Monday, September 25, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Sep 25 KRG held independence referendum Iraqi forces would attack Kurds and seize disputed areas afterward



1913 US consul in Baghdad reported Basra Reform Society issued constitution Sep 

Demanded autonomy no foreign concessions recognition of Arabic language

1919 Churchill wrote Gen MacMunn commander in Mesopotamia that his plan to reduce troop by

120,000 by spring of 1920 needed to be vastly sped up and keeping that many troops would crush the finances of Mesopotamia

(Musings On Iraq Churchill In His Own Words On Mesopotamia/Iraq)

1921 Gertrude Bell wrote King Faisal was unpopular and resented for being installed by the British

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell And Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Gertrude Bell, Explorer of the Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq movie review Letters from Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Desert Queen, The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell: Adventurer, Adviser to Kings, Ally of Lawrence of Arabia)

1931 Iraqi newspaper called for one party rule under an autocrat King Faisal

1944 Nuri al-Said told Egyptian PM Nahas two countries should organize an Arab summit Led to

Arab League

1945 Mulla Mustafa Barzani fled into Iran to escape govt offensive

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq & the Kurdish Question, 1958-70)

(Musings On Iraq Explaining Kurdish Nationalism Interview With Teen Tech Univ Prof Michael Gunter)

1967 Arif govt sent delegation to France to buy weapons after defeat in 1967 Arab-Israeli War and

inability to bring Kurdish revolt under control

1973 Baathist Naim Haddad named head of Progressive National Patriotic Front with Communists

KDP and Baath

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Since 1958, From Revolution To Dictatorship)

(Musings On Iraq review A People’s History Of Iraq, The Iraqi Communist Party, Workers’ Movements, and the Left 1924-2004)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq A History Of The Iraqi Communist Party Interview With Univ of East Anglia’s Johan Franzen)

1980 Iraq began attacking Dezful Ahvaz Khorramshahr in Khuzistan province

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1980 Iraq shelled Abadan refinery largest in world Iran retaliated with air raids on Iraqi oil facilities

in Basra Zubayr Mosul Kirkuk

1980 Iranian airstrike on Um Qasr driven off Iraq attacked Bushehr sinking 4 Iranian navy ships

Also bombed some tankers trapped in Shatt al-Arab

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1990 UN Resolution 670 imposed air embargo on Iraq to enforce sanctions

1991 Barzani and Talabani went to Baghdad to negotiate with Saddam over governance in

Kurdistan after uprising

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

1991 US sent 96 Patriot missiles and 1,380 troops to Saudi Arabia over Iraq holding UN inspectors

hostages inside Atheer nuclear facility

1997 Op Dawn Turkey invaded Kurdistan to attack PKK

1997 UN inspectors went to Food and Drug Examination Lab in Baghdad Found 2 Iraqis trying to

leave with briefcases full of docs Were from State Sec Org Inspectors got briefcases Found docs on testing biological agent at Tikrit lab Finally provided link between State Sec Org and WMD

1997 Inspectors held meeting with State Sec Org officials about docs found at Food and Drug

Examination Lab Iraqis denied everything Inspectors threatened night inspection that night to find out more

1997 Inspectors attempted night inspection of Special Rep Guard facility in Baghdad Were

stopped Trying to discover Iraq’s concealment program to hide WMD

(Musings On Iraq review Endgame, Solving The Iraq Crisis)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Confidential, The Untold Story of the Intelligence Conspiracy to Undermine the UN and Overthrow Saddam Hussein)

(Musings On Iraq review The Greatest Threat, Iraq, Weapons of Mass Destruction, And The Growing Crisis Of Global Security)

(Musings On Iraq review The Saddam Tapes)

(Musings On Iraq UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)

2002 Bush said couldn't distinguish between Al Qaeda and Saddam in war on terror because they

were equally evil

(Musings On Iraq review Wanting War: Why the Bush Administration Invaded Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy


2002 Natl Sec Adv Rice told PBS NewsHour Iraq provided chemical weapons training to Al Qaeda

Came from Al Qaeda cmdr Libi who made up story under torture in Egypt

(Musings On Iraq review What Happened, Inside the Bush White House and Washington’s Culture of Deception)

2002 DefSec Rumsfeld and CIA DepDir McLaughlin briefed NATO defense ministers on Iraq-Al \

Qaeda ties

2002 US and UK worked on draft UN resolution demanding inspectors return to Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)

(Musings On Iraq Chilcot Report Section 3.5 Development of UK Strategy and Options September to November 2002 – Negotiation of Resolution 1441)

2002 Natl Intel Office for Strategic and Nuclear Programs had analyst meeting to draft Natl

Intel Estimate on Iraq CIA and DIA analysts said aluminum tubes Iraq tried to buy were for centrifuges and that Iraq reconstitution nuclear program Energy and State Dept analysts at Natl Intel Estimate meeting said tubes were for rockets

(Musings On Iraq How A Contested Aluminum Tubes Story Became The Basis For War With Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq How US Intelligence Created An Iraqi Nuclear Threat In 2002)

(Musings On Iraq review The WMD Mirage, Iraq’s Decade of Deception and America’s False Premise for War)

2003 Bush said 9/11 changed how he viewed Iraq as a threat to US

2003 Sec State Powell announced 6 month deadline for Iraqis to draft new constitution

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Dysfunctional Democracy)

(Musings On Iraq review The Struggle For Iraq’s Future, How Corruption, Incompetence and Sectarianism Have Undermined Democracy)

2003 House Intel Comm wrote letter to CIA Dir Tenet criticizing pre-war intel on Iraq’s WMD and

Iraq-Al Qaeda ties after review

2003 Baghdad hotel used as base for NBC News bombed 1 guard killed

2003 UK intel report Said attacks increasing against Coalition mostly aimed at US Attacks evolving

Getting more sophisticated Iraqis working for Coalition being targeted Militias carrying out illegal arrests and murders Al Qaeda in Iraq forming long term strategy to go after infrastructure

(Musings On Iraq Chilcot Inquiry Section 9.2 23 May 2003 To June 2004)

(Musings On Iraq Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)

2005 Ayatollah Sistani condemned violence in Iraq

2006 U.S. Joint Chiefs started review of Iraq strategy

(Musings On Iraq review The War Within, A Secret White House History 2006-2008)

2006 Report Iraq had replaced Afghanistan as main training ground for terrorists Insurgents

from Iraq had gone to Afghanistan and Pakistan and imported tactics such as car bombs

2006 Report ruling parties agreed to deal to delay autonomous southern region plan for 18 months

2006 Report DIA found 2005 elections increased sectarian tensions in Iraq Assessment by 50

counterinsurgency experts in August found US forces relied too much on force alienating Iraqis

2006 Mujahadeen Shura Council issued statement saying it could fight the Hamza battalions

organized by Albu Mahal tribe in Qaim because they were enemies of Islam

(Musings On Iraq Anbar Before And After The Awakening Pt IX: Sheikh Sabah Aziz Of The Albu Mahal)

(Musings On Iraq Understanding Anbar Before And After The Awakening Part V Sheikh Jassim Mohammed Salah al-Suwaidi And Sheikh Abdul Rahman al-Janabi)

2007 ISI bombed meeting of police sheikhs and leaders of Hamas of Iraq and 1920 Revolution

Brigades in Baquba

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)

(Musings On Iraq review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)

2007 PM Maliki told Council on Foreign Relations he stopped sectarian war in Iraq Said

reconciliation needed time Wanted long term US military presence Said Iran and Syria no longer interfering in Iraq and all Iranian support for militias had ended Said Anbar Awakening were sons of Iraq

2007 2nd class of Sahwa in Abu Ghraib graduated from police training Now 1,550 new police 1

policeman complained Shiite Muthanna Brigade in district were blocking sahwa from operating there

(Musings On Iraq What’s In The Future For The Sons of Iraq?)

(Musings On Iraq review Surge, My Journey with General David Petraeus and the Remaking of the Iraq War)

2007 US and ISF arrested 59 soldiers at Defense Ministry’s military academy in Baghdad for

carrying out bombings kidnappings murders Dean led gang at academy Killed academy’s director in 2005 New director was kidnapped by group Received EFPs from Iran

(Musings On Iraq How Iran Used Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFPs) To Influence events In Iraq)

2008 South Korea’s National Oil Corp signed deal to work on 8 sites in KRG

2008 Parliament’s displacement committee complained Maliki govt ignored its request for $2 bil on

refugees/displaced Only allotted $200 mil Committee said only 120,000 refugees returned to Iraq so far Said many didn’t go back to homes because occupied destroyed militias controlled area

2009 Report Sadr was attempting to reconcile with Asaib Ahl Al-Haq before 2010 elections AAH

was to send delegation to Iran to meet with Sadr

(Musings On Iraq Sadr Tries To Reconcile With Breakaway League Of The Righteous)

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

2009 Report Companies complained had to partner with companies connected to Barzanis and

Talabanis to do work in KRG Meant corruption wouldn’t end

(Musings On Iraq Corruption In Iraq An Interview With Stuart Bowen Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Trouble Fighting Corruption Interview With Vincent Foulk Former US Anti-Graft Official)

2010 Report US donated 8,080 computers worth $1.8 mil to schools in Babil Customs in Basra

refused to release them Investigation found 4,200 computers sold in Aug 2010 for $45,700 Rest of computers disappeared

2010 Obama admin approved sale of F-16 jets to Iraq

2012 Audit of Iraq’s economy Oil only productive part Had to import almost everything Industry

underdeveloped due to war and underinvestment Farming had growth potential Suffered from lack of water Lack of infrastructure Non oil sector only 22% of GDP Economy less diverse than most oil producing countries Population growth put extreme pressure to create jobs

2012 Quds Force cmdr Gen Suleimani went to KRG Wanted PUK-KDP to stop aiding Syrian Kurds

Suleimani also tried to moderate between Pres Barzani and PM Maliki

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guards’ Commander General Suleimani And His Role In Iraq, An Interview With The New Yorker’s Dexter Filkins)

2012 Report Turkey supported Sunni and Kurdish parties against PM Maliki Created strong

economic ties with KRG Backfired when Sunni parties broke up KRG also demanding independence upsetting Arabs Hoped backing Barzani would contain PKK Didn’t happen

2013 ISIS attacked Hawija govt building in Kirkuk with 2 suicide bombers

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2014 Report Businesses complained about corruption at airports and ports Officials tried to

blackmail and threaten people Held up goods to get bribes

2014 MPs complained top commanders being retired for fall of Mosul when should be prosecuted

Said had to know truth of what happened

2016 Teachers across KRG went on strike for not being paid KRG in financial problems due to

oil/budget dispute with Baghdad

2017 Kurds held independence referendum in three Kurdish provinces and disputed

            areas they occupied in 2014 72% participation rate 2.9 mil yes votes 224,000 no

(Musings On Iraq What’s Next For Kurdistan After The Referendum?)

(Musings On Iraq War of Words Continues Between Baghdad and Irbil After KRG Referendum)

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

(Musings On Iraq review Quicksilver War, Syria, Iraq and the Spiral of Conflict)

2017 Rosneft promised $1 bil to develop KRG’s natural gas 3rd deal between Rosneft-KRG

2017 Turkey said it wouldn’t accept independent Kurdish state Closed border with KRG after

independence referendum Said would cut off KRG oil pipeline

2017 Abadi govt demanded KRG turn over all border crossings and airports after independence

referendum Parliament demanded Iraqi forces be deployed to all disputed areas

2018 Human rights activist assassinated in Basra

2019 Human Rights Watch Judges ignored torture allegations in trials

2019 Report Around 100 IS in Khanaqin Diyala Exploiting gaps in security between

Peshmerga and Iraqi forces Had camps in Hamrin Mountains along Diyala-Salahaddin border

2020 Report Pres Salah told ruling parties and Hashd Sec State Pompeo threatened to close US

embassy and attack all Hashd if attacks on US targets continued Head of Hashd Comm Fayad and Badr head Amiri against continued attacks Said US withdrawing and didn’t want US retaliation Attacks didn’t stop

(Musings On Iraq Badr Organization A View Into Iraq’s Violent Past And Present)

2020 Report Head of Qi Card tried to flee Iraq with help of head of Kataib Imam Ali to escape

arrest for corruption 2 top officials at Baghdad airport fired and arrested for incident

2020 Activists home in Dhi Qar bombed

(Musings On Iraq UN Report On Violence Against Iraqi Protesters)

(Musings On Iraq United Nations Faults Iraq For Failing To Protect Protesters)

2021 Kataib Hezbollah said attacks on US had to continue to preserve security of Iraq Said KRG

had turned into safe haven for US and Israeli agents and conspirators

(Musings On Iraq Instrument Of Iran’s Power In Iraq And Syria Kataib Hezbollah)

2022 State Administration Alliance formed between Coordination Framework KDP PUK

Sovereignty Alliance Babylon Bloc Agreed on consensus govt Would meet Sep 28 to dismiss Speaker Halbusi and then re-elect him

(Musings On Iraq New Iraqi Alliance, Will Sadr Join To Form Next Iraqi Govt?)

View the Iraq History Timelines 

No comments:

This Day In Iraqi History - Jul 24 Treaty of Lusanne said League of Nations would decide whether Mosul vilayet went to Iraq or Turkey

  1920 France occupied Syria Defeated King Faisal’s forces leading him to flee Would set sites on Mesopotamia afterward ...