baathist past and those that quit could now get jobs with govt

(Musings On Iraq DeBaathification and Elections Update)

2008 PM Maliki met with Ibadah tribe Offered it limited autonomy in return for joining Tribal Support

Council to support him

2008 Baghdad-Irbil formed committee to work out oil law Nothing came of it

2008 ISF arrested head of Sadr office in Amara Maysan Part of PM Maliki’s crackdown on Sadrists

2008 Sahwa in Adhamiya Baghdad protested after army arrested their leader on kidnapping charges Part

of PM Maliki intimidation campaign vs Sahwa

(Musings On Iraq review Surge, My Journey with General David Petraeus and the Remaking of the Iraq War)

2008 Female suicide bomber in Baquba killed 13 wounded 30

(Musings On Iraq The Rise of Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq Motivations Behind Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2009 Battalion from Iraqi army’s 7th Div moved towards Makhmour disputed area of Ninewa

Stopped by Peshmerga Led to 24 hr standoff Ended with US mediation

2010 Protests in Diyala and Babil over electricity shortages Some called for PM Maliki to step

down

2011 Report State of Law sources said PM Maliki ordered Dawa to use Tribal Support Councils to

            suppress any protests

2012 Report Economic comm said Iran flooding Iraq with its products to get around sanctions

2012 Iraq signed deal to import 25 mil sq meters of natural gas per day from Iran to fuel power plants

            for 5 yrs

2012 Leading Sadrist assassinated in Basra 2nd of 5 murders Believed to be part of tit for tat killings

between Sadrists and Asaib Ahl Al-Haq

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

2012 Sadrists said they never intended for a no confidence vote against PM Maliki Joined critics of

Maliki but backed him at same time

(Musings On Iraq What Does Iraq’s Sadr Want?)

2013 Report KRG moving ahead with independent oil pipeline to Turkey Said would allow KRG to be

paid directly Claimed it would share profits with Baghdad Didn’t happen

2013 Report Oil Min said it would earn $500 bil from natural gas by 2023 Govt planned on investing $40

bil into project Around 1000 cubic ft of gas burned a day costing around $7.3 bil/yr Project only partially completed

2014 Political financier Khamis Khanjar praised ISIS taking Mosul on Al-Arabiya TV

2014 Human Rights Watch report IS told 950 Shiite Turkmen from 2 villages in Ninewa they had to leave

Destroyed 7 Shiite shrines in Tal Afar Took 60 Turkmen hostage

2014 Report Supreme Court said oil dispute between Baghdad and Irbil had to be resolved politically

Didn’t rule on emergency injunction against independent KRG oil exports Said couldn’t ban exports until they were found illegal Oil Min sued KRG for its oil exports and contracts Went nowhere because KRG didn’t show up in court Asked for arbitration against Turkey that was helping KRG’s exports Threatened legal action against oil companies that work in KRG 2022 Supreme Court finally ruled KRG oil law and contracts unconstitutional

2014 Report Maliki govt claimed Tikrit freed Untrue Attacked Tikrit Univ Stalled due to IEDs Tikrit not

freed until Mar 2015 Maliki wanted a victory before parliament met to form new govt

2014 Latifiya south Baghdad Jurf al-Sakhr north Babil ISIS strongholds Continued fighting in Jurf al-Sakhr

despite govt claiming it was cleared twice

2015 PM Abadi said KRG not following budget Cut its oil exports for Baghdad to increase its own sales

2016 Anbar council voted to dismiss Gov Rawi from Iraqi Islamic Party Was trying to expand its

base Control reconstruction in Anbar Supported by Solution List of Karbuli Opposed by Sunni Endowment and Sheikh Abu Risha Rawi rejected dismissal

2017 KRG Pres Barzani wrote OpEd in Wash Post to lobby US to support KRG independence

referendum Said referendum would be binding Said not a threat to Mideast Would strengthen relationship between Arabs and Kurds in Iraq Went through Kurdish victimization in Iraq since its creation Said post-03 political system failed Said independence would be negotiated with Baghdad after vote

2017 Report UN began rebuilding east Mosul Had 200 projects

2019 Report US found May drone attack upon Saudi oil facility came from Iraq not Yemen

as originally believed US told PM Abdul Mahdi had to stop these attacks Govt questioned story Done by Kataib Hezbollah

2021 Electricity Min Hantoosh resigned over power outages Iran stopped electricity and natural

gas exports because Iraq owed $4 bil Led to huge drop in power output

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Electricity Grid Shuts Down During Summer Heat)

2021 Iraqi military spokesman condemned US airstrikes on Kataib Hezbollah and Kataib Sayid al-

Shuhada Said breach of Iraqi sovereignty 4 Hashd killed Was response to Hashd attacks upon US forces in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s PM Gives Warning to Kataib Hezbollah To Stop Rocket Attacks In Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq Instrument Of Iran’s Power In Iraq And Syria Kataib Hezbollah)

2021 Report Pro-Iran Hashd met in Baghdad Agreed to halt attacks upon US in Iraq Didn’t happen

2021 Report 2020 KRG sold oil for $28.10 per bar vs $41.96 Brent price Paid $1.76 bil to oil

companies $1.114 bil in fees tariffs interest to pipeline operators KRG made $2.345 bil

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Monday, June 27, 2022

Security In Iraq Jun 15-22, 2022


The security situation remained stable for another week in Iraq. There were roughly the same number of incidents from the second to third week of June and those were at a very low level.

This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 27 Iraq’s Revoltuionary Command Council approved invasion of Kuwait

(BBC)

 

1916 UK report on defeat at Kut published Led to Secretary of State for India Chamberlain to resign

Blamed India for mismanaging and never adequately funding war in Mesopotamia

1923 Persian clerics and businesses in Najaf protested deportation of cleric Khalisi for his

            opposition to parliamentary elections

1923 Clerics Isfahani and Nayini led protest to Karbala trying to get clerics and

            religious students to leave for Persia to protest deportation of cleric Khalisi

1954 New parliament suspended after only 1 meeting by Nuri al-Said Wouldn’t meet again until Nov 1954

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Under General Nuri, My Recollections of Nuri al-Said, 1954-1958)

1982 Regional Baath Party Congress concluded Saddam re-elected secretary general 7 members of Baath

Party Regional Command replaced

1983 France agreed to lend Iraq 5 Super Etendard fighter bombers that Baghdad wanted to use to attack

shipping heading towards Iran 

1988 Saddam agreed upon offensive to destroy Iranian army to prevent postwar threat

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1990 Iraq’s Revolutionary Command Council meeting gave Saddam okay to use force against Kuwait

(Musings On Iraq review The Saddam Tapes)

(Musings On Iraq review from storm to Freedom, America’s Long War with Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Outlaw State, Saddam Hussein’s Quest for Power and the Gulf Crisis)

2003 Cheney Chief of Staff Libby told Bob Woodward 2002 Natl Intel Estimate on Iraq included Iraq

trying to buy uranium from Africa Part of plan to counter fmr Amb Wilson who said Iraq-Niger deal didn’t happen It didn’t

(Musings On Iraq How US Intelligence Failed The Iraq-Niger Uranium Story)

(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)

2004 Bremer got OK from Bush to close CPA Jun 28 to try to fool insurgency

2006 Under pressure PM Maliki revised amnesty offer made 2 days before to include just those that had

not killed anyone

2007 UK intel report on ISF Maliki govt working on national security strategy but unlikely to change

situation without reconciliation Maliki govt had multiple committees on security that competed didn't cooperate and ineffective Army developing slowly Police full of insurgents and militias and probably unreformable Said ISF couldn’t operate without US support

(Musings On Iraq interview with Jerry Burke police and Interior Min adviser on how Badr took over Interior Ministry)

2008 Chief Justice Majeed assassinated in east Baghdad during spate of attacks upon judiciary in

            capital

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Judiciary Under Attack)

2011 Sadr’s Promised Day Brigade took responsibility for 10 rocket-mortar attacks on US bases in

Baghdad Ninewa Diyala Kirkuk Basra Maysan Dhi Qar Muthanna Also IEDs vs US patrols Admitted that ISF had been killed and wounded in attacks

2011 State Dept Iraq 2nd worst rank in human trafficking Cases going up Govt doing nothing Iraq both

source and destination for sex slaves and illegal workers Iraqi women/girls sent to Syria Lebanon Jordan Kuwait UAE Turkey Iran Yemen Saudi Arabia for prostitution/slavery Women told they are getting job and then put in sex trade 1 work agency raped women on film and used it to blackmail them into prostitution Others bailed women out of prison and told them they had to work off debt via prostitution Women from Iran China Philippines being sent to Iraq as prostitutes Illegal workers came from Bangladesh Thailand Pakistan Georgia Jordan Uganda to Iraq

2012 Human Rights Min said allegations of torture didn’t prove it happened Parliament’s human rights

comm visited prison and found torture Prisoners held for yrs with no court date Prisoners whose files were lost People who were supposed to be released but still held Committee had been working on abuse for yrs with no solutions

2012 Iraq produced record high in wheat 1.5 mil tons Need was 4 mil Difference would be imported

2012 Iraqi army 10th Div arrived in Zummar Ninewa disputed area Told Peshmerga to leave but refused

Led to week standoff

2013 Report Liwa Abu Fadhl al-Abbas Brigade in Damascus had 800-2000 Iraqi fighters from Asaib Ahl

Al-Haq Kataib Hezbollah Shuhada Brigade Badr and Sadr might also be sending fighters Asaib Ahl Al-haq and Kataib Hezbollah had been sending fighters to Syria since start of civil war in 2011

(Musings On Iraq Abu Fadhl Al-Abbas Brigade From Fighting In Syria To Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Badr Organization A View Into Iraq’s Violent Past And Present)

2014 Amnesty Intl found 50 prisoners executed in Tal Afar 13 prisoners killed in Mosul 50 prisoners

executed in Baquba Killed by ISF and Hashd

2016 Report Homes burned and looted during end of battle for Fallujah Govt blamed IS Anbar

police blamed Hashd and Federal Police Hashd not supposed to enter city but were in Federal Police

2016 Report Badr’s Amiri said 1500 Federal Police and Rapid Response Forces were Hashd and

fought in Battle of Fallujah Cmdr 4th Badr Brigade said it fought alongside Interior Min forces in city PM Abadi said Hashd not supposed to enter Fallujah Other Hashd besides Badr also said to be involved

2018 Abadi govt approved $19 mil to rebuild Mosul’s Old City Was fraction of what was needed

2018 Shell left Majnoon oil field and West Qurna 1 Said wanted to focus on gas projects

2018 Sadr said suspending his Saraya al-Salam for 2 yrs to try to stop Hashd interfering with ISF in Basra Fired his militia cmdr in Basra

2021 Biden admin carried out retaliatory strikes upon Kataib Hezbollah and Kataib Sayid al-

Shuhada sites said to house drones in Anbar and eastern Syria 4 Shuhada fighters killed in Anbar

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s PM Gives Warning to Kataib Hezbollah To Stop Rocket Attacks In Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq Instrument Of Iran’s Power In Iraq And Syria Kataib Hezbollah)

2021 KRG Court of Appeals upheld 6 yr sentences for 5 journalists and activist for 2nd time Were

arrested for reporting and taking part in protests Another journalist give 7 yrs in prison even though didn’t go to court Also arrested for covering protests

View the Iraq History Timelines 

Sunday, June 26, 2022

This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 26 Iraqi intel rounded up Iraqi National Accord coup plotters backed by US Called CIA and told them to go home


1923 Leading cleric Khalisi 2 of his sons and his nephew were deported to Iran for opposing

parliamentary elections

1925 Abdul Sadoun became PM for 2nd time Would be PM 4 times Formed Al-Taqadum

Party Ordered to hold elections for new parliament

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

1940 PM Gaylani asked Italy to become involved in Syria to block Turkey occupying it Came after

Syria joined Vichy France

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

1948 Muzahim al-Pachachi asked to become PM and form new govt

1954 New parliament met 1st and only time because suspended afterward by Nuri al-Said so he could

negotiate Baghdad Pact without opposition in parliament

1966 Arif govt announced amnesty for Kurds involved in revolt

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Journey Among Brave Men, Travels in Kurdistan)

1985 Iran Op Al Quds 2 started north of Majnoon Islands in Maysan Ended with nothing gained

1988 Iraq recaptured Majnoon Islands in Basra from Iran

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1989 Iraq said it was clearing all civilians from 20 mil border area with Iran and Turkey in Kurdistan

relocated 200,000-5000,000 Kurds

1993 Pres Clinton ordered cruise missile attack on Iraq’s intel HQ in Baghdad for attempted

assassination of ex-Pres Bush in Kuwait 8 killed

1996 Iraqi govt rounded up 120 in failed CIA-Iraqi National Accord coup plot Executed most of them

Iraqi intel captured satellite phone from INA agent Uncovered plot Used captured phone to tell CIA to go home

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In The Eye of the Storm)

1997 ABC news ran feature on Chalabi and INC Chalabi talked about his revolt plot in 1995 and

claimed CIA sabotaged it

(Musings On Iraq review The Man Who Pushed America To War, The Extraordinary Life, Adventures, and Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi)

(Musings On Iraq review Arrows of the Night: Ahmad Chalabi and the Selling of the Iraq War)

1997 Jim Hoagland OpEd in Wash Post wrote about how Chalabi’s revolt in 1995 was betrayed by

CIA Hoagland was Chalabi ally

2002 Gen Franks met with commanders in Germany and told them to switch from original war plan to

new Running Start Would begin war before all forces in theater

(Musings On Iraq review Shaping the Plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom, The Role of Military Intelligence Assessment)

2002 INC memo to Senate Approp Comm said group had led to 108 articles from Oct 01-May 02

and White House officials had received those products

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy

Tragedy)

2003 UN terrorism committee draft report found no Iraq-Al Qaeda links

2003 Report quoted State Dept memo that too early to tell whether captured Iraqi trailers were mobile

WMD labs They didn’t exist

(Musings On Iraq How Iraqi Defector CURVEBALL Became Basis For US Claims That Iraq Had WMD)

2005 Def Sec Rumsfeld said US conducting secret talks to try to split Iraqis from foreign insurgents

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)

2006 Al Qaeda in Iraq robbed $7 mil from Rafidain bank branch in Ramadi

2007 US general in charge of advisers warned ISF years away from being able to handle security Warned

against early withdrawal of US forces as a result

2007 Culture Min Hashemi from Accordance Front had warrant issued for him in

connection with 05 assassination attempt on politician Hashemi went into hiding

2008 ISI suicide bomber hit tribal council meeting Killed 26 including Garma mayor and Awakening

sheikhs

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2008 Iraqi intel said Mahdi Army done after Charge of Knights and op in Maysan Said 2000 militiamen

killed 1300 fled to Iran Said in future group would only have 100-200 men Were wrong

2013 Ninewa Gov Nujafi escaped another assassination attempt Also assassination attempt on

Salahaddin governor

2014 Report US deployed armed drones out of Kuwait to attack ISIS in Iraq PM Maliki later denied this

2014 Report KRG Natural Resource Min Hawrami claimed KRG oil exports would reach 1 mil/bar/day in

2015 Would require deal with Baghdad Said KRG would share revenue None of that happened

2014 ISF said Tikrit Univ Alam Salahaddin Latifiya Baghdad Mansuriya Diyala all freed Latifiya not

freed PM Maliki wanted victories before parliament met to form new govt

2016 Fallujah finally freed of insurgents 

2017 Report Abadi govt planning 10 yr $100 bil rebuilding plan Wanted to counter IS ideology

Wanted to rebuild Mosul Set up education and religious program Set up security in Ninewa  Govt never implemented plan Never allocated much money

2017 Badr’s Amiri said PM Abadi had double standards Disrupted Hashd by not allowing it to

operate

2018 PM Abadi promised to rebuild everything destroyed during war vs IS Didn’t have plan Mostly locals provincial govts and NGOs did reconstruction

2018 KDP MP said 200 families fled Daquq dist south Kirkuk over 2 weeks due to IS attacks Diyala councilman said 14 families fled Khanaqin dist in Diyala

2020 Detained Kataib Hezbollah members turned over to Hashd Security Directorate after

political negotiations Kataib Hezbollah threatened to punish PM Kazemi

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s PM Gives Warning to Kataib Hezbollah To Stop Rocket Attacks In Baghdad)

2020 Pro-Iran Hashd attacked PM Kazemi as a US puppet Spread rumors that US forces helped

during raid to arrest Kataib Hezbollah members and they were given to Americans Said Kazemi involved in deaths of Abu Muhandis and Iran’s Gen Suleimani

2021 Report ISF in Interior and Defense Ministries would use their positions to support candidates

in 2022 elections in exchange for favors Happened every election

2021 Report 1 day after protests started Oct 2019 Iran’s Gen Suleimani arrived in Baghdad Told

Abdul Mahdi govt needed to deal with demonstrations Led campaign by Hashd vs activists Many people fled to Turkey and KRG as a result

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guards’ Commander General Suleimani And His Role In Iraq, An Interview With The New Yorker’s Dexter Filkins)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

This Day In Iraqi History - Jul 3 IS car bomb in Baghdad set off fire in mall Killed 324 Wounded 200 One of the deadliest bombings

(VOA)   1923 35 clerics and religious students left Iraq for Persia to protest deportation of cleric Khalisi for his opposition to parliam...