Thursday, April 28, 2022

This Day In Iraqi History - Apr 28 PM Gaylani and pan-Arab Golden Square officers decided to go to war with UK Asked Axis for military aid again


1922 UK Iraq Commissioner Cox said King Faisal racially weak for disagreeing with him

1929 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi became PM with understanding he would not negotiate new Anglo-Iraq Treaty

Would hold office 3 times

(Musings On Iraq review The Chatham House Version and other Middle-Eastern Studies)

1941 PM Gaylani and Golden Square officers decided to go to war with UK Asked Axis for military

and financial aid for second time to be used against British

(Musings On Iraq interview with Prof Boich World War II In Iraq and Syria)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq Between the Two World Wars, The Militarist Origins of Tyranny)

1941 UK Amb to Iraq told PM Gaylani second contingent of UK troops landing at Basra Gaylani

refused them entry Amb ordered start of evacuation of UK civilians from Iraq

1941 364 UK troops airlifted to Habaniya air base in Anbar

(Musings On Iraq review Rashid Ali al-Gailani, The National Movement in Iraq 1939-1941)

(Musings On Iraq review Persian Gulf Command, A History of the Second World War In Iran and Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq 1941, The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq And Syria 1941, The Politics and Strategy of the Second World War)

1947 Mustafa Barzani and 500 supporters returned to Iraq from Iran

1948 Sheikh Ajeel of National Democratic Party killed by his uncle Sheikh Samarmard over competition for

parliamentary seat

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Democratic Moment)

1959 Communist paper editorial demanded positions in Qasim govt Turned down

(Musings On Iraq review The Making of Iraq 1900-1963, Capital, Power and Ideology)

(Musings On Iraq review Red Star Over Iraq, Iraqi Communism Before Saddam)

(Musings On Iraq Interview with Prof Johan Franzen on the history of the Iraqi Communist Party)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Western Kentucky’s Prof Romero on the Qasim govt)

1973 Iraq offered to talk with Kuwait over border dispute

1974 Iraq bombed Halabja killing 42 and wounding over 100 during KDP rebellion

(Musings On Iraq review The Kurds, A Modern History)

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

1990 Iraq hosted Arab summit Saddam attacked Kuwait for economic warfare vs Iraq

(Musings On Iraq review Unholy Babylon, The Secret History of Saddam’s War)

1990 Saddam asked Emir of Kuwait if Iraq could use two of its islands Emir said no

1991 US led Coalition created safe zone for Kurds near Dohuk after uprising put down

(Musings On Iraq review Kurds of Iraq, Tragedy and Hope)

(Musings On Iraq review The United States And Iraq Since 1990: A Brief History with Documents)

1992 Report CIA continued to give intel to Iraq until day it invaded Kuwait in Aug 90

1992 Campaign for a Free Iraq brought 17,000 mini coffins to Iraqi embassy in London to symbolize victims

of Saddam Was paid for by Rendon Group hired by CIA to promote Iraqi opposition

1998 Inspectors report to UN said no progress in last 4 months due to confrontation with Iraq

(Musings On Iraq UN Inspectors Were Right Iraq Was Not A Threat)

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Rejection of UN Inspectors Led To Mistrust Over WMD and 2003 Invasion)

(Musings On Iraq review The Greatest Threat, Iraq, Weapons of Mass Destruction, And The Growing Crisis Of Global Security)

2001 Report 9/11 terrorist Mohammed Atta met with Iraqi intel officer in Prague Story false

2002 US military leaked story to press that Iraq invasion could use a force as small as 70,000 Was push

back against Sec Def Rumsfelds small invasion force

(Musings On Iraq How Arguments Over Iraq Invasion Plan Were Fought Through Press Leaks)

(Musings On Iraq review Plan of Attack: The Definitive Account Of The Decision To Invade Iraq)

2003 Protest in Fallujah led to shooting US troops killed 17 and wounded more than 70 Start of

insurgency in city

(Musings On Iraq review The Battle for Fallujah, Occupation, Resistance and Stalemate in the War in Iraq)

2003 ORHA Garner met with 350 Iraqis in Baghdad and told them they were in charge of Iraq said

would be meeting to create interim govt in 4 weeks Garner then left and meeting broke down into arguments

(Musings On Iraq review Hard Lessons, The Iraq Reconstruction Experience)

(Musings On Iraq review Leap of Faith, Hubris Negligence, and America’s Greatest Foreign Policy


(Musings On Iraq review The Occupation of Iraq, Winning The War, Losing The Peace)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Dysfunctional Democracy)

(Musings On Iraq review The Endgame, The Inside Story of the Struggle for Iraq, from

George W. Bush to Barack Obama)

2003 Dep Sec of Def Wolfowtiz said US occupation of Iraq would not need as many troops as invasion


2003 Pentagon paper said interim Iraqi govt had not been decided upon

2003 Gen Franks asked UK to take control of 5 southern Iraqi provinces UK said could only handle 4

Basra Maysan Dhi Qar Muthanna

2003 UK report Iran sending in groups into southern Iraq to influence postwar situation

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 5 We’re Here, Now What?)

2003 Followers of cleric Yaqubi protested in Baghdad calling for freedom independence justice and

against US and Israel

(Musings On Iraq review The Triumph of the Martyrs, A Reporter’s Journey into Occupied Iraq)

2004 Fighting between US marines and insurgents continued in Fallujah while US commander claimed

ceasefire holding

2004 Marines began forming Fallujah Brigade to take over security of city

(Musings On Iraq review The Battle for Fallujah, Occupation, Resistance and Stalemate in the War in Iraq)

2004 UK intel assessment said another attack upon Fallujah would make political and security situation

in Iraq worse

(Musings On Iraq Review The Report of the Iraq Inquiry, Executive Summary)

2004 UN Rep Brahimi reported to Security Council that interim govt would serve until elections held in

late 2004-early 2005

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 13 The Changing Of The Guard, Again Spring-Summer 2004)

2004 General Mark Kimmitt deputy director of Coalition operations in Iraq told CBS News he was

disappointed in a few soldiers for Abu Ghraib scandal

2005 PM Jaafari’s cabinet approved by parliament 5 ministers and 1 dep PM either empty or temporary

pending deal with Sunnis Defense Oil Electricity and Human Rights Ministers not been named yet

(Musings On Iraq U.S. Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 16 – Going West, April-August 2005)

2005 US pressured PM Jaafari to name partial cabinet because filling ministers was taking too long

2005 Insurgents set off 17 car bombs killing 50 and wounding more than 100 to offset news of new Iraqi


2005 SCIRI head Abdul Aziz al-Hakim gave speech threatening to purge the security forces of former

regime members

(Musings On Iraq review The Occupation of Iraq, Winning The War, Losing The Peace)

2005 MP Mishan al-Jabouri accused Shiites of dividing Iraq and Sunnis were marginalized

2005 Trade Bank of Iraq run by Chalabi’s nephew Urzi announced deal with Card Tech that he

used to work for and founded and partially owned by Chalabi Would set up Visa cards and ATMS

(Musings On Iraq review The Man Who Pushed America To War, The Extraordinary Life, Adventures, and Obsessions of Ahmad Chalabi)

(Musings On Iraq review Arrows of the Night: Ahmad Chalabi and the Selling of the Iraq War)

2006 New US military campaign plan issued continuing with withdrawal Said violence had shifted from

fighting US to sectarian conflict Acknowledged 2005 elections didn’t lead to reconciliation but division

(Musings On Iraq US Army History of Iraq War Vol 1 – Chapter 19 The Iraqi Civil War Comes Into The Open, January-June 2006)

(Musings On Iraq Did the US Ever Have A Strategy To Win In Iraq Before the Surge?)

(Musings On Iraq review The War Within, A Secret White House History 2006-2008)

(Musings On Iraq review The U.S. Army In The Iraq War: Volume 1, Invasion, Insurgency, Civil

War, 2003-2006)

(Musings On Iraq review The Gamble, General David Petraeus And The American Military Adventure In Iraq, 2006-2008)

2007 Report ex-CIA Dir Tenet’s book said WMD not main reason why US invaded Iraq but that Bush

wanted democratic change in Middle East Said Pentagon officials like Wolfowitz and Feith focused on Iraq before 9/11 Said on 9/11 Def Policy Board member Richard Perle said Iraq responsible for attack and had to pay Said State and Pentagon at war with each other over Iraq Said US had no postwar plan for Iraq other than to put Chalabi in power Said White House ignored warnings about insurgency and failing policies in Iraq in 03 Said White House called CIA defeatists

(Musings On Iraq review Overreach, Delusions of Regime Change In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Future The aftermath of regime change)

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq’s Dysfunctional Democracy)

2007 ISI set off bomb in front of Karbala shrine 58 killed 170 wounded

2008 PM Maliki said he wanted Sadr City cleared of militias in 2-3 days Head of Baghdad Ops Command

and US said impossible

2008 ISCI and Dawa delegation went to Iran to meet Sadr and Iran Rev Guards Quds Force’s Gen

Suleimani to negotiate ceasefire to end Charge of Knights

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guards’ Commander General Suleimani And His Role In Iraq, An Interview With The New Yorker’s Dexter Filkins)

2008 US govt report said most ministries run by militias that intimidated people Blocked prosecutions of

staff leaving them above the law Said US efforts to help ministries ineffective Said PM Maliki didn’t name permanent ministries so he could control them Suggested arrest of sectarian officials in Health Transportation Electricity Agriculture Ministries Said US should immediately remove Justice Min and Chief Justice Medhat who were blamed for allowing Dep Health Min Zamili escape justice for running death squads out of ministry and stealing money

2008 Report Iran’s Quds Force Cmdr Gen Suleimani negotiated Mar ceasefire in Basra between Maliki govt

and Sadr General in charge of training and arming militias Worked with Badr Organized Hezbollah to train militias Supported United Iraqi Alliance in 05 elections by providing printing presses advisers TV equipment Helped select Maliki to replace PM Jaafari in 06

(Musings On Iraq Iranian Revolutionary Guards’ Commander General Suleimani And His Role In Iraq, An Interview With The New Yorker’s Dexter Filkins)

(Musings On Iraq Hezbollah’s Role In Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq Badr Organization A View Into Iraq’s Violent Past And Present)

2009 Report Anbar Sheikh Sulaiman organizing tribal meeting to make demands of Maliki govt

Said he would burn anyone who said Iraq a democracy Was likely done to counter his decline in standing in Anbar Was supporter of Maliki before

(Musings On Iraq Anbar’s Forgotten Sheikh)

2010 Court acquitted former Trade Min Sudani of corruption for lack of evidence after witnesses

disappeared or changed testimony under pressure from PM Maliki’s State of Law $4-$8 bil missing from ministry Bought expired food and charged Ministry full price Bought food and kept it for themselves to sell on black market Bought goods for double the prices Sudani signed contract with company owned by his son for $50 mil for old tea that was only worth $20 mil Bought contaminated milk from China Found $8 mil in expired food in warehouse Sudani’s brother and nephew got $40 in kickbacks from every ton of sugar imported by ministry Sudani used some of money to fund PM Maliki’s State of Law in 2009-10 elections

(Musings On Iraq Half Of Corruption Cases Against Iraq’s Former Trade Minister Dropped)

(Musings On Iraq interview with Special Inspector Gen for Iraq Reconstruction Bowen on corruption in Iraq)

(Musings On Iraq interview with fmr anti-graft official Vincent Foulk on corruption in Iraq)

2010 Accountability and Justice banned Iraqiya members of Diyala council for Baath past

2010 Baathists held meeting in Damascus trying to unify two factions of Mohammed Yunis and Izzat al-


(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Outlawed Baathists Try To Kiss And Make Up)

2010 Report Secret Muthanna prison run by PM Maliki’s office He denied knowing anything about

it 3 army officers arrested for abuse Prisoners were tortured and raped

(Musings On Iraq Secret Baghdad Prison Discovered By Iraq’s Human Rights Ministry)

(Musings On Iraq Human Rights Watch Interviews Former Prisoners At Secret Baghdad Prison)

2011 1920 Rev Brigades and Asaib Ahl Al-Haq agreed to disarm and join politics after talks with

National Reconciliation Min Didn’t happen

(Musings On Iraq Asaib Ahl Al-Haq From A Breakaway Sadr Militia To Defenders Of Iraq)

2011 Chief of staff of ISF Gen Zebari said Iraq would not be able to defend itself until 2020 Said didn’t

mean Iraq had to rely on US Could work with NATO or other countries on security

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Army Chief Of Staff Changes His Tune On Extending U.S. Military Presence)

2011 US Gen 25th Inf Div said Iranian backed Special Groups were attacking US forces

(Musings On Iraq Iran’s Policy Towards Iraq)

2011 Sadrists said that if US stayed passed end of year that would justify attacks upon them PM Maliki

said parties hadn’t decided on whether US could keep stay behind force or not

(Musings On Iraq U.S. Steps Up Efforts To Let Troops Stay In Iraq Past Withdrawal Date)

2011 Report activists said they were being tortured and intimidated by ISF Said govt targeting them

Activist tortured at police station Said afterward made to sign paper he would no longer protest

2012 Pres Barzani Pres Talabani Sadr Speaker Nujafi Allawi met in Irbil to discuss no confidence vote

against PM Maliki Issued demands to Maliki Sadr said he would be removed if didn’t submit to them Maliki never replied

(Musings On Iraq Iraq’s Prime Minister Maliki Heading To Mosul To Challenge Speaker Nujafi)

(Musings On Iraq Why The Talk Of A No Confidence Vote Against Iraq’s Premier Maliki Remains Just Talk)

(Musings On Iraq The Sadrists’ Double Game: Criticizing Iraq’s Prime Minister, While Supporting Him At The Same Time)

2012 Pres Talabani tried to moderate between Maliki Barzani and Allawi over having no confidence vote

against PM

(Musings On Iraq review Iraq From War To A New Authoritarianism)

2013 Sheikh Abu Risha turned over 2 people said responsible for killing 5 soldiers at Fallujah protest


2014 Ibrahim Jaafari said that PM Maliki’s mistakes led to deterioration in security

2014 ISIS seized control of 6 voting centers in Qara Tapa, Diyala

2014 Iran signed oil and natural gas deal with KRG

2014 Special voting started in national elections for parliament

2014 Report Bush angry at PM Jaafari for indecisiveness Asked US Amb Khalizad if he could remove

Jaafari who said yes Khalizad tried to block Jaafari forming parliamentary majority Dawa wanted Ali Adeeb to be PM Khalizad asked for alternative CIA said Maliki 1967 Maliki joined Dawa Accountant at Educ Dept in Hilla Head of Dawa cell there 1980 Maliki arrested and fled Iraq for Syria Ran Dawa’s military arm Moved to Iran Ran training camp organized by Iranian Rev Guard Ran ops vs Iraq during Iran-Iraq War Maliki denied Dawa terrorist attacks like 1983 bombings of US and French embassies in Kuwait Protected Abu Muhandis from charges for bombing Maliki told Amb Crocker he wanted to rule like Gen Qasim playing one faction against the other US diplomat said Maliki paranoid about Baathists Said had no vision for Iraq’s future US officials would tell Maliki about killings by militias He would blame it on insurgents Refused to take on militias US diplomats said after 2008 Charge of Knights Maliki began centralizing power Obama admin considered 2010 election a victory because secular Allawi won Then decided to back Maliki because Shiite parties and Iran would never agree to Allawi govt Obama admin never played large role in govt formation process while Iran tried to dictate terms US pushed Irbil power sharing agreement to keep Allawi in govt Maliki didn’t implement deal Obama not interested in keeping US troops in Iraq past 2011 withdrawal Amb Jeffrey said got no instructions from White House on negotiating troop extension White House rejected idea of parliament voting on troop extension US official believed after 2011 US withdrawal Maliki unrestrained US embassy sent memo to Obama admin that US creating dictator in Maliki Amb Crocker said US had given up on being middle man in Iraqi politics under Obama

2015 Badr’s Amiri said Hashd would not wait for permission to enter Anbar Were already there

(Musings On Iraq Badr Organization A View Into Iraq’s Violent Past And Present)

2015 Sadr criticized Hashd for trying to politicize fight against IS to gain power

2015 Report After PM Maliki closed down Ramadi protest site insurgents seized Fallujah Locals

formed Military Council some tried to deny IS was present Council tried to keep IS out of administering city and only dealt with them for military affairs Then let IS onto Council Forbid IS from imposing sharia or killing govt workers and sahwa IS eventually took control of city

2017 Report Kataib Hezbollah accused of displacing 3,000 from Amiriya Fallujah Looted city

2021 Report World Food Org found Yazidis returning to Sinjar and then leaving Lack of

rebuilding services community reconciliation and jobs stopped people from going back

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This Day In Iraqi History - Feb 4 Sykes-Picot Agreement approved Baghdad and Basra would’ve gone to UK Mosul to France Sharif Hussein would’ve gotten his own state

(WBEZ)   1916 Sykes-Picot agreement approved by UK Foreign Office Gave Baghdad and Basra vilayets to UK Mosul to France ...