Tuesday, October 31, 2023

The Islamic State’s Failed Comeback In Iraq


On December 9, 2017, Prime Minister Haidar Abadi
declared victory over the Islamic State in Iraq. The group was already organizing for a comeback at that moment. From 2018-2022 it seemed like IS was succeeding. It was carrying out a steady pace of attacks including its annual offensives. It drove out thousands of people from rural villages in several provinces to establish bases. It was bringing in men and material from Syria. In 2023 everything fell apart. This is the story of how the Islamic State’s attempted comeback failed.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 31 Iraq suspended cooperation with UN weapons inspectors

(AP)

 

1914 India ordered 6th Div to seize Faw and clear Turks out of Shatt al-Arab before WWI

started

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Monday, October 30, 2023

Security In Iraq Oct 22-28, 2023


For the first time in four weeks there was an incident involving the Islamic State in Iraq. That was not of their doing however. Pro-Iran groups also continued their attacks upon US troops in the country for Washington’s support of Israel.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 30 Armistice of Mudros ended WWI in Iraq as Ottomans surrendered


 

1918 Armistice of Mudros signed between British and Ottomans 6th Army in Mesopotamia

surrendered to UK Ended WWI in Iraq UK wasn’t able to seize Mosul province and its oil before end of war

(Musings On Iraq interview with Princeton’s Sara Pursley on Sykes-Picot and creation of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Sunday, October 29, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 29 Hikmat Sulaiman and Gen Sidqi led 1st coup in Iraq overthrowing PM Hashemi

(Wikipedia)

 

867 Riot by Turkish soldiers in Abbasid capital Samarra against two top advisers Wasif and

            Bugha over salaries Wasif beheaded

(Musings On Iraq review when baghdad ruled the muslim world, the rise and fall of islam’s

greatest dynasty)

Saturday, October 28, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 28 Iraqi Forces massacred protesters in Karbala Over 800 casualties

(AFP/Getty Images)

 

1913 Secret Al-Ahd Association of Ottoman officers formed Included many Iraqis that would

become leaders and prime ministers under monarchy such as Nuri al-Said Yasin Hashemi Jamil Midfai and others Called for Arab autonomy

Friday, October 27, 2023

Thursday, October 26, 2023

Review The Revolt Of African Slaves In Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century

Popovic, Alexandre, The Revolt Of African Slaves In Iraq in the 3rd/9th Century, Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1999


 

Africans are a largely forgotten community within Iraq. Alexandre Popovic’s The Revolt Of African Slaves In Iraq In The 3rd/9th Century is one of the only books on the subject and it’s about ancient history. It covers a rebellion by black slaves known as the Zanj in southern Iraq and Persian that lasted for over a decade in the 800s A.D. The book has some interesting moments but becomes repetitive detailing battle after battle.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 26 UK High Commissioner for Iraq Sir Cox created provisional Iraqi govt in response to 1920 Revolt

(Wikipedia)

 

1920 UK High Commissioner Sir Cox formed Iraqi provisional govt after 1920 Revolt led

British to give up direct rule Abd Naqib of Baghdad was premier Had 21 ministers 12 with no portfolios Naqib opposed giving any ministries to Shiites

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Dictatorship, Imperialism & Chaos, Iraq since 1989)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’is Of Iraq)

Wednesday, October 25, 2023

Security In Iraq Oct 15-21, 2023


The Islamic State has ceased operating in Iraq for the time being. Pro-Iran groups have re-started their attacks upon U.S. targets however as retaliation for Washington’s support of Israel in the war in Gaza.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 25 Jaafar Askari made Defense Min Began creation of Iraqi army

(Wikipedia)

 

1920 Jaafar al-Askari former Ottoman officer Faisal’s military commander during Arab Revolt

and officer in Arab Kingdom of Syria made Defense Minister Used 10 officers including brother in law Col Nuri al-Said to begin creation of new Royal Iraqi Army

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

Tuesday, October 24, 2023

Study Of 3 Districts Of Iraq Dealing With Climate Change

(Getty Images)

Iraq is facing an environmental crisis with no end in sight. The country is beset by droughts, rising temperatures, desertification, and dust storms. The World Bank counted 15 natural disasters in Iraq over the last 30 years due to climate change.
The Berghof Foundation did a study of three districts to look at how things are developing at the local level in the country.

This Day In Iraqi History Oct 24 – Iraq said it took Khorrmanshahr major city in south Iran Was supposed to be taken in first week of war Took 1 month

(Wikipedia)

 

1915 UK cmdr in Mesopotamia Gen Nixon told to march on Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Monday, October 23, 2023

Iraqi Groups Renew Attacks Upon US Targets In Retaliation For Gaza War


For five days pro-Iran groups in Iraq have launched attacks upon U.S. targets in Iraq. Ain Al-Asad airbase in Anbar and Al-Harir airbase in Irbil have been the prime targets. This is in retaliation for America’s support of Israel in its current war with Palestinians in Gaza.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 23 UK picked Abd al-Gaylani to be Iraq’s first prime minister

(Wikipedia)

 

1915 UK cabinet ordered UK cmdr Gen Nixon to take Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Sunday, October 22, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 22 Report Iranian Revolutionary Guard set up crisis cell in Baghdad to put down protests


 

1920 Iraq High Commission Sir Cox asked Jafaar al-Askari to return to Baghdad Would become

1st Defense Minister Askari ex-Ottoman officer Was Faisal’s military commander during Arab Revolt

Saturday, October 21, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 21 UK decided to seize Baghdad during WWI Would say would be there temporarily but created Iraq as a British mandate

(National Army Museum)

 

1914 Ottoman Basra Governor demanded UK withdraw warship from Shatt al-Arab docked in

            Persia to protect oil concession Ottomans began shooting at ship UK agreed

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Friday, October 20, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 20 Iraqi forces and Peshmerga fought in Kirkuk in aftermath of Kurdish independence referendum

(AFP)

 

1922 Interior Min Sadoun told governors to start preparing for parliamentary elections and to

            urge voters to only elect candidates who would back Anglo-Iraq Treat

Thursday, October 19, 2023

Review Wings Over Iraq, A Novel

Forsyth, Eric, Wings Over Iraq, A Novel, Yacht Fiona Books, 2020


 

Wings Over Iraq, A Novel is a fictional book by Eric Forsyth. It focuses upon a British Royal Air Force pilot named Chadwick who is assigned to a bomber squadron in Iraq from the 1920s-30s. The story is set against the rise of Hitler in Germany and Berlin’s expansionist ideas which involve Iraq’s oil. The book is a quick and interesting read but the ending is disappointing because it never resolves any of the major issues laid out.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 19 Saddam said Iraq couldn’t win Iran-Iraq War because outnumbered

(Getty Images)

 

1830 Daud Pasha’s Mamluks assassinated governor sent to replace him in Baghdad Sultan

Mahmoud declared Daud a rebel and appointed another governor

Wednesday, October 18, 2023

Security In Iraq Oct 8-14, 2023


For the second week in a row there were no security incidents reported in Iraq. This is not only the third time in 2023 but the third time ever since 2003 that there was no insurgent violence in the country.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 18 ISI held march in Ramadi to declare it capital of its caliphate

(AP)

 

1920 Najaf surrendered to British in 1920 Revolt Was one of the centers of rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Tuesday, October 17, 2023

More Iraqis Displaced Due To Climate Change

(IOM)

The United Nations said that Iraq is one of the top 5 nations in the world susceptible to climate change. Fertile land is becoming arid due to drought and desertification. Rain has decreased along with the flow of water down the Euphrates and Tigris due to dams in neighboring countries. Salinity and pollution in the water is increasing as well. Crops have declined as a result along with livestock and fishing. Thousands of people have left their homes because they can no longer make a living. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) released a survey for September 2023 that found the number of people displaced due to the environment has increased.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 17 Zarqawi pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden and his group became Al Qaeda in Iraq

(Wikipedia)

 

1909 Mosul representatives to new Ottoman Assembly left for Istanbul Was part of Young Turks’

reforms

Monday, October 16, 2023

Security In Iraq Oct 1-7, 2023


The Islamic State is disappearing in Iraq. For the second time in 2023 and only the second time since the U.S. invasion no security incidents were reported by the insurgency from October 1-7. In September there were only a total of 5 incidents, which was the lowest monthly total since 2003.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 16 Govt forces took south Kirkuk and Kirkuk city after fighting Peshmerga Aftermath of KRG independence referendum

(Rudaw)

 

1914 UK convoy with 16th Indian Bgd on way to Egypt told it was being sent to Persian Gulf to

            secure Persian oil fields and occupy Basra

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Sunday, October 15, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 15 UN inspectors found Iraq worked on hydrogen bomb

(AP)

 

1905 British Amb to Turkey O’Connor sent memo written by Sir Sykes to Foreign Office

            detailing oil deposits in Mosul vilayet

 

Saturday, October 14, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 14 Oil discovered in Kirkuk

(Wikipedia)

 

1920 UK military took Kifl railway station Major transportation hub in mid-Euphrates during

            1920 Revolt

Friday, October 13, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 13 Al Qaeda in Iraq became the Islamic State of Iraq


 

1920 UK military relief force fought rebels outside Samawa Rebels withdrew during night

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Thursday, October 12, 2023

Review Three Kings In Baghdad, The Tragedy Of Iraq’s Monarchy

De Gaury, Gerald, Three Kings In Baghdad, The Tragedy Of Iraq’s Monarchy, London, New York: I.B. Tauris, 2008


 

Gerald De Gaury had a long and friendly relationship with the Iraqi monarchy. He first entered Iraq in 1924 as an officer assigned to the Levies who acted as a local security force for the British. That’s when he met King Faisal. He later became an intelligence officer for the Royal Air Force in Iraq. After a coup in 1941 he returned to the country to become an aide to the Regent. He knew all of the kings of Iraq, most of the royal family and many of the leading politicians. Since he was an English colonial officer and only associated with the Iraqi elite he defended them throughout his book, Three Kings In Baghdad, The Tragedy Of Iraq’s Monarchy, and lamented their overthrow in a military takeover in 1958.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 12 Dawa Party founded


 

1920 Tribes lost Rwairij to British during 1920 Revolt Led to clerics in Karbala to begin to surrender

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Wednesday, October 11, 2023

US Pressure Leads To New Rules On Using Dollars In Iraq But Will They Work?

(Iraqi News)

The US government is constantly telling Baghdad it has to tighten up its control of American dollars to fight money laundering and sanctions busting. In September a delegation from Washington arrived in Iraq to meet with Central Bank of Iraq officials who issued new regulations afterwards. The problem is the banking system is controlled by the elite who want to manipulate the system to make money and support its friends in Tehran so whatever rules are created will never work.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 11 Sir Percy Cox arrived to create an Arab govt to run Iraq

(Wikipedia)

 

1920 UK military force set out from Hillah to relieve garrison at Kufa Burned houses of Fatla tribe

along the way during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Tuesday, October 10, 2023

1/3 Of Iraqi Voters Excluded From 2023 Elections Largely Due To Sectarian Cleansing

(Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty)

Al Mada reported
that up to one-third of registered voters won’t be able to take part in Iraq’s December 2023 elections. That’s because the Election Commission refused to update its voter data. Since the Commission is controlled by the ruling parties this was likely done to reduce the number of ballots cast in the hopes that would ensure their victory.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 10 UK said it was destroying villages in southern Iraq and killing the residents as punishment for 1920 Revolt


 

1393 Baghdad surrendered to Tartars rather than fight and have city sacked

Monday, October 9, 2023

Violence In Iraq Hits A New Low In Sep 2023


Violence has continuously declined in Iraq during 2023 and hit a new low in September. There were only 5 incidents during the month. That compared to 11 in August. The previous monthly low was 9 incidents in March and July each. This is another sign that the Islamic State is near dead in Iraq.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 9 Nuri al-Said became PM 4th time Went after his opponents imprisoning 100s

(Historica Wiki)

 

1941 Nuri al-Said became PM 4th of 9 times Went after supporters of former PM Gaylani Purged the

military and civil service Gave prison sentences to 100s

(Musings On Iraq Revolutionary Times, Gen. Qasim And Iraq’s 1958 Coup, Interview With Western Kentucky’s Prof. Juan Romero)

(Musings On Iraq Is Iraq’s Prime Minister Maliki More Like Premier Nuri al-Sa’id Than Saddam? An Interview With Historian Phebe Marr)

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The Nationalist Moement in Irq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review ‘Independent Iraq’ The Monarchy & British Influence, 1941-1958)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Democratic Moment)

(Musings On Iraq review A History of Iraq)

Saturday, October 7, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 7 Baathist assassination attempt on Gen Qasim failed

(Historica Wiki)

 

1920 UK forces defeated insurgents in Hindiya south of Hillah during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Friday, October 6, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 6 Iraq sent forces to Syria while Iraqi jets in Egypt bombed Israeli targets in the Sinai as 1973 Arab-Israeli War began


 

1915 Sir Percy Lake new Chief of General Staff in India said UK must take Baghdad because

it would be turning point in war in East

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Thursday, October 5, 2023

Review Saddam’s War, An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War

Woods, Kevin, Murray, Williamson and Holaday, Thomas, Saddam’s War, An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War, Washington D.C.: Institute For National Strategic Studies, 2009


 

Saddam’s War, An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War came about as part of a U.S. government program to understand Iraq after the 2003 invasion. The book is based upon 16 interviews with General Raad Hamdani in 2007 who served in the Iraqi army from the 1960s until 2003. Most of the discussion focuses upon the Iran-Iraq War but it also touches on the Gulf War, the U.S. invasion and the post-Saddam era. Hamdani’s main opinion was that Saddam undermined the Iraqi military and became more isolated as time went by to the country’s detriment.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 5 King Faisal accepted Anglo-Iraq Treaty that put Iraq under British hegemony for decades

(Wikimedia Commons)

1915 6
th Army created by Ottomans under command of German Gen von der Goltz to defend

Mesopotamia from British

Wednesday, October 4, 2023

Clashes In Baghdad As People Gather To Mark Anniversary Of Protest Movement

(Shafaq News)

On October 1 around 100 people showed up in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square to mark the four year anniversary of the protest movement. Some people called for the release of their relatives from prison who have been incarcerated for years. Younger people marched and clashed with the security forces. Every year since 2019 there have been similar observances.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 4 Saddam ordered unilateral ceasefire in Iran-Iraq War 2 wks in as invasion plans went wrong

(Britannica)

 

1920 All of Upper Euphrates modern day Anbar was under British control during 1920 Revolt

(Musings On Iraq review Reclaiming Iraq, The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State)

(Musings On Iraq review Enemy On The Euphrates, The Battle For Iraq 1914-1921)

Tuesday, October 3, 2023

Iraq Benefits From Large Jump In Oil Prices In Sep


Iraq is the most oil dependent country in the world so when oil prices rise like they did in September it’s good news.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 3 Iraq gained independence from the British

(Britannica)

 

1920 Gertrude Bell called Shiite clergy a group of popes standing in the way of UK plans Claimed

Shiites were problem in Iraq Said Sunnis should rule Iraq because Shiites would impose a religions state That was why Mosul province had to be included in Iraq to add more Sunnis Said that British were looking for Iraqi to be new ruler but couldn’t find one so had to pick a son of the Sharif of Mecca

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’is Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Desert Queen, The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell: Adventurer, Adviser to Kings, Ally of Lawrence of Arabia)

Monday, October 2, 2023

Security In Iraq Sep 22-28, 2023


The Islamic State has largely ceased to operate in Iraq. There was just 1 security incident by the group from September 22-28. There were 2 the week before, 1 the second week of September and 1 the first week of the month. It’s been 18 weeks since there were more than 5 incidents in the country in one week. This was the 33rd straight week and the 35th of 36 weeks during the year where there were single digit incidents.

This Day In Iraqi History - Oct 2 David Kay head of Iraq Survey Group told Congress no WMD or nuclear program found in Iraq

(AP)

 

1914 London told India to prepare to send ships and men to Shatt al-Arab and land troops in

Persia to protect oil interests

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In World War I, From Ottoman Rule to British Conquest)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

Sunday, October 1, 2023

Latest Corruption Scandal In Iraq $600 Million Stolen Using Fake Foreign Travel

Al Aalem reported that tens of thousands of people were falsely registered as traveling outside of Iraq and gained access to hundreds of mi...