Wednesday, March 29, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Mar 30 UK Cairo Conference decided on indirect rule in Iraq Faisal would be made king with pro-UK govt allowing British forces to withdraw



1921 Cairo Conference decided on indirect rule in Iraq Would make Faisal King of a pro-British

Iraqi govt allowing withdrawal of British forces 

1921 Cairo Conference decided to keep UK High Commissioner for Iraq British advisers in govt naval

presence in Basra and RAF squadrons in rest of country

(Musings On Iraq How England Chose Feisal As 1st King Of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation Building and a History Denied)

(Musings On Iraq review Supremacy And Oil, Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930)

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

(Musings On Iraq review When God Made Hell, The British Invasion of Mesopotamia and the Creation of Iraq, 1914-1921)

(Musings On Iraq review Empires of the Sand, The Struggle For Mastery In The Middle East 1789-1923)

1939 King Ghazi gave pan-Arab speech saying he was interested in Arab brothers in Syria Palestine


(Musings On Iraq review Imagining The Nation, Nationalism, Sectarianism and Socio-Political Conflict in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

1939 PM Said said Iraq’s foreign policy based upon alliance with Arab states and ties with UK Said 1 of

strongest proponents of aligning Iraq with UK

1940 Fmr PM Said put together new govt with Rashid Gaylani becoming PM Said became Foreign

Minister Had backing of British

1940 Regent had one of the Golden Square officers ordered to Diwaniya He refused

order Regent was pushed by UK to try to break up pan-Arab officers in army

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review The Role of the Military In Politics, A case study of Iraq to 1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Modern History of Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

1945 UK Ambassador to Iraq Sir Cornwallis wrote he was afraid old Iraqi elite were never going to change

and that would lead to violence between haves and have nots

1946 Conservatives in govt forced PM Suwaidi’s govt to resign

1948 Coup by Col Zaim in Syria believed to open door for Iraq-Syria unification Didn’t happen

Zaim turned out to be anti-Iraqi

1949 Coup in Syria revived Regent Ilah’s hopes of an Iraq-Syria union which would make him

king of Syria

1963 Kurdish delegation headed by Talabani arrived in Baghdad for more talks about

Kurdish rights Govt refused to meet with Talabani

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurdish Revolt 1961-1970)

1980 Baath made membership in Dawa punishable by death

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Lowy Institution’s Shanahan on history of the Dawa Party)

(Musings On Iraq review The Shi’ite Movement in Iraq)

1982 Saddam admitted that Iraqi forces retreated from southern Iran

1984 UN condemned use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq War but didn’t mention Iraq as perpetrator

due to US and Soviet objections

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1984 US banned export of 5 chemicals to Iraq that could be used to make chemical weapons

(Musings On Iraq Origins Of Iraq’s WMD Programs)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Use Of Chemical Weapons In Iran-Iraq War And Their Western Origin)

1990 Report Iraq trying to challenge Israeli military superiority in Middle East by developing nuclear

bomb Dec 89 Iraq launched new long range missile Mar 90 3 people arrested in UK trying to smuggle equipment for program to Iraq Intl Institute for Strategic Studies said program only in theoretical stage Was actually far more advanced than anyone knew

1991 Saddam’s troops re-entered Dohuk and Irbil to put down Kurdish rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq interview with National Univ of Singapore’s Fanar Haddad on the Impact of the 1991 Uprising)

(Musings On Iraq Remembering The 1991 Uprising In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Saddam’s View of Iraq’s 1991 Uprising)

1991 Majid al-Khoei son of Grand Ayatollah al-Khoei met with Saudi intelligence and was turned down

for aid to help uprising because US objected

(Musings On Iraq When The US Helped Start A Rebellion In Iraq That It Didn’t Want)

1995 INC and PUK attacked Iraqi forces in Kirkuk district destroying 2 brigades hoping to create a revolt

against Saddam

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq In The Eye of the Storm)

2002 Gen Franks presented new revised Iraq war plan to Bush

(Musings On Iraq review Shaping the Plan for Operation Iraqi Freedom, The Role of Military Intelligence Assessment)

2003 US restarted advance on Baghdad after stop for supplies 3rd Inf Div cleared Kifl Najaf

2003 British began 2nd attack to take Basra city with 600 commandos attacking western Abu al-Kacib

(Musings On Iraq review Target Basra, The High Octane Story of the Royal Marine Commandos In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Voices From Iraq, A People’s History, 2003-2009)

2003 UK Defense Minister Hoon told US didn't think taking Basra City important US wanted UK to hold

south oil fields and Um Qasr port

2003 US intensified air strikes on Republican Guard units with 800 sorties PUK and 10th Special Forces

Group took Ansar al-Islam camp in Halabja Most of Ansar fled to Iran

2003 Saddam believed U.S. invasion was stalemated

2003 Saddam’s secretary told Iraqi Foreign Ministry to tell France and Russia Iraq would only accept an

unconditional withdrawal by U.S.

2003 Iraqi TV aired footage of Saddam Qusay and Uday handing out medals and money to soldiers

2003 Sec Def Rumsfeld told ABC that US knew exactly where Iraq’s WMD were Claimed they were

around Tikrit and Baghdad

(Musings On Iraq How The Administration Reversed Itself On Finding Iraq’s WMD)

(Musings On Iraq review What Happened, Inside the Bush White House and Washington’s Culture of Deception)

2003 Sec Def Rumsfeld accused Syria of giving military aid to Iraq Syria claimed US committed crimes

vs Iraqi civilians

2003 Dep Sec of Def Wolfowtiz said Iraq war about WMD and that they would eventually be found

(Musings On Iraq Iraq One Of The Worst Intelligence Failures In US History)

2003 PM Blair foreign policy adv Sir Manning worried that Baghdad when attacked could turn into

drawn out urban battle

2003 Pentagon memo on creating an Iraqi authority after war Said had to be friendly to the US Had to

end Sunni rule Wanted rule of law individual liberty representative govt private enterprise Didn’t say how that was to be achieved

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy Tragedy)

(Musings On Iraq review State of Denial, Bush At War, Part III)

(Musings On Iraq review The Endgame, The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from

George W. Bush to Barack Obama)

(Musings On Iraq review Hard Lessons, The Iraq Reconstruction Experience)

2003 SCIRI head Ayatollah Hakim told followers in south Iraq that they shouldn’t support Coalition invasion Demanded foreign troops leave Iraq as soon as possible Warned of armed struggle if they turned into occupiers 

2004 New Iraq Survey Group head Duelfer told Congress most important work not done Still looking for

critical Iraqis involved in WMD program Said found equipment to make biological and chemical agents Couldn’t rule out what aluminum tubes were for Contradicted much of what Survey Group discovered 3 top inspectors quit to protest Duelfer’s remarks

2006 Report Albu Mahal tribe went from insurgency to fighting Al Qaeda in Iraq after objected to Islamic

law being imposed Tribe entered into months of fighting with Salmani and Karabila tribes allied with Al Qaeda in Iraq in WAnbar Qaim dist Was expelled Albu Mahal went to US Formed Desert Protectors Got tribesmen join Iraqi army

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 17 Innovation In The Face Of War, Summer-Fall 2005)

(Musings On Iraq Anbar Before And After The Awakening Pt IX: Sheikh Sabah Aziz Of The Albu Mahal)

(Musings On Iraq Understanding Anbar Before And After The Awakening Part V Sheikh Jassim Mohammed Salah al-Suwaidi And Sheikh Abdul Rahman al-Janabi)

(Musings On Iraq The Demise But Not Death of Al Qaeda In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq How A Change In Perceptions Led To The Anbar Awakening)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Carter Malkasian on Anbar Awakening)

(Musings On Iraq review Confronting Al Qaeda, The Sunni Awakening and American Strategy In Al Anbar)

(Musings On Iraq review The Marines Take Anbar, The Four-Year Fight Against Al Qaeda)

(Musings On Iraq review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Sunni Insurgency)

(Musings On Iraq review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)

2007 Op Call to Freedom ended effectively clearing Ramadi of insurgents

2007 Report Ali Salah WBaghdad only had 3 Sunni families left after militias forced out rest in March

despite US and Iraqi units in area during Surge

(Musings On Iraq review Voices From Iraq, A People’s History, 2003-2009)

(Musings On Iraq Columbia University Charts Sectarian Cleansing Of Baghdad)

2008 Sadr announced ceasefire in fight vs ISF Mahdi Army handed over weapons to ISF in 2 Baghdad

neighborhoods Deal worked out between Dawa ISCI Badr and Sadr with Iran Rev Guards Quds Force cmdr Gen Suleimani as moderator

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guards’ Commander General Suleimani And His Role In Iraq, An Interview With The New Yorker’s Dexter Filkins)

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guard’s History In Iraq, Interview With Naval Postgraduate School’s Afshon Ostovar)  

(Musings On Iraq review Vanguard of the Imam, Religion, Politics, and Iran’s Revolutionary Guard)

2008 Fighting continued in Babil and Karbala between ISF and Mahdi Army Green Zone hit by


2008 UK report situation in Basra unchanged during Charge of Knights Said ISF had no coherent

            plan and morale low

2008 Report PM Maliki was shocked that his offensive in Basra caused fighting throughout south and

Baghdad Was actually warned by ISF that would happen beforehand but he ignored it

2008 Tribes in Dhi Qar and Dulaim in Wasit joined govt in crackdown against Mahdi Army

(Musings On Iraq Argument For Maliki Being Iraq’s Next Strongman)

(Musings On Iraq Disputes Over Tribal Support Councils)

2008 ISCI held pro-govt demonstration in Karbala against Sadr

2009 Report 200 Sadrists broke away from Sadr PM Maliki gave amnesty to Sadrists and

Special Groups Supposed to be for reconciliation but was Maliki trying to split Sadrists

2009 PUK co-founder and media mogul Mustafa said his Gorran party would run in KRG


2009 Report PM Maliki had sahwa leaders in Baghdad and Diyala arrested

2011 Accountability and Justice Comm ruled PM Maliki’s nominees for Interior and Defense Ministers

were disqualified for Baathist past

2011 Turkey’s Erdogan went on tour of Iraq to Baghdad 1st Sunni leader to go to Najaf shrine 1st Turkish

leader to go to Irbil

2011 Report Small/medium sized business hardly developed in Iraq due to high start up costs Lack of govt

support Power and water shortages Security High tariffs Iraq had 35000 industrial projects 85% of them idle The 15% that operated worked at 20% capacity

2011 Report Iraqiya head Allawi refused to lead National Council for Strategic Policies which was part of

power sharing agreement to get PM Maliki 2nd term

2012 Pres Barzani said PM Maliki becoming authoritarian Criticized Maliki for holding all security

positions Said didn’t follow power sharing agreement

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Premier And Kurdistan’s President Spar Over Weapons As Part Of Larger Political Dispute)

(Musings On Iraq How The No Confidence Move Against Iraq’s Premier Split The Kurdish Parties)

(Musings On Iraq Argument For Maliki Being Iraq’s Next Strongman)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq After America, Strongmen, Sectarians, Resistance)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism)

(Musings On Iraq Is Iraq’s Prime Minister Becoming A Dictator? An Interview With Kirk Sowell Of Inside Iraqi Politics)

(Musings On Iraq Is Iraq’s Prime Minister Maliki More Like Premier Nuri al-Sa’id Than Saddam? An Interview With Historian Phebe Marr)

2012 MP on energy committee said electricity shortages would be worse in 2012 than 2011 Said power

production would only be slightly up by 2014 Came after Dep PM Shahristani said that Iraq would become self-sufficient in power by end of 2013

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Parliament And Cabinet Argue Over Future Electricity Output)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Government Failing Again To Solve Country’s Power Outages)

2012 Report KDP training Syrian Kurds to return to Syria and fight

(Musings On Iraq Explaining Iraqi Kurdistan’s Policy Towards Syria, Interview With Wladimir van Wilgenburg)

2013 Report banks in Sulaymaniya facing crisis Couldn’t pay govt workers Couldn’t cash large checks

Stories that PUK leadership taking money out of banks and placing it elsewhere Part of financial crisis due to dispute with Baghdad over oil and budget

2014 ISIS held parade in Abu Ghraib

2016 Kurdish Alliance said they would not give up any of their ministers in PM Abadi’s reform program

(Musings On Iraq A Review Of Iraq Premier Abadi’s Reform Program Interview With Reidar Visser)

2016 Report Unaoil paid bribes to Iraqi officials to get its clients contracts Hosted Oil Ministry

official and said ministry should charge inflated prices on products so they could steal the money Oil official agreed Every drum of oil bought by Weatherford Unaoil involved kickbacks to senior officials Officials told Unaoil about upcoming deals so that clients could win them Unaoil made payoffs to Eni and BP Paid $1 mil bribe for Petrofac and SBM to win contract at Gharraf oil field

(Musings On Iraq Corruption In Iraq An Interview With Stuart Bowen Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Trouble Fighting Corruption Interview With Vincent Foulk Former US Anti-Graft Official)

2017 KRG spokesman told newspaper it was time for KRG to divorce from rest of Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Great Betrayal, How America Abandoned The Kurds And Lost The Middle East)

2018 Report Anbar council accused Hashd of blocking displaced from returning to Khalidiya Island Ramadi dist Extorting people

2019 Report Abdul Mahdi govt not spending on rebuilding war torn areas Mosul needed est $2 bil

for rebuilding All of Ninewa only got $250 mil in 2019 budget Anbar got $150 mil Salahaddin got $170 mil Baghdad hadn’t sent budgets to provinces yet Provinces only had until end of 2019 to spend money otherwise went back to Baghdad

2019 Speaker Halbusi said would take until 2022 to lesson Iraq’s dependency upon

electricity imports Asked US for 3 yrs waivers on Iranian sanctions as a result By 2022 Iraq still dependent on Iranian energy

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