Sunday, April 30, 2023

Security In Iraq Apr 22-28, 2023 REVISED


Violence in Iraq continues to be at the lowest level since 2003. There were only 2 incidents reported in the country from April 22-28. Two people were kidnapped in southern Irbil and one of them, a Kurdish soldier, was executed by the Islamic State.

This Day In Iraqi History - May 1 British attacked Iraqi army surrounding Habaniya airbase in Anbar Started Anglo-Iraq War


 

1919 War Min Churchill wrote PM George that British army was overstretched with new

additions like Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Churchill’s Folly, How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 30 Iraqi army surrounded UK Habaniya airbase hoping to force British troops out of Iraq

(Wikipedia)

 

1915 Ottoman mayor murdered in Najaf for trying to draft men for war and taking money

from shrines

Saturday, April 29, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 29 Ottomans defeated British at Kut 2nd biggest loss for UK during WWI

(Daily Sabah)

 

1916 Ottomans defeated the British at Battle of Kut after 4 months Captured 13,309 prisoners 7,000

of which died in captivity British lost 33,000 casualties One of largest defeats for UK in WWI

Wednesday, April 26, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 27 Pres Arif said Kurds would never have autonomy in Iraq

(Wikipedia)

 

1916 UK offered Ottomans all the artillery and 1 mil pounds in return for letting British forces leave

Kut UK forces had been under siege in Kut since Dec Ottomans refused offer

Tuesday, April 25, 2023

Review Confronting Saddam Hussein, George W. Bush and the Invasion of Iraq

Leffler, Melvyn, Confronting Saddam Hussein, George W. Bush and the Invasion of Iraq, New York: Oxford University Press, 2023


 

At the very end of Melvyn Leffler’s book he wrote that “It is important to get the story right in order to grapple earnestly with the dilemmas of statecraft.” He failed to accomplish that in his Confronting Saddam Hussein, George W. Bush and the Invasion of Iraq. Leffler ended up agreeing with the White House that Iraq was a threat to the United States, that President Bush only wanted Iraq to change course using diplomacy, and Bush did not decide upon war until he publicly said so in March 2003. In the process the author completely missed how the debate over Iraq had changed during the 1990s from containment to regime change and war. The main cause of Leffler’s failure was his reliance upon Bush administration officials who were still trying to justify the war.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 26 PM Gaylani asked Axis for aid to fight British

(Wikipedia)

 

1917 British attacked Turks at Edheim, Diyala and occupied town Turks counterattacked

and retook it

Monday, April 24, 2023

Human Rights Reports On Iraq


In March, the
State Department and Amnesty International released their annual human rights reports. Both were full of the usual critiques of Iraq such as the lack of due process, arbitrary arrests, harsh conditions, torture and abuse in jails and prisons, lawsuits being filed against critics of the government to limit freedom of speech and the press, and more. Amongst all that there were three specific issues that need further discussion.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 25 British Mandate in Iraq created Was start of Iraq as a nation state


 

1920 San Remo Agreement created British Mandate in Iraq France agreed to give up Mosul vilayet in

return for oil concessions in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq How The Ottoman Province Of Mosul Became Part Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

(Musings On Iraq review An Analysis of Hanna Batatu’s The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Since 1958, From Revolution To Dictatorship)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Democratic Moment)

Saturday, April 22, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 22 Founding of Iraqi Air Force

(War Thunder)

 

1915 Lord Curzon asked why British should promise Basra and Baghdad vilayets to Arabs if they

were fighting on Ottoman side

Wednesday, April 19, 2023

Review Hell In The Streets Of Husaybah, The April 2004 Fights Of 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines In Husaybah, Iraq

Kelly, Lt Col David, (Ret), Hell In The Streets Of Husaybah, The April 2004 Fights Of 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines In Husaybah, Iraq, Philadelphia & Oxford: Casemate, 2022


 

Hell In The Streets Of Husaybah, The April 2004 Fight Of 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines In Husaybah, Iraq came out of the Marine Corps Oral History Program. Two officers went to Iraq and interviewed 190 Marines who took part in a battle with insurgents in April 2004 in Husaybah along the Syrian border in western Anbar province. The book provides the commentary of the author and firsthand accounts of the Marines. It gives details on one small battle early on in the war. It starts off interesting but then all the stories become repetitive as the major action only covered a few days. 

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 20 Iraq-Turkey agreement allowed each to conduct cross border raids to fight Kurds

(Al Jazeera)

 

1917 British military governor in Baghdad banned weapons and ammunition for public and

imposed curfew on city

Tuesday, April 18, 2023

KRG In Economic Limbo As Baghdad And Ankara Argue Over Using Turkey’s Oil Pipeline

(World Pipelines)

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) is facing a brewing economic crisis which it has no ability to solve. In March the International Court of Arbitration
ruled in Iraq’s favor against Turkey allowing the KRG to export oil through its pipeline. In response, Ankara shut down exports and has not been clear about what it wants in order to restart them. This is denying the Kurdistan region its major source of income.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 19 San Remo Conference held with UK France Italy Japan Decided to split up Ottoman empire and create Iraq

(NZ History)

 

1916 German commander of the Ottoman forces in Mesopotamia Gen Goltz died of typhoid in

Baghdad

Iraqi Govt Wants To End Displacement In 6 Months

(Devex)

Iraq’s Displacement Minister Jabro recently repeated that the Sudani government
wants to end the country’s displacement problem in six months. Like previous administrations there doesn’t appear to be any real plan behind this statement.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 18 ISI leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi and War Min Abu Masri killed by US and Iraqi forces

(Wikipedia)

 

1919 France and England signed Long-Berenger oil deal France got 20% of Iraqi oil via Turkish

Petroleum Company

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

Monday, April 17, 2023

Security In Iraq Apr 8-14, 2023


Ramadan is almost over and the Islamic State has still not launched its annual offensive in Iraq. This is the latest sign of the decline of the group which has become inconsequential in the country.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 17 PM Gaylani asked Nazis for military aid in case of war with UK

(Wikipedia)

 

1916 Battle of Bait Isa Turkish counterattack stopped British advance British suffered

1,600 casualties Ottomans 4-5,000 3rd defeat in British effort to relieve siege at Kut

Saturday, April 15, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 16 Shah of Iran started giving military aid to Barzani to pressure Iraq to give him control over Shatt al-Arab

(Wikimedia Commons)

 

1914 US consul in Baghdad reported rumors spread that all Christians and Jews in city

would be massacred due to start of 2nd Balkans War Rumors started after newspaper asked Mufti and Shiite clergy what was duty of Muslims in war They said to protect Islam and raise money Said Christians were defiling Muslim women in Balkans

This Day In Iraqi History – Apr 15 Joint Chiefs presented postwar plan with divisions from UK Poland Gulf States along with foreign police White House thought countries would end opposition to war and offer troops

(White House)

 

1915 UK War Ministry committee heard from Adm Slade leading UK oil expert Said if Ottoman

Empire divided UK had to get Mosul vilayet because had oil

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Wednesday, April 12, 2023

Review The Threatening Storm, The United States and Iraq: the crisis, the strategy, and the prospects after Saddam

Pollack, Kenneth, The Threatening Storm, The United States and Iraq: the crisis, the strategy, and the prospects after Saddam, New York: Random House, 2002


 

The Iraq War is blamed upon the Republicans but that ignores the fact that there were many Democrats who were also for regime change as well. Kenneth Pollak a former CIA analyst and member of the National Security Council was in that camp. He wrote The Threatening Storm, The United States and Iraq: the crisis, the strategy, and the prospects after Saddam arguing that Saddam Hussein was the greatest foreign threat to the United States and an invasion was the only solution.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 13 Gen Qasim made cover of Time magazine

(Time)

 

1915 British won Battle of Shaiba Ottomans had 4200 casualties 700 captured UK 1232 casualties

            Ottoman commander Askari killed himself in disgrace British 1200 casualties

Tuesday, April 11, 2023

New Poll Shows Disillusionment With The Promises Of Iraq’s Kurdistan

(Middle East Eye)

At the end of March
Gallup did a public opinion poll in Kurdistan. It found that many residents did not think the region was much better than the rest of Iraq which was a major change.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 12 Gertrude Bell wrote that Shiite clergy were all Persians and should be deported for issuing fatwas not to help UK defend Mosul against Turkey

(Middle East Institute)

 

1915 Battle of Shaiba began in Basra Ottomans and tribesmen launched frontal assault upon fortress

despite German advisers warning against it British artillery decimated Ottoman forces

Monday, April 10, 2023

Former Dep Defense Secretary Wolfowitz Is Still Living In 2003 When It Comes To The Iraq Invasion

(Getty Images)

2023 marks the 20th anniversary of the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Various media outlets commemorated the event through articles and interviews. PBS NewsHour talked with former Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, Johns Hopkins Professor Vali Nasr, and former deputy head of United Nations inspectors and head of the Iraq Survey Group Charles Duelfer. Wolfowitz was the defender of the Iraq war on the panel. His comments made it apparent he hadn’t moved on since 2003 repeating the same claims he made at that time.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 11 Sec Def Rumsfeld said “Stuff happens” to try to explain looting after US invasion of Iraq


 

1915 Ottomans and tribesmen began probing attack upon British outpost in Shaiba, Basra to try to

expel UK forces from vilayet

Sunday, April 9, 2023

Security In Iraq Apr 1-7, 2023


It’s still Ramadan and the Islamic State has not launched its annual offensive yet. Incidents remained in single digits during the first week of April showing no real change in insurgent activity.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 10 Sadrists killed Sayid Abdul Majid al-Khoei Surrounded Ayatollah Sistani’s house in Najaf Driven off by tribesmen

(BBC)

 

1917 US consulate report Economy in Baghdad collapsing after British took city Trade cut off No

business

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 9 Baghdad fell during the 2003 invasion

(The Guardian)

1915 New UK cmdr in Iraq Gen Nixon arrived Ordered to take all of Basra Secure Tigris to protect

Anglo-Persian Oil Company in Persia Plan for advance on Baghdad 1st step in escalating war from protecting oil concession to taking all of Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Thursday, April 6, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 7 PM Maliki said he was turning to Asaib Ahl Al-Haq and Kataib Hezbollah to secure Baghdad because disappointed with Iraqi security forces

(Getty Images)

 

1915 UK Gen Nixon ordered to prepare attack on Nasiriya and Amara to protect Basra vilayet and

Persian oil concession

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Wednesday, April 5, 2023

Musings On Iraq In The News

Musings On Iraq has recently been mentioned in several articles about the Islamic State. That includes “US strike kills ISIS leader in north-west Syria” by Mina Aldroubi in The National, “Why Daesh is still not a spent force despite facing terminal decline in Iraq” by Paul Iddon in Arab Weekly, and “Iraqi commandos kill 22 ISIS fighters in Anbar desert” by Sinan Mahmoud also in The National.

 

All of Musings On Iraq’s citations.

Review Burning Horizon, British Veteran Accounts Of The Iraq War 2003

Whippy, Julian, Burning Horizon, British Veteran Accounts Of The Iraq War 2003, Oxford and Philadelphia: Casemate, 2023


 

Burning Horizon, British Veteran Accounts Of The Iraq War 2003 by Julian Whippy is about the experiences of British soldiers during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It mixes commentary by the author about the overall events before and during the war with long interviews with troops. Most military histories focus upon the generals and officers but this one is more about the regular soldier and what they saw and felt about serving in Iraq.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 6 Fatwa said Wahabi Ikhwan were brigands Rallied Shiite tribes to fight the invaders


 

1916 British attacked Sannaiyat by Kut British suffered 1,168 casualties

Tuesday, April 4, 2023

Iraq’s Oil Industry Has Stabilized After Drop In Prices


Iraq’s oil industry has stabilized after the energy market cooled off following the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Exports and prices have been at the same rate for the last 3-4 months.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 5 Faisal II made king Cousin Ilah made Regent

(Getty Images)

 

1916 Battle of Sannaiyat by Kut British attacked Ottomans Took Hanna and Fallahiya British had

1,885 casualties

Monday, April 3, 2023

No Ramadan Offensive By The Islamic State Yet


Ramadan started at the end of March 2023. This is usually when the Islamic State begins an annual offensive. Instead of violence picking up it declined for the third straight month.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 4 King Ghazi’s death announced to public Queen Aliya said it was Ghazi’s wish that his cousin Ilah be made regent

(Wikipedia)

 1927 UK official wrote Foreign Sec Chamberlain saying UK got Mosul by trick Promised 25 yr Iraq

Mandate Now pushing Iraq independence

Iraq Wins Arbitration Case Against Turkey Exporting KRG’s Oil

(Wikipedia)

At the end of March the International Court of Arbitration ruled that Turkey violated a bilateral agreement with Iraq over exporting oil for the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). This was a victory for Iraq in its long standing dispute with the Kurds over its oil industry and could point to a final resolution of this problem.

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 3 King Ghazi died in a car accident King Faisal II took power but was only 3 His cousin Abd al-Ilah became Regent

(Wikipedia)

1929 Shah and King Faisal passed notes that legal barriers over Persian nationals In Iraq had been

lifted

Saturday, April 1, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 2 Iraq closed border with Iran declared Kurdish revolt over Barzani and 150,000 people fled to Iran

(YouTube)


 

1941 Regent of Iraq arrived at UK airbase at Habaniya Anbar after Golden Square officers tried to

arrest him after coup Regent tried and failed to organize resistance to coup in Basra Then fled to Jordan

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

This Day In Iraqi History - May 25 Turkey launched 1st raid into Iraq to fight PKK under Iraq-Turkey security agreement

  1918 11 leaders of Najaf revolt executed in Kufa by British