Tuesday, May 21, 2024

This Day In Iraqi History - May 21 Treaty of Arzurum set line between Ottoman and Persian empires with Iraq as border area


1847 Treaty of Arzurum tried to set border between Ottoman Empire and Persia Gave

Sulaymaniya to Ottomans Shatt al-Arab to Persia Set up commission to demarcate border between Ottomans and Persia but never finished

(Musings On Iraq review An Analysis of Hanna Batatu’s The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq)


1919 UK PM George abrogated Long-Berenger UK-French oil deal due to disagreement

with France over Iraq-Syrian border George wanted Iraq to extend to Mediterranean

(Musings On Iraq review The Creation of Iraq 1914-1921)

1924 Turkey told Constantinople Conference Assyrians should return to Turkey

(Musings On Iraq review The Tragedy of the Assyrian Minority in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review State and Society in Iraq)

1928 British official said Iraqi provincial administrators picked who would be elected to parliament

1935 Muntafiq tribal revolt put down by Gen Sidqi Ended talks with cleric Ghita about more

Shiite representation in govt

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’is Of Iraq)

1941 Iraqis launched counterattack attempting to retake Fallujah from British

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s First Battle Of Fallujah 1941)

(Musings On Iraq interview World War II In Iraq and Syria Interview With Case Western’s Prof Broich)

1941 German planes bombed UK air base at Habaniya for a second day

1941 Iraq launched raids into Basra city suburbs but failed

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review Blood, Oil and the Axis: The Allied Resistance Against A Fascist State In Iraq and the Levant, 1941)

1966 Kurds bombed Kirkuk oil pipeline but did little damage

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

1970 Pres Bakr issued Agrarian Reform Law to improve living conditions for peasants and increase

farm production

1974 UN Sec Gen said Iran and Iraq agreed to withdraw forces and open talks over border disputes

1981 Iran Op Imam Ali launched to eliminate Iraqi threat to Susangard in Khuzistan in south

1982 Iranian Op Bait al-Moqaddas Broke through Iraqi defenses around Khorramshahr in south Iraqi

forces panicked Started to flee Only 40% made it back to Iraq Iran captured 12,000 prisoners 2000 prisoners summarily executed by Iran

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1987 2nd phase of govt collectivization program started to destroy Kurdish towns and force people

into govt run villages

(Musings On Iraq Pres Bakr, Saddam, And Iraq’s Kurds Before The Anfal Campaign)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq in Wartime, Soldiering, Martyrdom, and Remembrance)

1990 US Central Command cmdr Gen Schwarzkopf said Iraq had grievances with Kuwait but didn’t

expect it to use military force

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

1991 Kuwait asked for half of Iraq’s oil earnings as reparation for invasion

1992 Bush admin decided an admin official would testify to Congress about credit program for

Iraq some of which was used to buy tech and arms Was Dep Sec of State and point man on Mideast Lawrence Eagleburger 1983 he lobbied Eximbank to offer loan guarantees to Iraq despite bank’s worries Iraq involved in terrorism 1989 he helped Sec State Baker force through loan guarantees for Iraq over objections of govt depts 1990  he took part in White House meeting when Bush admin decided to push for good relations with Saddam

(Musings On Iraq review Spider’s Web, The secret history of how the White House illegally armed Iraq)

1999 UN Res 1242 renewed Oil For Food Program for 6 months

2002 Gen Franks lied to press saying he had no Iraq war plans and had not been asked to make any

Franks had been working on war plans since Nov 2001

(Musings On Iraq review Shaping the Plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom, The Role of Military Intelligence Assessment)

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy


2003 Dep Sec Def Wolfowitz ordered army to help CPA with staff and contracting because CPA


2003 Report CIA believed 3 trailers found in Iraq were mobile WMD labs Sec of

State Powell talked about in UN speech US showed picture of trailers to Iraqi in Germany known as CURVEBALL who confirmed they were WMD labs

(Musings On Iraq How Iraqi Defector CURVEBALL Became Basis For US Claim That Iraq Had WMD)

(Musings On Iraq Look Who The LA Times Dug Up – CURVEBALL)

(Musings On Iraq Story of CURVEBALL And Iraq’s Mobile Biological Weapons Labs)

(Musings On Iraq review Curveball, Spies, Lies, And The Con Man Who Caused A War)

2004 CPA set up group to integrate militias into ISF Never happened

(Musings On Iraq How The Failure To Deal With Iraq’s Militias Caused The Breakdown Of The Country)

2006 Report Iran thought to have trained 40,000 militia in Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Overview of Iran’s Influence In Iraq)

2006 Report US failed to adequately plan to rebuild Iraqi police After invasion went through 3 failed

plans By 2004 only sent 500 police advisers for all of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq interview with Col Ted Spain on how US struggled to establish law and order in post-invasion Iraq) 

(Musings On Iraq American Negligence In Iraq Or How The United States Failed To Plan For Security The Country Part One Of A Two Part Interview With Jerry Burke Former Advisor To The Baghdad Police And Interior Ministry)

(Musings On Iraq From Bad To Worse How Military Moved Into The Iraqi Police Force And The United States Failed At Nation Building Part Two Of An Interview With Jerry Burke Former Advisor To The Baghdad Police And Interior Ministry)

2008 CENTCOM commander Gen Dempsey said ISI at its weakest point in Iraq

2008 US commander for northern Iraq said attacks in Mosul down 85% after Mother of Two Springs

op there

2008 Pres Talabani said Iraq would be able to handle its own security without help of US by end of

2008 Didn’t happen

2008 Female suicide bomber hit Sahwa HQ in Anbar Part of ISI campaign vs sahwa

(Musings On Iraq The Rise of Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq Motivations Behind Female Suicide Bombers)

(Musings On Iraq Behind The Revival Of The Islamic State in Iraq, Interview With Naval War College Prof Craig Whiteside)

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2008 Report ISI turned to crime for financing Stole money from oil industry in Ninewa

and Kirkuk Main source of funds Stole from pipelines and fuel trucks Got protection money from gas stations and trucks Ran gangs Stole cars and kidnapped for ransom

(Musings On Iraq Analyzing The Finances Of Al Qaeda In Iraq Interview With RAND’s Patrick Johnson)

2008 Report Mahdi Army cmdrs began fleeing to Iran and Lebanon as ops against Sadr City increased

2009 3 Iranians and Iraqi arms smuggler arrested in Wasit bringing weapons from Iran into Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq A History Of Iranian Weapons Shipments To Iraq Interview With Arkenstone Blog’s Galen Wright)

2009 DNO said it could start exporting oil from KRG Connected Tawke field to Turkish pipeline

(Musings On Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan’s Failed Independent Oil Strategy)

2009 Report Samarraie new speaker Dawa didn’t support him Thought Islamic Party too strong

Had all senior Sunni positions in govt PM Maliki wanted Sunnis fractured and weak

2010 Reports that both Iran and US supported 2nd term for PM Maliki

(Musings On Iraq How Did The United States Do In Iraq? An Interview With Emma Sky)

2010 Bombing in Khalis Diyala killed 30 wounded 80 6 policemen confessed to attack

(Musings On Iraq More Diyala Police Arrested For Alleged Ties to Al Qaeda In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Iraqi Police In Diyala Province Infiltrated By Insurgents)

2011 PM Blair’s Communications Dir Campbell rejected intel official who said Iraq WMD dossier

was meant to advocate for war It was

2012 KRG announced energy deals with Turkey Baghdad warned KRG it could not sign independent

oil deals with Turkey Dep PM Shahristani ordered Oil Ministry to stop petrol deliveries in retaliation Would later deny he gave order

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Government Tries To Punish Kurdistan For Independent Energy Policy)

(Musings On Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan’s Failed Independent Oil Strategy)

2012 Senate Panel voted to stop funding State Dept police training program in Iraq Was supposed to

replace Pentagon program

2012 Report Most workers in KRG wanted govt jobs Were wanted ads in private sector all the time

but locals didn’t want them or didn’t have skills Led to importation of foreign workers KRG hired 25,000 workers in 2011 Planned to hire 40,000 in 2012 Not enough to meet demand

2013 Sheikh Hayes threatened to tear down protest tents in Ramadi if didn’t disperse after attacks on

ISF and kidnappings

(Musings On Iraq Understanding Iraq’s Protest Movements, An Interview With Kirk Sowell, Editor of Inside Iraqi Politics)

2013 KRG said it wanted to build a second independent oil pipeline to Turkey

2013 IMF report on Iraq’s economy Predicted short term growth due to oil Suffered from poor budget

planning and execution Led to large number of unfunded projects Suggested cutting govt jobs and subsidies for fuel and state owned enterprises Warned of oil dependency Govt talked about diversifying economy but just spent money to expand the state

(Musings On Iraq IMF Report On Iraq’s Economy Sees Short-Term Growth, But Long-Term Structural Problems)

2014 Report 2006 Al Qaeda in Iraq said it was a state even though didn’t hold any territory Caused

disagreement within jihadist community 

2014 Iraq Amb to US Faily wrote letter to Asst Sec State McGurk and VP Biden’s natl sec adv

Sullivan asking US for military aid training advisors drone flights and air strikes against IS US didn’t respond

2015 Asaib Ahl Al-Haq blamed US and PM Abadi for fall of Ramadi Claimed US had kept Hashd

out Hashd had been in Anbar for months

(Musings On Iraq interview The Political Fallout From The Loss Of Iraq’s Ramadi Interview With EPIC’s Ahmed Ali)

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

2015 IS broke through ISF defensive line in east Anbar Took Husaiba

2018 Election Commission threw out results from 103 voting stations in Baghdad Irbil Anbar Salahaddin Ninewa

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Election Fraud Controversy)

(Musings On Iraq No Major Changes In Results After Election Recount In Iraq)

2019 Report Hashd moved into business and extortion Charged taxes at checkpoints Took

over scrap metal business in Mosul Moved into state owned enterprises and construction companies Involved in oil smuggling in Ninewa

(Musings On Iraq Expansion of the Hashd al-Shaabi’s influence In Iraq, Interview With Clingendael’s Erwin van Veen)

2020 ISF arrested leader in Saraya al-Khorasani accused of running gang involved in kidnapping and


(Musings On Iraq Khorasani Brigade Another Iraq Militia That Returned Home From Syria To Fight The Insurgency)

2020 Liwa Thar Muhandis posted statement that it hit Baghdad airport with rockets Group 1st

appeared in 2020 Then became inactive Restarted summer 2021

2020 Report Oil crisis COVID Political dispute with Baghdad led KRG’s revenues to drop to $200

mil in Apr 2019 KRG needed avg $757 mil/month for govt salaries $211 mil/month to pay oil companies KRG had talked about reforms Crisis led to protests by govt workers 2019 KRG avg $703 mil/mo in oil sales Apr 2020 only earned $84 mil from oil KRG owed $3.4 bil to oil traders Apr lost $384 mil/mo from Baghdad due to budget dispute Mar KRG said it would defer payments to oil companies and would pay in low current oil prices rather than higher prices when produced

(Musings On Iraq Iraqi Kurdistan’s Failed Independent Oil Strategy)

2020 Karbala activist escaped assassination attempt

(Musings On Iraq UN Report On Violence Against Iraqi Protesters)

(Musings On Iraq United Nations Faults Iraq For Failing To Protect Protesters)

2021 Report Iran tried to solidify control over Hashd after death of Quds Force cmdr Gen

Suleimani Formed smaller groups Provided training At least 250 Hashd went to Lebanon in 2020 for training by Hezbollah and Quds Force Now believed to be behind recent rocket attacks

2021 Head of KRG parliament’s finance comm said KRG couldn’t pay govt workers without

budget money from Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Kurdistan Can’t Pay Its Bills)

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This Day In Iraqi History - Jun 16 Iraq protested border treaty with Iran by sending troops into Khuzistan province Led to 88 Iraqi soldiers being killed

  1920 UK govt decided to cancel proposed UK run provisional govt in Iraq for an Arab govt under British influence