Sunday, January 15, 2023

This Day In Iraqi History - Jan 15 1948 Anglo-Iraq Treaty signed Led to major protests in Iraq



1915 Sir Percy Cox reported some Arab sheikhs had given up ties with UK and joined Turks

following calls for jihad

1923 UK Treasury wrote Iraq commission that Iraq too costly to administer

1929 UK Iraq Commissioner Sir Henry Dobbs said King Faisal was like a chameleon and

drove those around him mad

1935 Persia presented border dispute to League of Nations Challenged Iraq’s control of Shatt


1948 New Anglo-Iraqi Treaty signed British troops withdrew but Iraq tied to England until


1948 Anglo-Iraq Treaty originally included Iraq supplying weapons to Palestinians and Iraqi

forces taking over Palestine to prevent Jewish state

1981 Iraqi division in Halabja Sulaymaniya crossed into Iran and took Nosud Valley Meant

to protect Kurdistan from any Iranian attack

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1983 Saddam went to Riyadh and got approval for oil pipeline through Saudi Arabia to

diversify export routes during war

1987 Iraq launched 5 counterattacks at Sumar Heights Basra but failed Suffered 1500


(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

1987 Saddam held meeting on Iran Op Karbala 5 Replaced commanders due to Iranian


1988 Iran Op Bait al-Moqaddas 2 attacked Chwarta Kurdistan

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Anthony Tucker-Jones on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Tom Cooper on Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review Iran-Iraq War, The Lion of Babylon, 1980-1988)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The Longest War, The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 1: The Battle for Khuzestan, September 1980-May 1982)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 2: Iran Strikes back, June 1982-December 1986)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 3: Iraq’s Triumph)

(Musings On Iraq review The Iran-Iraq War Volume 4: The Forgotten Fronts)

1990 Jordanian audit of Ahmed Chalabi’s Petra Bank found its loans were not being paid

back Its books were faked Found series of insider deals Was paying for Chalabi apartment and ranch in US 

(Musings On Iraq review The Man Who Pushed America To War, The Extraordinary Life, Adventures, and Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi)

(Musings On Iraq review Arrows of the Night: Ahmad Chalabi and the Selling of the Iraq War)

1990 Voice of America celebrated democracy in East Europe and overthrowing dictators

Said Saddam was a dictator Saddam took this as sign US turning on Iraq

1991 Bush issued NSD 54 saying US wanted immediate withdrawal of Iraq from Kuwait

restore Kuwait govt protect Americans security in Persian Gulf

1991 NSD 54 Included defending Saudi Arabia Stop Iraq from firing missiles destroy Iraq’s

WMD and command and control Destroy Republican Guard Drive Iraq from Kuwait Break will of Iraqi forces Encourage defection of Iraqi forces Weaken Iraqi public support for Saddam NSD 54 said that if Iraq used WMD, supported terrorism against U.S. or destroyed Kuwait’s oil fields Saddam should be removed

(Musings On Iraq review from storm to Freedom, America’s Long War with Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review The Bush Administrations and Saddam Hussein, Deciding on Conflict)

(Musings On Iraq review The United States And Iraq Since 1990: A Brief History with Documents)

1991 Saddam added Allah Akbar to Iraqi flag

1991 UK PM Major said Saddam might become a target of his own people

1991 Gen Schwarzkopf briefed on latest air campaign against Iraq Was still focused upon

destroying Iraq’s infrastructure Schwarzkopf wanted it focused upon destroying Iraq’s ground forces

(Musings On Iraq review Desert Storm, Volume 2: Operation Desert Storm and the Coalition Liberation of Kuwait 1991)

1991 Saddam met Palestinians Told them he would lose upcoming war

1991 15 Iraqi Sukhoi-24 fighter bombers armed with chemical bombs to attack Israel Never

given order for attack

1993 1200 US troops arrived in Kuwait Iraq said it would guarantee safety of UN inspector


1994 Iraq upset with inspectors and sanctions tried to limit UN flights within the country

1998 After Iraq refused to cooperate again UN inspection team left Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review The Saddam Tapes)

(Musings On Iraq review Out Of The Ashes, The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein)

(Musings On Iraq review The Greatest Threat, Iraq, Weapons of Mass Destruction, And The Growing Crisis Of Global Security)

(Musings On Iraq UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)

2003 CIA told White House that paper on Iraq should say Iraq tried to buy uranium from Africa Didn’t


(Musings On Iraq How US Intelligence Failed The Iraq-Niger Uranium Story)

(Musings On Iraq Review Hubris, The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, And The Selling Of The Iraq War)

(Musings On Iraq review The WMD Mirage, Iraq’s Decade of Deception and America’s False Premise for War)

2003 Blair said 2nd UN resolution not necessary for use of force against Iraq Attn Gen just told him

2nd resolution needed

(Musings On Iraq Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)

(Musings On Iraq Chilcot Inquiry Section 3.7 Development of UK Strategy and Options, 1 February to 7 March 2003)

(Musings On Iraq Chilcot Inquiry Section 5 Advice On The Legal Basis For Military Action, November 2002 To March 2003)

2003 Report Sec Def Rumsfeld okayed more aggressive patrols over Iraq no fly zones and attacks on Iraq

air defense in prep for invasion

2003 Bush received 1st brief on postwar Iraq plans from NSC’s Abrams Went over humanitarian

aid Emphasized feeding public Abrams said money had to secretly be sent to aid groups that would work in Iraq because they didn’t want to be seen supporting war Said Oil for Food program would be maintained after invasion to feed public Said that 2 mil Iraqis might be displaced during invasion Plans made irrelevant when Pentagon given control of postwar Iraq

(Musings On Iraq Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction’s “Hard Lessons” – Part I: Planning for Postwar Iraq September 2001 to May 2003)

(Musings On Iraq on Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction Hard Lessons Chapter 2 The Agencies Engage)

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy


(Musings On Iraq review Hard Lessons, The Iraq Reconstruction Experience)

2003 NSC officials went to military to make sure things like health centers weren’t bombed during


2003 Bush thought humanitarian aid after war very important Thought could change image of US

in Middle East

2003 Aid groups that met with USAID about postwar Iraq plans Asked to meet with

Pentagon USAID said everything would be fine because US would be seen as liberators Told aid groups to repeat that message publicly

(Musings On Iraq Overview of America’s Policy Towards Iraq: From The Clinton Years To The

Sectarian War of 2006)

2004 Shiites demonstrated calling for direct elections for new Iraqi govt

2004 Report up to 100 Hezbollah fighters in Iraq helping Iranian intelligence

(Musings On Iraq Hezbollah’s Role In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

2004 Gen Craddock Def Sec Rumsfeld’s military aide and dir Joint Chiefs Adm Keating emailed

summary of CD with photos of abuse at Abu Ghraib prison

2006 UK Gen Houghton said US Iraq Cmdr Gen Casey returned from US and got backing for his plan to

transition to Iraqi control and withdraw US troops Houghton said transition to Iraqi control highlighted all the problems in the country

(Musings On Iraq Did the US Ever Have A Strategy To Win In Iraq Before the Surge?)

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1- Chapter 18 – Defeated By Democracy, Winter 2005-2006)

(Musings On Iraq review The War Within, A Secret White House History 2006-2008)

2006 Al Qaeda in Iraq created Mujahedeen Shura Council to try to cooperate with other

insurgent groups Shura Council was in part created due to Al Qaeda’s suggestion Zarqawi include more Iraqis in his jihad Said it was start of Islamic state

(Musings On Iraq interview with former CIA analyst Nada Bakos that tracked Zarqawi)

(Musings On Iraq How The Islamic State’s Caliphate In Iraq Was Originally Ignored)

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 19 The Iraqi Civil War Comes Into The Open, January-June 2006)

(Musings On Iraq review The Caliphate At War, Operational Realities and Innovations of the Islamic State)

2006 Army of the Victorious joined Mujahedeen Shura Council

2006 Sheikh Fahadawi of Albu Fahd in Ramadi met with PM Jaafari Amb Khalilzad Gen Casey

Anbar Gov Alwani Convinced PM to allow Iraqi police to recruit local tribesmen

(Musings On Iraq Anbar Before And After the Awakening Pt X, 2005-09 Governor Mamoun Alwani)

(Musings On Iraq How A Change In Perceptions Led To The Anbar Awakening)

(Musings On Iraq interview with author Carter Malkasian on Anbar Awakening)

(Musings On Iraq review Confronting Al Qaeda, The Sunni Awakening and American Strategy In Al Anbar)

(Musings On Iraq review The Marines Take Anbar, The Four-Year Fight Against Al Qaeda)

(Musings On Iraq review Illusions of Victory, The Anbar Awakening And The Rise Of The Islamic State)

2006 US announced more than 2000 military police would work with Iraqi police in the field as

advisers during Year of the Police

(Musings On Iraq American Negligence In Iraq Or How The United States Failed To Plan For Security The Country Part One Of A Two Part Interview With Jerry Burke Former Advisor To The Baghdad Police And Interior Ministry)

2006 Report $18.6 bil US approved for reconstruction in 2003 would be spent by end of 2006

Foreign govts provided only fraction of what they promised Japan pledged $5 bil in reconstruction funds in 2003 Delivered less than 50% of that Saudi Arabia and Kuwait pledged $1 bil and gave less than 10% Spain England S Korea UAE Italy Canada owed more than $100 mil each for their 2003 promises for reconstruction funds

2007 Report US military worried PM Maliki named Gen Qanbar to head new Baghdad Ops

Command Was from southern Iraq and hardly known by US

2008 SecState Rice told Talabani Barzani Hashemi Abdul Mahdi that PM Maliki not problem they were

because they controlled more votes 

2009 Report Iran wanted to increase economic ties with Iraq after it signed Status of Forces

Agreement with US Offered $1 bil loan Wanted to boost trade

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

2009 Finance Min ordered that deposits at private banks be transferred to state run banks Move to

increase state control of economy when govt said it was promoting private sector

2010 Report Accountability and Justice Comm and Election Comm were trying to ban not only candidates

but entire parties which was not in constitution or election law

2010 Secretary Gen of Arab League arrived in Baghdad and lobbied for overturning banning of

candidates in 2010 election for Baathist ties

(Musings On Iraq Timeline of Iraq’s De-Baathification Campaign)

2010 Report Conclusions of Chilcot Inquiry so far PM Blair determined to go to war with Iraq to support

Bush with or without UN approval Legality of war was major issue within govt Military couldn’t properly prepare for invasion because Blair wanted plans kept secret from public Didn’t plan for postwar situation

(Musings On Iraq Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)

2011 Report Assyrian Christian cultural assoc in Baghdad vandalized Told Iraq was an Islamic state Police

blocked off streets before attack Head of Baghdad govt said attackers were policemen Thought attack caused by group running alcohol business 2 alcohol shops recently attacked

(Musings On Iraq review Christianity in Iraq)

2012 Report Woman’s son arrested in 07 Held 3 yrs incommunicado Police called her and said she could

visit son for a bribe Then asked for another bribe to release son Son had been released by judge but was kept in jail by corrupt police Investigation found corrupt police were arresting people solely to extort money from families Police paid bribes to politicians to get promotions Officers demanded bribes from police under them Prisoners routinely had to pay bribes to be released

2012 Report ISF officer in Baghdad said that VP Hashemi’s bodyguards were all tortured and said they

didn’t confess to any crimes

2012 Report State of Law MP said Dep PM Mutlaq calling PM Maliki a dictator meant he would not be

allowed to return to his job Called on Iraqiya to name a replacement 

2012 Report Maliki govt arrested several 100 foreign contractors Most arrests happened at Baghdad

airport Detained for visas weapon permits etc End of 2011 Maliki’s son began expelling western companies from Green Zone Govt stopped renewing weapons permits for contractors end of 2011 and Interior Min started new visa restrictions which led to most arrests Jan 2012 more than 100 foreigners were held at Baghdad airport for visa issues

2013 Sheikh al-Issawi of Albu Issa tribe and Awakening assassinated by ISI suicide bomber

(Musings On Iraq Understanding Anbar Before And After The Awakening Part VI Sheikh Aifan Issawi)

(Musings On Iraq review Suicide Bombers In Iraq, The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom)

2013 Dep PM Shahristani press conference on early findings of committee formed to look into protest

demands Said innocent people had been arrested Some prisoners held after courts ordered release Some kept in prison after served sentences Said prisoner abuses happened in other countries but Maliki govt being courageous and apologizing for them Said committee released 335 prisoners

2014 Bodies of 14 Sunni men found in Tarmiya day after they were kidnapped by men in ISF

uniforms and vehicles

2016 3 US contractors for General Dynamics in Baghdad kidnapped by Sadr’s Saraya al-

Salam unit Held for 1 month

2016 Report 110 homes and 200 shops destroyed in Tuz Kharmato Salahaddin since Nov fighting

between Kurds and Turkmen

2016 Report 3 US contractors working for General Dynamics were kidnapped in Baghdad Abadi

govt claimed they were at a brothel Not true Were taken by Sadr’s Sayara al-Salam Taken to Sadr City and beaten

2018 2 suicide bombers central Baghdad left 143 casualties Last major mass casualty bombing in

Baghdad was Feb 2017 car bomb that left 125 casualties

(Musings On Iraq Security In Iraq, Jan 15-21, 2018)

2020 Protest committee rejected Sadr’s call for million person demonstration against US

2020 Kataib Hezbollah said it would force US to leave Iraq Said US had to follow will of

parliament that passed non-binding resolution for US to leave

2021 Dual suicide bombing in central Baghdad left 32 dead 110 wounded Last such deadly

incident occurred in same neighborhood in Jan 2018

(Musings On Iraq Security In Iraq Jan 15-21, 2021)

2021 Grenade thrown at activist’s house in Dhi Qar

2021 Report Displacement Min said it would close all displaced camps in 2021 Said there was a plan

to return people Said previous govts had no plan Over last 6 months 66,600 displaced returned home 29 of 76 camps still open Said would increase food rations to displaced Claimed 100% voluntary returns Claimed it was rebuilding homes providing jobs helping reconciliation Intl Rescue Comm said some people were forced to leave camps Said many displaced had no homes no jobs infrastructure destroyed economy bad in home areas

View the Iraq History Timelines

No comments:

Review The Political Economy of Iraq, Restoring Balance in a Post-Conflict Society

Gunter, Frank, The Political Economy of Iraq, Restoring Balance in a Post-Conflict Society , Cheltenham, Northhampton: Edward Elgar, 2013 ...